B Y : C O R E Y D A Y
Batteries in Electric Vehicles
History of the Electric Vehicle
Electric vehicle batteries debuted in the United
States in 1890 thanks to William Morrison, a chemist
who lived in Des Moines, Iowa.
Capable of going 14 MPH
Very popular when released due to the fact that it
was quiet, did not emit exhaust odor and they didn’t
have to crank the vehicle to start.
History of the Electric vehicle (Cont.)
The electric vehicle soon became almost extinct due
to the fact that Henry Ford released the model T in
1908 which became mass produced and cost around
$650 compared to the electric vehicle for $1750
Finally, in 1990 the Clean Air Act and in 1992 the
Energy Policy Act were passed forcing the electric
vehicle back into consideration by automakers.
One of the most popular electric vehicles in this era
was the GM EV-1, it was capable of 0-50 in seven
seconds but the cost of production was extremely
high to make, it discontinued before commercially
ready in 2001
Released in Japan in 1997, the Prius became the
world’s first mass-produced hybrid electric vehicle.
In 2000, the Prius was released worldwide, and it
became an instant success.
Using Nickel-Metal Hydride battery
Advanced Lead Acid
Zinc or Aluminum Air
Sodium Metal Chloride
Energy Density -is the amount of energy stored in a given system or region
of space per unit volume or mass.
Power Density- Is the amount of power (time rate of energy transfer) per
Discharge Rate- a battery rated at 1000mAh provides 1000mA for one
hour if discharged at 1C rate.
State of Charge- is the equivalent of a fuel gauge for the battery pack in a
battery electric vehicle
State of Discharge- another way of saying Sate of Charge. Battery level.
C Rates- Used for determining Discharge rate.
Watt Hours- is a unit of energy equivalent to one watt (1 W) of power
expended for one hour (1 h) of time.
Series Battery Configuration
Batteries hooked in series will add the voltage but
amperage stays the same.
Parallel Battery Configuration
Voltage stays the same, amperage increases.
Series and parallel Configuration
The amperage and voltage are added together
Electric vehicle method
Typical everyday battery .Used in gasoline cars, lawn mowers etc.
Very poor performance when used in electric vehicles, out dated.
Full charge last 40-60 miles.
Used in GM’s EV-1
Advanced Lead Acid
These batteries are composed of absorbent glass mats that are placed
between the plates which absorb electrodes and sulfuric acid.
Examples: Optima, AGM, VRLA
Memory issues- learning process once a month
Low energy density
High discharge rate
Toxic metals not allowed in some countries.
Nickel Metal Hydride
30-50% more capacity then Nickel-Cadmium
40% better energy density
Used in 2nd gen EV-1
Discharge rate of 1-3% a day
Learning process every 3 months
Composed of a graphite mixture anode and a mix of lithium and metals
for the cathode
Thermal issues and was damaged if charged at temperatures below
Energy density is double nickel cadmium
Self discharge rate is very minimal
Lithium Ion Coblat
Used in laptops, cell phones and cameras.
Cathode is composed of cobalt oxide while the anode is
made up of graphite carbon.
Large increase of internal resistance with continuous
discharge and charging.
2-3 years the pack is normally unserviceable.
Lithium Ion Manganese
Lithium manganese oxide is used as the cathode
a three-dimensional spinal structure that improves
the ion flow between the electrodes. High ion flow
lowers the internal resistance and increases
Power and energy of any battery chemistry discovered
Made into shapes
Withstand high temps
30% more expensive than other lithium designs
Metal Air Batteries
Metal Air Batteries
Zinc air, Aluminum air, Iron air
Cannot be plugged in to recharge
The battery must be replaced when the metal is used up.
Not hazardous to the environment
Improvements are still being made/tested.
High specific power and energy
Deep cycle capable
There are many different batteries in the world
today, but they all have weaknesses. I believe that the
lithium polymer battery is the best design we
currently have in production today. Its flexibility
with shape and the high energy and power density
make lithium polymer a very beneficial battery to the
electric vehicle market. Overall, the electric vehicle
will continue to become more and more popular as
research and testing continues to show that batteries
are becoming an ideal source of power for