Changing Behaviour

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Strategies for changing behaviour towards sustainability

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Changing Behaviour

  1. 1. Human Behaviour and Planning: Overcoming Social and Environmental Barriers to Implementation Harmony Folz PIBC Conference April 21, 2005
  2. 2. Why I Became a Planner
  3. 3. Journey to Behaviour Change <ul><li>Sustainably develop the Third World </li></ul><ul><li>If you build it, they will come </li></ul><ul><li>Education </li></ul><ul><li>Policy and Regulation </li></ul><ul><li>All rely on behaviour change </li></ul>
  4. 4. Two Approaches <ul><li>A behaviour </li></ul><ul><ul><li>McKenzie-Mohr, Doug and Smith (1999). Fostering Sustainable Behavior: An Introduction to Community Based Social Marketing . New Society Publishers. www.cbsm.com </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Green, Lawrence and Kreuter, Marshall (2004). Health Promotion Planning: An Educational and Ecological Approach . McGraw-Hill. www.lgreen.net </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Behaviour </li></ul>
  5. 5. Why a Generalized Approach It is much easier to stop something at its source.
  6. 6. Change a Behaviour, Any Behaviour <ul><li>Cognitive Dissonance </li></ul><ul><li>The Spillover Effect </li></ul><ul><li>Social Norms </li></ul><ul><li>The Diffusion of Innovation </li></ul>
  7. 7. Goal of Behaviour Change <ul><li>Policy should be focused on activation and behaviour change, but instead of trying to install a specific and well-defined behaviour – which may produce reactance in some and which others may find is prohibitively inconvenient – the goal should be to produce some relevant behaviour change and to stimulate activity around serious environmental problems in general (Thøgersen, 1999, p. 55). </li></ul>
  8. 8. PHASE 6 Implementation PRECEDE-PROCEED MODEL after Green & Kreuter 1999 PRECEDE PROCEED Quality of Life PHASE 1 Social Assessment Human/ Ecosystem Health PHASE 2 Causal Assessment PHASE 8 Impact Evaluation Environment Behaviour & Lifestyle PHASE 3 Behavioural & Environmental Assessment Enabling Factors Predisposing Factors Reinforcing Factors PHASE 4 Educational & Organizational Assessment PHASE 7 Process Evaluation Policy Regulation Organization Education Information Training Social Change STEWARDSHIP PROMOTION PHASE 5 Administrative & Policy Assessment PHASE 9 Outcome Evaluation
  9. 9. The Precede/Proceed Model Says… <ul><li>Voluntary change </li></ul><ul><li>Understanding, motivation and skills </li></ul><ul><li>Predisposing, reinforcing and enabling strategies </li></ul><ul><li>Iteration </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluation </li></ul>
  10. 10. Personal Factors Skills Resources Self Image What’s “known” Attitudes Social Pressures Evalu-ations Action? Demo-graphics Biology Space Time Reactions Life so far $$$
  11. 11. Psychological Research Says… <ul><li>Not knowledge, beliefs, attitudes and values </li></ul><ul><li>Self-concept and personal norm </li></ul><ul><li>Self-efficacy </li></ul><ul><li>Locus of Control </li></ul><ul><li>Habits </li></ul><ul><li>Reactance </li></ul><ul><li>Cognitive Dissonance </li></ul><ul><li>Satisfaction </li></ul><ul><li>Skills </li></ul><ul><li>Social Capital </li></ul><ul><li>Social Identity </li></ul><ul><li>Social Milieu and Social Norms </li></ul>
  12. 12. Surroundings Economic Political Historical Ecological Cultural Geographical Contains: biology, location, age, gender, race,education, values, political ideology, religion, personality, emotions, self-determination, knowledge,beliefs, attitudes, self-concept, personal norms, self-efficacy, locus of control, skills, resources,habits, experience, evaluations, reactions. Motivation Sustainable Society Improved Community and Ecosystem Health Enhanced Quality of Life Green Economy Decreased Ecological Footprint Stewardship Ethic Denial Their Actions Social Pressure Other People No Action/ Habitual Action Stewardship Action Intention Change Strategies
  13. 13. Outcome Evaluation Process Evaluation Impact Evaluation  Improved Community & Ecosystem Health  Enhanced Quality of Life  Decreased Ecological Footprint  Green Economy  Stewardship Ethic Long-Term Outcomes Effect of Change Strategies <ul><li>Predisposing Factors </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge and awareness of possibilities increased </li></ul><ul><li>Positive changes in attitudes and values </li></ul><ul><li>Enabling Factors </li></ul><ul><li>Skills improve </li></ul><ul><li>Increased availability of options </li></ul><ul><li>Sense of self-efficacy improves </li></ul>Reinforcing Factors  Evaluations re best action change  Social pressures change *Individual Factors Include: biology, location, age, gender, race, education, values, political ideology, religion, personality, emotions, self-determination, knowledge, beliefs, attitudes, self-concept, personal norms, self-efficacy, locus of control, skills, resources, habits, experience, evaluations, reactions. Inputs Social, Economic & Environmental Context Individual*& Collective Factors Exposure to Change Strategies Predisposing Strategies  School Curricula  Information Strategies  Persuasion  Simulations <ul><li>Reinforcing Strategies </li></ul><ul><li>Feedback & Indicators </li></ul><ul><li>Tangible Incentives & Disincentives </li></ul><ul><li>Social Incentives & Disincentives </li></ul>Enabling Strategies  Skills Training  Access  Structural Changes  Technology  Urban Planning Positive Changes in Participants’ Behaviours Positive Changes in Community/ Environment Intermediate Impact
  14. 14. Strategies Research Says… <ul><li>Combination of strategies </li></ul><ul><li>Commitment </li></ul><ul><li>Reciprocity </li></ul><ul><li>Prompts </li></ul><ul><li>Modelling and Roles </li></ul><ul><li>Participation </li></ul><ul><li>Groups </li></ul><ul><li>No doom and gloom and sacrifice messages </li></ul>
  15. 15. Combined Findings <ul><li>Some change, not specific change </li></ul><ul><li>Combined strategies </li></ul><ul><li>Voluntary, chosen, problem solving </li></ul><ul><li>Groups </li></ul><ul><li>Social pressures, roles and commitment </li></ul><ul><li>Told are a certain way </li></ul><ul><li>Skills, competence, self-efficacy </li></ul><ul><li>Framed as improvement </li></ul><ul><li>Can and are making a difference </li></ul>
  16. 16. Sustainability Self-Help Groups <ul><li>Self-selected </li></ul><ul><li>Supported by outside organization </li></ul><ul><li>Meet regularly over time </li></ul><ul><li>Work through Precede/Proceed process </li></ul><ul><li>Decide what behaviours to change individually </li></ul><ul><li>Commit to changing them </li></ul><ul><li>Group provides ideas, support, knowledge and feedback </li></ul><ul><li>Process builds self-efficacy and skills </li></ul><ul><li>Builds social norm both within and outside groups </li></ul>
  17. 17. Say Not the Struggle Naught Availeth Arthur Hugh Clough <ul><li>Say not the struggle naught availeth, </li></ul><ul><li>The labor and the wounds are vain, </li></ul><ul><li>The enemy faints not, nor faileth, </li></ul><ul><li>And as things have been they remain. </li></ul><ul><li>If hopes were dupes, fears may be liars; </li></ul><ul><li>It may be, in yon smoke concealed, </li></ul><ul><li>Your comrades chase e'en now the fliers, </li></ul><ul><li>And, but for you, possess the field. </li></ul><ul><li>For while the tired waves, vainly breaking, </li></ul><ul><li>Seem here, no painful inch to gain, </li></ul><ul><li>Far back, through creeks and inlets making, </li></ul><ul><li>Comes silent, flooding in, the main. </li></ul><ul><li>And not by eastern windows only, </li></ul><ul><li>When daylight comes, comes in the light, </li></ul><ul><li>In front, the sun climbs slow, how slowly, </li></ul><ul><li>But westward, look, the land is bright. </li></ul>

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