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Presented in October 2014 at the 4th ISOFAR Scientific Conference 'Building Organic Bridges' at the Organic World Congress 2014 in Istanbul, Turkey. The talk outlines the results of a comparative analysis of collective and individual management schemes within Organic Participatory Guarantee Systems (PGS) in the Hanoi province in northern Vietnam. Results indicate that collective farm management enhances social and ecological practices. The study has juxtaposed the schemes in terms of social and ecological systems as well as impressions of farmers and retailers.
The original report is online at Organic e-prints http://orgprints.org/23090/