Batteries in electric vehicles

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Batteries in Electric Vehicles

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Batteries in electric vehicles

  1. 1. B Y : C O R E Y D A Y Batteries in Electric Vehicles
  2. 2. History of the Electric Vehicle  Electric vehicle batteries debuted in the United States in 1890 thanks to William Morrison, a chemist who lived in Des Moines, Iowa.  Capable of going 14 MPH  Very popular when released due to the fact that it was quiet, did not emit exhaust odor and they didn’t have to crank the vehicle to start.
  3. 3. History of the Electric vehicle (Cont.)  The electric vehicle soon became almost extinct due to the fact that Henry Ford released the model T in 1908 which became mass produced and cost around $650 compared to the electric vehicle for $1750  Finally, in 1990 the Clean Air Act and in 1992 the Energy Policy Act were passed forcing the electric vehicle back into consideration by automakers.
  4. 4. History (Cont.)  One of the most popular electric vehicles in this era was the GM EV-1, it was capable of 0-50 in seven seconds but the cost of production was extremely high to make, it discontinued before commercially ready in 2001  Released in Japan in 1997, the Prius became the world’s first mass-produced hybrid electric vehicle. In 2000, the Prius was released worldwide, and it became an instant success.  Using Nickel-Metal Hydride battery
  5. 5. Charging Stations and Vehicles
  6. 6. Battery Types  Lead Acid  Advanced Lead Acid  Nickel-Cadmium  Nickel-Metal-Hydride  Lithium Ion  Lithium Polymer  Zinc or Aluminum Air  Sodium Sulfur  Sodium Metal Chloride
  7. 7. Battery Parameters  Energy Density -is the amount of energy stored in a given system or region of space per unit volume or mass.  Power Density- Is the amount of power (time rate of energy transfer) per unit volume.  Discharge Rate- a battery rated at 1000mAh provides 1000mA for one hour if discharged at 1C rate.  State of Charge- is the equivalent of a fuel gauge for the battery pack in a battery electric vehicle  State of Discharge- another way of saying Sate of Charge. Battery level.  C Rates- Used for determining Discharge rate.  Watt Hours- is a unit of energy equivalent to one watt (1 W) of power expended for one hour (1 h) of time.
  8. 8. Series Battery Configuration  Batteries hooked in series will add the voltage but amperage stays the same.
  9. 9. Parallel Battery Configuration  Voltage stays the same, amperage increases.
  10. 10. Series and parallel Configuration  The amperage and voltage are added together  Electric vehicle method
  11. 11. Lead Acid  Typical everyday battery .Used in gasoline cars, lawn mowers etc.  Very poor performance when used in electric vehicles, out dated.  Full charge last 40-60 miles.  Used in GM’s EV-1
  12. 12. Advanced Lead Acid  Corrosion free  Little maintenance  These batteries are composed of absorbent glass mats that are placed between the plates which absorb electrodes and sulfuric acid.  Examples: Optima, AGM, VRLA
  13. 13. Nickel-Cadmium  Memory issues- learning process once a month  Low energy density  High discharge rate  Toxic metals not allowed in some countries.
  14. 14. Nickel Metal Hydride  30-50% more capacity then Nickel-Cadmium  40% better energy density  Used in 2nd gen EV-1  Discharge rate of 1-3% a day  Learning process every 3 months
  15. 15. Lithium Ion  Composed of a graphite mixture anode and a mix of lithium and metals for the cathode  Thermal issues and was damaged if charged at temperatures below freezing  Higher cost  Energy density is double nickel cadmium  Self discharge rate is very minimal
  16. 16. Lithium Ion Coblat  Used in laptops, cell phones and cameras.  Cathode is composed of cobalt oxide while the anode is made up of graphite carbon.  Large increase of internal resistance with continuous discharge and charging.  2-3 years the pack is normally unserviceable.
  17. 17. Lithium Ion Manganese  Lithium manganese oxide is used as the cathode  a three-dimensional spinal structure that improves the ion flow between the electrodes. High ion flow lowers the internal resistance and increases loading capability
  18. 18. Lithium Polymer  Most efficient  Power and energy of any battery chemistry discovered  Made into shapes  Withstand high temps  30% more expensive than other lithium designs
  19. 19. Research Stages  Metal Air Batteries  Nickel Zinc
  20. 20. Metal Air Batteries  Zinc air, Aluminum air, Iron air  Cannot be plugged in to recharge  The battery must be replaced when the metal is used up.  Not hazardous to the environment  Improvements are still being made/tested.
  21. 21. Nickel Zinc  High specific power and energy  Deep cycle capable  Environmental friendly  Low cost
  22. 22. Specific Energy
  23. 23. Lithium Chemistry
  24. 24. Summary  There are many different batteries in the world today, but they all have weaknesses. I believe that the lithium polymer battery is the best design we currently have in production today. Its flexibility with shape and the high energy and power density make lithium polymer a very beneficial battery to the electric vehicle market. Overall, the electric vehicle will continue to become more and more popular as research and testing continues to show that batteries are becoming an ideal source of power for transportation.

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