Mexican Americans A Brief History of Los Angeles
Pachucos
Pachucos <ul><li>Pachucos were Mexican American youths who developed their own subculture during the 1930s and 1940s in th...
Pachucos <ul><li>Due to their double-marginalization stemming from their youth and ethnicity, there has always been a clos...
The Beginning <ul><li>The Pachuco style originated in El Paso, Texas and moved westward, following the line of migration o...
Zoot Suit <ul><li>A zoot suit has high-waisted, wide-legged, tight-cuffed pegged trousers (called tramas) and a long coat ...
Zoot Suits <ul><li>Zoot suits were for special occasions – such as a dance or a birthday party.  </li></ul><ul><li>The amo...
Zoot Suits <ul><li>The oversized suit was both an extravagant personal style and a declaration of rebellious self-assertio...
Dancing
Sleepy Lagoon
<ul><li>The Sleepy Lagoon Murder case began on August 2, 1942, when the body of Jose Diaz was found at a reservoir in sout...
<ul><li>Despite a complete lack of evidence, including no proof that Diaz had in fact been murdered, twelve defendants wer...
The Defendants
The Defendants
Henry Leyvas <ul><li>Henry Leyvas, age 20, worked on his father's ranch.  </li></ul><ul><li>He was the inspiration for the...
Chepe Ruiz <ul><li>Chepe Ruiz, 18, was a fine athlete and wanted to play big league baseball.  </li></ul><ul><li>While in ...
Robert Telles <ul><li>Robert Telles, 18, was working at a defense plant at the time of his arrest.  </li></ul>
Manuel Reyes <ul><li>Manuel Reyes, 17, had joined the navy and was awaiting induction at the time of his arrest.  </li></ul>
Angel Padilla <ul><li>Angel Padilla, one of the defendants most severely beaten during his interrogation by police, was a ...
Henry Ynostrosa <ul><li>Henry Ynostrosa, 18, had supported his mother and two sisters since age 15.   </li></ul>
Manuel Delgado <ul><li>Manuel Delgado, 19, a woodworker, was married with two children, one of whom was born on the day he...
Gus Zamora <ul><li>Gus Zamora, 21, was a furniture worker.   </li></ul>
Victor Thompson <ul><li>Victor Thompson 21, was an Anglo long associated with Mexican Americans in his neighborhood.  </li...
Jack Melendez <ul><li>Jack Melendez, 21, had been sworn into the navy before his arrest. Ultimately, the U.S Navy granted ...
John Matuz <ul><li>John Matuz, 20, went to work in Alaska with the U.S. Corps of Engineers.  </li></ul>
Ysmael &quot;Smiles&quot; Parra   <ul><li>At the time of his arrest he lived several blocks away from the 38th Street neig...
Sleepy Lagoon Defense Committee <ul><li>After the trial, the Sleepy Lagoon Defense Committee was formed to publicize the c...
<ul><li>The Committee quickly grew as people from the film industry, educational fields, Congress, and labor unions joined...
“ Star Power” <ul><li>Numerous fundraisers were hosted and attended by celebrities including:  </li></ul><ul><li>Orson Wel...
Alice McGrath <ul><li>McGrath was the executive secretary of the Sleepy Lagoon Defense Committee.  </li></ul><ul><li>After...
<ul><li>She functioned on a more personal level with the boys.  </li></ul><ul><li>She visited &quot;her boys&quot; every s...
Aftermath <ul><li>In 1944, thanks to the Sleepy Lagoon Defense Committee, the case went to appeal.  </li></ul><ul><li>The ...
<ul><li>Louie Encinas was eventually, decades later, identified by his sister as the true killer; stabbing him moments bef...
Zoot Suit Riots
Zoot Suit Riots <ul><li>The Zoot Suit Riots were a series of riots that erupted in Los Angeles, California during World Wa...
<ul><li>On June 3, 1943, a group of servicemen on leave complained that they had been assaulted by a gang of pachucos.  </...
<ul><li>On June 5, 1943, U.S. servicemen walked down the streets of the barrios giving warnings.  </li></ul><ul><li>They s...
<ul><li>June 7, 1943 was the worst night of the riots. </li></ul><ul><li>Thousands of servicemen went searching for Pachuc...
<ul><li>On June 7, 1943 the Navy declared Los Angeles off limits to all sailors.  </li></ul><ul><li>The riots were over.  ...
<ul><li>In all of the rioting only Mexican Americans had been arrested and that was usually after they had been beaten. </...
<ul><li>After the riots were over the official version of the riots by the city of Los Angeles and the county of Los Angel...
Images of the Riots
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
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Chicano History

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Chicano History

  1. 2. Mexican Americans A Brief History of Los Angeles
  2. 3. Pachucos
  3. 4. Pachucos <ul><li>Pachucos were Mexican American youths who developed their own subculture during the 1930s and 1940s in the Southwestern United States. </li></ul><ul><li>They wore distinctive clothes (such as Zoot Suits) and spoke their own dialect. </li></ul>
  4. 5. Pachucos <ul><li>Due to their double-marginalization stemming from their youth and ethnicity, there has always been a close association and cultural cross-pollination between the Pachuco subculture and the gang subculture. </li></ul><ul><li>For this reason, many members of the dominant (Anglo) culture assumed that anyone dressed in Pachuco style was a gang member. </li></ul>
  5. 6. The Beginning <ul><li>The Pachuco style originated in El Paso, Texas and moved westward, following the line of migration of Mexican railroad workers (&quot;traqueros&quot;) into Los Angeles, where it developed further. </li></ul>
  6. 7. Zoot Suit <ul><li>A zoot suit has high-waisted, wide-legged, tight-cuffed pegged trousers (called tramas) and a long coat (called the carlango) with wide lapels and wide padded shoulders. </li></ul><ul><li>Often zoot suiters wear a felt hat with a long feather (called a tapa or tanda) and pointy, French-style shoes (called calcos). </li></ul>
  7. 8. Zoot Suits <ul><li>Zoot suits were for special occasions – such as a dance or a birthday party. </li></ul><ul><li>The amount of material and tailoring required made them luxury items. </li></ul><ul><li>Many young people wore a more moderate version of the &quot;draped&quot; pants or styled their hair in the signature &quot;ducktail.&quot; </li></ul>
  8. 9. Zoot Suits <ul><li>The oversized suit was both an extravagant personal style and a declaration of rebellious self-assertion. </li></ul><ul><li>By their dress, Zoot suiters expressed defiance, at a time when fabric was rationed due to the war effort, and in the face of widespread racial prejudice. </li></ul>
  9. 10. Dancing
  10. 11. Sleepy Lagoon
  11. 12. <ul><li>The Sleepy Lagoon Murder case began on August 2, 1942, when the body of Jose Diaz was found at a reservoir in southeast Los Angeles. </li></ul><ul><li>Press hysteria and bigotry fueled the arrest of 300 Mexican American youths and guided a corrupt trial in which the judge and prosecutors displayed routine disregard for fundamental civil rights. </li></ul>
  12. 13. <ul><li>Despite a complete lack of evidence, including no proof that Diaz had in fact been murdered, twelve defendants were convicted of murder and five were convicted of assault. </li></ul>
  13. 14. The Defendants
  14. 15. The Defendants
  15. 16. Henry Leyvas <ul><li>Henry Leyvas, age 20, worked on his father's ranch. </li></ul><ul><li>He was the inspiration for the character Henry Reyna in the Valdez play Zoot Suit. </li></ul><ul><li>Not long after his release from prison, Henry Leyvas was convicted of a criminal offense after receiving a fair trial. </li></ul>
  16. 17. Chepe Ruiz <ul><li>Chepe Ruiz, 18, was a fine athlete and wanted to play big league baseball. </li></ul><ul><li>While in San Quentin, he won the admiration of the warden, guards, and prisoners when he continued in a boxing match after having several ribs broken. </li></ul>
  17. 18. Robert Telles <ul><li>Robert Telles, 18, was working at a defense plant at the time of his arrest. </li></ul>
  18. 19. Manuel Reyes <ul><li>Manuel Reyes, 17, had joined the navy and was awaiting induction at the time of his arrest. </li></ul>
  19. 20. Angel Padilla <ul><li>Angel Padilla, one of the defendants most severely beaten during his interrogation by police, was a furniture worker. </li></ul>
  20. 21. Henry Ynostrosa <ul><li>Henry Ynostrosa, 18, had supported his mother and two sisters since age 15. </li></ul>
  21. 22. Manuel Delgado <ul><li>Manuel Delgado, 19, a woodworker, was married with two children, one of whom was born on the day he entered San Quentin. </li></ul>
  22. 23. Gus Zamora <ul><li>Gus Zamora, 21, was a furniture worker. </li></ul>
  23. 24. Victor Thompson <ul><li>Victor Thompson 21, was an Anglo long associated with Mexican Americans in his neighborhood. </li></ul>
  24. 25. Jack Melendez <ul><li>Jack Melendez, 21, had been sworn into the navy before his arrest. Ultimately, the U.S Navy granted him an Honorable Discharge. </li></ul>
  25. 26. John Matuz <ul><li>John Matuz, 20, went to work in Alaska with the U.S. Corps of Engineers. </li></ul>
  26. 27. Ysmael &quot;Smiles&quot; Parra <ul><li>At the time of his arrest he lived several blocks away from the 38th Street neighborhood, on 71st Street, with his wife Delia, 21, and their two-year-old baby Rita. </li></ul><ul><li>At the time of his arrest he was earning 72 cents an hour working at Gillespie Furniture Company </li></ul>
  27. 28. Sleepy Lagoon Defense Committee <ul><li>After the trial, the Sleepy Lagoon Defense Committee was formed to publicize the case and raise money for a legal appeal. </li></ul><ul><li>The Committee's goals were to publicize the case and to fund a legal appeal for the boys in prison. </li></ul>
  28. 29. <ul><li>The Committee quickly grew as people from the film industry, educational fields, Congress, and labor unions joined its ranks. </li></ul><ul><li>In addition, the S.L.D.C. had significant support from African Americans, Jews, and Communists as well as the various presses that spoke to these communities. </li></ul>
  29. 30. “ Star Power” <ul><li>Numerous fundraisers were hosted and attended by celebrities including: </li></ul><ul><li>Orson Welles </li></ul><ul><li>Rita Hayworth (born Margarita Carmen Cansino) </li></ul><ul><li>Nat King Cole </li></ul><ul><li>Anthony Quinn (born Antonio Rudolfo Oaxaca Quinn) </li></ul>
  30. 31. Alice McGrath <ul><li>McGrath was the executive secretary of the Sleepy Lagoon Defense Committee. </li></ul><ul><li>After attending the trials, she said, “I was appalled by the attitude of the judge and jury. It was clear that they just despised the defendants.” </li></ul>
  31. 32. <ul><li>She functioned on a more personal level with the boys. </li></ul><ul><li>She visited &quot;her boys&quot; every six weeks at San Quentin. </li></ul><ul><li>She would tell them about the Committee's progress, distribute its news bulletin, and tried to boost their morale. </li></ul><ul><li>While she remembers a range of responses to her visits, from suspicion to appreciation, she quickly realized that she had become the lifeline between them and all efforts on the outside to have them released. </li></ul><ul><li>With many of them, she forged lasting friendships. </li></ul>
  32. 33. Aftermath <ul><li>In 1944, thanks to the Sleepy Lagoon Defense Committee, the case went to appeal. </li></ul><ul><li>The court unanimously overturned the convictions and freed the defendants. </li></ul>
  33. 34. <ul><li>Louie Encinas was eventually, decades later, identified by his sister as the true killer; stabbing him moments before the defendants arrived. </li></ul><ul><li>He later committed suicide. </li></ul><ul><li>Officially the murder remains unsolved. </li></ul>
  34. 35. Zoot Suit Riots
  35. 36. Zoot Suit Riots <ul><li>The Zoot Suit Riots were a series of riots that erupted in Los Angeles, California during World War II, between sailors and soldiers stationed in the city and Mexican American youths, recognized because of the zoot suits they favored. </li></ul>
  36. 37. <ul><li>On June 3, 1943, a group of servicemen on leave complained that they had been assaulted by a gang of pachucos. </li></ul><ul><li>Then on June 4, 1943, 200 uniformed sailors chartered 20 cabs and went into the Mexican American barrios in East Los Angeles. </li></ul><ul><li>Their targets were Zoot Suiters. </li></ul><ul><li>They jumped out of their cabs when they saw them and beat them up. </li></ul><ul><li>The newspapers called the sailors heroes </li></ul>
  37. 38. <ul><li>On June 5, 1943, U.S. servicemen walked down the streets of the barrios giving warnings. </li></ul><ul><li>They said not to wear a zoot suit or they would take it off . </li></ul><ul><li>The sailors went into bars and beat up Mexican Americans. </li></ul><ul><li>The police did not stop the servicemen. </li></ul><ul><li>If a Mexican American tried to defend himself, he was arrested. </li></ul>
  38. 39. <ul><li>June 7, 1943 was the worst night of the riots. </li></ul><ul><li>Thousands of servicemen went searching for Pachucos. </li></ul><ul><li>Zoot Suiters were left bleeding in the street after their suits had been torn off. </li></ul><ul><li>The mob went into theaters and took Mexican Americans out of their seats and beat them. </li></ul><ul><li>Mexican American women were raped. </li></ul><ul><li>Servicemen stopped the street cars and pulled Mexican Americans off the cars to beat them up </li></ul>
  39. 40. <ul><li>On June 7, 1943 the Navy declared Los Angeles off limits to all sailors. </li></ul><ul><li>The riots were over. </li></ul><ul><li>The Mexican American community had been terrorized and the police had stood by and done nothing to protect them. </li></ul>
  40. 41. <ul><li>In all of the rioting only Mexican Americans had been arrested and that was usually after they had been beaten. </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Police, rather than stopping or arresting the soldiers, took the Mexican American youths into custody.“ </li></ul><ul><li>The police refused to stop the riots. </li></ul><ul><li>The military stopped it but they could have done it much earlier than they did. </li></ul>
  41. 42. <ul><li>After the riots were over the official version of the riots by the city of Los Angeles and the county of Los Angeles was that the U.S. servicemen acted in self defense. </li></ul><ul><li>There was no racism involved according to the city and the county </li></ul>
  42. 43. Images of the Riots
  43. 55. Just for Fun….

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