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Hmong Conservation: Lessons in Ethnobotany from the Elders of Long Lan, Luang Prabang, Lao People's Democratic Republic

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An applied human ecology and ethnobotany study presented at the 38th Annual Conference of the Society of Ethnobiology 'The Many Faces of Ethnobiology' in Santa Barbara, California in 2015.

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Hmong Conservation: Lessons in Ethnobotany from the Elders of Long Lan, Luang Prabang, Lao People's Democratic Republic

  1. 1. Hmong   Conservation Lessons in ethnobotany from the elders of Long Lan, Luang Prabang, Lao People's Democratic Republic Whitney, Cory, Vang Sin Min (Meej Vaj), Lê Hồng Giang , Vu Van Can, Keith Barber, Tran Thi Lanh
  2. 2. Authors •  Cory William Whitney1*, Vang Sin Min (Meej Vaj)2, Lê Hồng Giang3, Vu Van Can3, Keith Barber4, Tran Thi Lanh3 •  1 Rhine-Waal University of Applied Sciences, Faculty of Life Sciences, Kleve, Germany •  * Corresponding author: cory.whitney@hsrw.eu •  2 Hmong, Young Indigenous Ethnic Minority Leadership Program/ Mekong Community Networking and Ecological Trading, Si Ma Cai, Vietnam •  3 Social Policy Ecology Research Institute, Hanoi, Vietnam •  4 Waikato University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences, Hamilton, New Zealand
  3. 3. Overview
  4. 4. Overview •  What? Hmong cultural plant use Traditional customary management systems
  5. 5. Overview •  What? Hmong cultural plant use Traditional customary management systems •  So what? Loss of biodiversity Pressure to exploit natural resources
  6. 6. Overview •  What? Hmong cultural plant use Traditional customary management systems •  So what? Loss of biodiversity Pressure to exploit natural resources •  Now What? Promote endogenous practices of conservation-connection to local ecology (educate youth) More participatory research for conservation
  7. 7. Cooperation
  8. 8. Cooperation •  Hmong, Young Indigenous Ethnic Minority Leadership Program (YIELDS)
  9. 9. Cooperation •  Hmong, Young Indigenous Ethnic Minority Leadership Program (YIELDS) •  Hmong Association of Northern Laos
  10. 10. Cooperation •  Hmong, Young Indigenous Ethnic Minority Leadership Program (YIELDS) •  Hmong Association of Northern Laos •  Lao People’s Revolutionary Party
  11. 11. Cooperation •  Hmong, Young Indigenous Ethnic Minority Leadership Program (YIELDS) •  Hmong Association of Northern Laos •  Lao People’s Revolutionary Party •  Center for Human Ecology Studies of Highlands (CHESH) in Lao PDR
  12. 12. Cooperation •  Hmong, Young Indigenous Ethnic Minority Leadership Program (YIELDS) •  Hmong Association of Northern Laos •  Lao People’s Revolutionary Party •  Center for Human Ecology Studies of Highlands (CHESH) in Lao PDR •  Mekong Community Network for Ecological Trade (MECO-ECOTRA)
  13. 13. Cooperation •  Hmong, Young Indigenous Ethnic Minority Leadership Program (YIELDS) •  Hmong Association of Northern Laos •  Lao People’s Revolutionary Party •  Center for Human Ecology Studies of Highlands (CHESH) in Lao PDR •  Mekong Community Network for Ecological Trade (MECO-ECOTRA) •  Pha Tad Ke Botanical Garden in Luang Prabang
  14. 14. •  Mr. Neej Tsim Lis, Mr. Koos Txum Lis, Mrs. Maiv Txos Lis, Mrs. Niam Xeev Hwm, Mr. Npuas Yias Thoj, Mr. Nyiaj Pos Yaj, Mr. Nyiaj Txiab Lis, Mr. Suav Thej Yaj, Mr. Txoov Tuam Hawj, Mr. Vam Xeeb Yaj, Mr. Xaiv Khws Yaj, Mr. Xaiv Tuam Yaj, Mr. Xi li Van, and Mr. Zam Txoov Thoj Elders
  15. 15. Objectives
  16. 16. •  Hmong cultural plant use Objectives
  17. 17. •  Hmong cultural plant use •  Traditional customary management systems Objectives
  18. 18. Figure 1. Map of Long Lan village* and Phu Soung Mountains in Lao PDR† *Inset points indicate locations of plant samples collected around Long Lan village. Long Lan village and Phu Soung Mountains in Lao PDR " CartoGIS, College of Asia and the Pacific, The Australian National University. Inset QGIS 2013.
  19. 19. Ban  Long   Lan QGIS 2013. 10km
  20. 20. Ban  Long   Lan QGIS 2013. 10km
  21. 21. Ban  Long   Lan QGIS 2013. 10km
  22. 22. Participatory  Ethnobotany 3-­‐‑Stages
  23. 23. Participatory  Ethnobotany Elders
  24. 24. Participatory  Ethnobotany Youth Elders
  25. 25. Participatory  Ethnobotany Youth Elders Walk-­‐‑in-­‐‑the-­‐‑woods (PHILLIPS  &  GENTRY,1993)
  26. 26. Data  Analysis
  27. 27. Data  Analysis •  URs /CIs (Tardio & Pardo-de-Santayana 2008) Where NC=number of use categories, u=uses, i=informant, and N=total number of informants (Ns =FC) (TARDÍO  J.  &  PARDO-­‐‑DE-­‐‑SANTAYANA  M.  2008)
  28. 28. Data  Analysis •  URs /CIs (Tardio & Pardo-de-Santayana 2008) •  Regression models in program R ‘ggplot’ / ‘psych’. Where NC=number of use categories, u=uses, i=informant, and N=total number of informants (Ns =FC) (TARDÍO  J.  &  PARDO-­‐‑DE-­‐‑SANTAYANA  M.  2008)
  29. 29. Results:  Ethnobotany •  74 indigenous plant species >300 UR Specimens  at  Pha  Tad  Ke  Botanical  Garden.  Luang  Prabang,  Laos  /  SPERI,   Hanoi,  Vietnam/  Vu Van Can, Hanoi,  Vietnam,   (Aubréville  1985;  Smitinand  &  Vidal  1990)
  30. 30. Latin Name Hmong Name* UR FC NU Cons CI Persicaria chinensis (L.) H. Gross Qaub Yag 18 4 9 6 1.28 6 Alocasia macrorrhizos (L.) G.Don. Qos Tsov 14 3 7 5 1.00 0 Uncaria hirsuta Havil. Pos Kub Yas Liab, Pos Kub Yag 9 4 6 10 0.64 3 Bischofia javanica Blume (Ntoo) Qaub Pluas 8 4 6 4 0.57 1 Cheilocostus speciosus (J.Koenig) C.D.Specht (Ko, Kav) Qeej 8 2 7 4 0.57 1 Sterculia lanceolata Cav. Seb Kaus Dais, Ntoo Xib 8 4 4 4 0.57 1 Results:  Quantitative scores 6 most important (CI index) by plant species *Parenthesis indicates names (e.g. affix, prefix) often omitted Chinese  knotweed Elephant  ear  taro Cat’s  claw Bishop  wood Crêpe  ginger Lance-­‐‑leaved  Sterculia Customary  Laws Spreading  seed Remove  competing  vegetation
  31. 31. Latin Name Hmong Name* UR FC NU Cons CI Persicaria chinensis (L.) H. Gross Qaub Yag 18 4 9 6 1.28 6 Alocasia macrorrhizos (L.) G.Don. Qos Tsov 14 3 7 5 1.00 0 Uncaria hirsuta Havil. Pos Kub Yas Liab, Pos Kub Yag 9 4 6 10 0.64 3 Bischofia javanica Blume (Ntoo) Qaub Pluas 8 4 6 4 0.57 1 Cheilocostus speciosus (J.Koenig) C.D.Specht (Ko, Kav) Qeej 8 2 7 4 0.57 1 Sterculia lanceolata Cav. Seb Kaus Dais, Ntoo Xib 8 4 4 4 0.57 1 Results:  Quantitative scores 6 most important (CI index) by plant species *Parenthesis indicates names (e.g. affix, prefix) often omitted Chinese  knotweed Elephant  ear  taro Cat’s  claw Bishop  wood Crêpe  ginger Lance-­‐‑leaved  Sterculia Customary  Laws Spreading  seed Remove  competing  vegetation NU  =  number  of  uses   per  species
  32. 32. Latin Name Hmong Name* UR FC NU Cons CI Persicaria chinensis (L.) H. Gross Qaub Yag 18 4 9 6 1.28 6 Alocasia macrorrhizos (L.) G.Don. Qos Tsov 14 3 7 5 1.00 0 Uncaria hirsuta Havil. Pos Kub Yas Liab, Pos Kub Yag 9 4 6 10 0.64 3 Bischofia javanica Blume (Ntoo) Qaub Pluas 8 4 6 4 0.57 1 Cheilocostus speciosus (J.Koenig) C.D.Specht (Ko, Kav) Qeej 8 2 7 4 0.57 1 Sterculia lanceolata Cav. Seb Kaus Dais, Ntoo Xib 8 4 4 4 0.57 1 Results:  Quantitative scores 6 most important (CI index) by plant species *Parenthesis indicates names (e.g. affix, prefix) often omitted Chinese  knotweed Elephant  ear  taro Cat’s  claw Bishop  wood Crêpe  ginger Lance-­‐‑leaved  Sterculia
  33. 33. Latin Name Hmong Name* UR FC NU Cons CI Persicaria chinensis (L.) H. Gross Qaub Yag 18 4 9 6 1.28 6 Alocasia macrorrhizos (L.) G.Don. Qos Tsov 14 3 7 5 1.00 0 Uncaria hirsuta Havil. Pos Kub Yas Liab, Pos Kub Yag 9 4 6 10 0.64 3 Bischofia javanica Blume (Ntoo) Qaub Pluas 8 4 6 4 0.57 1 Cheilocostus speciosus (J.Koenig) C.D.Specht (Ko, Kav) Qeej 8 2 7 4 0.57 1 Sterculia lanceolata Cav. Seb Kaus Dais, Ntoo Xib 8 4 4 4 0.57 1 Results:  Quantitative scores 6 most important (CI index) by plant species *Parenthesis indicates names (e.g. affix, prefix) often omitted Chinese  knotweed Elephant  ear  taro Cat’s  claw Bishop  wood Crêpe  ginger Lance-­‐‑leaved  Sterculia
  34. 34. Type UR FC NU Cons CI index Trees 92 38 76 78 6.571 Perennial herbs 82 26 63 44 5.857 Shrubs 67 27 55 57 4.786 Lianas / Climbers 37 14 34 17 2.643 Annual herbs 22 11 20 16 1.571 Ferns 6 3 6 4 0.429 Results:  Cumulative  scores UR,  FC,  NU,  conservation  practices  (Cons),  CI  index  by  plant  habit Chinese  knotweed Elephant  ear  taro Cat’s  claw Bishop  wood Crêpe  ginger Lance-­‐‑leaved  Sterculia
  35. 35. Results:  Conservation  /Use UR FC Multiple  R-­‐‑squared:    0.7291 Adjusted  R-­‐‑squared:    0.7267   p-­‐‑value:  <  2.2e-­‐‑16 Multiple  R-­‐‑squared:    0.6594 Adjusted  R-­‐‑squared:    0.6563   p-­‐‑value:  <  2.2e-­‐‑16 Ind. quantitative ethnobotany. Dep. conservation practices.
  36. 36. Multiple  R-­‐‑squared:    0.2023 Adjusted  R-­‐‑squared:    0.1949   F-­‐‑statistic:  27.64   p-­‐‑value:  7.354e-­‐‑07 Results:  Conservation  /Use NU UR FC Ind. quantitative ethnobotany. Dep. conservation practices.
  37. 37. Discussion/Conclusions
  38. 38. Discussion/Conclusions •  Hmong cultural plant use for conservation
  39. 39. Discussion/Conclusions •  Hmong cultural plant use for conservation •  Coping for traditional customary management systems
  40. 40. Discussion/Conclusions •  Hmong cultural plant use for conservation •  Coping for traditional customary management systems •  Promote traditional practices of conservation
  41. 41. Discussion/Conclusions •  Hmong cultural plant use for conservation •  Coping for traditional customary management systems •  Promote traditional practices of conservation •  Participatory research for endogenous solutions for conservation
  42. 42. Discussion/Conclusions •  Hmong cultural plant use for conservation •  Coping for traditional customary management systems •  Promote traditional practices of conservation •  Participatory research for endogenous solutions for conservation
  43. 43. Literature •  AUBRÉVILLE A. 1985. Flore du Cambodge, du Laos et du Vietnam: Sabiacées, par. F. Gagnepain et J. Vidal. Muséum national d’histoire naturelle. •  PHILLIPS O. & GENTRY A.H. 1993. The useful plants of Tambopata, Peru: I. Statistical hypotheses tests with a new quantitative technique. Economic Botany 47: 15-32. SMITINAND T. & J.E. VIDAL 1990. Flore du Cambodge, du Laos et du Viêtnam: (révision de la Flore générale de l’Indochine). Diptérocarpacées. Muséum national d’histoire naturelle. •  SPERI 2013. Ethnobotany Research; An Approach to Biological Human Ecology Theory. Hanoi, Vietnam: Knowledge Publishing (Nhà xuất bản Tri thức). •  TARDÍO J. & PARDO-DE-SANTAYANA M. 2008. Cultural importance indices: a comparative analysis based on the useful wild plants of Southern Cantabria (Northern Spain) 1. Economic Botany 62: 24-39.

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