Handbook for high quality Control Post


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Handbook for high quality Control Post

  1. 1. Handbook for High Quality Control Posts for cattle, pigs and sheep. Authors: IDELE, IFIP, NAGREF, IZS, FLI, IRTA, KUL, SLU, SGGW and CRPA June 2013
  2. 2. 2 This report is an official deliverable of the High Quality Control Post project. Authors of this manual are: ● Béatrice Mounaix, Jacques Capdeville, Laurence Sagot, Didier Bastien, Christophe Martineau, Thomas Lefebvre, Laure Brun-Lafleur, Héloïse Cottin and Luc Mirabito, Institut de l’Elevage, France (coordinators of this manual). ● Patrick Chevillon, Isabelle Correge and Patrick Massabie, Institut du Porc IFIP, France. ● Evangelia N. Sossidou and Venetia Vousdouka, Hellenic Agricultural Organisation (DEMETER) Veterinary Research Institute, Greece. ● Stefano Messori and Silvia D’Albenzio, Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale di Abruzzo e Molise, Italy ● Karin Steinkamp and Michael Marahrens, Friedrich-Loeffler-Institut, Germany ● Cecilia Pedernera, IRTA, Spain ● Monica Gebska, Warsaw University of Life Science (SGGW), Poland ● Girma Gebresenbet, Swedish University of Agricultural Science, Sweden ● Paolo Ferrari, Paolo Rossi, Alessandro Gastaldo, Lorenzo Loso and Kees de Roest, Research Centre for Animal Production (CRPA), Italy. The project “Renovation and promoting high quality control posts in the European Unio n” foresees a significant improvement of the equipment as well as the management of 16 Control Posts (CPs) located at the cross roads of important flows of animals transported over long journeys in the EU. The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Community’s Call for proposals SANCO D5/10753/2010 under Grant Agreement no SANCO/2010/D5/CRPA/SI2.578062 Project Office High Quality Control Posts Centro Ricerche Produzioni Animali Spa Corso Garibaldi 42 IT-42121 Reggio Emilia Italy Phone +39 0522 436999 Fax +39 0522 435142 e-mail controlpost@crpa.it website www.controlpost.eu The text of this report represents the authors’ views and does not necessarily represent a position of the European Commission who will not be liable for the use made of such information. The final version of this manual is available on the website of the project, www.controlpost.eu. This version is available in English, and Arabic, French, German, Greek, Italian, Polish, Russian and Spanish. Call for proposals SANCO D5/10753/2010 Grant Agreement no. SANCO/2010/D5/CRPA/SI2.578062
  3. 3. 3 INTRODUCTION W HY THI S GUI DE? This handbook is part of the High Quality Control Post project supported by DG SANCO. The aim of this document is to provide information and advice with reference to the use and the management of Control Post (refereed as CP) for long distance transports of animals. The handbook will help transporters in finding high quality CP, will improve knowledge about the assessment of quality in services provided in CP, and will be a guide for the staff of CPs to the good practices for long distance transport and resting of the animals. FO R W HO M I S THI S GUI DE? This handbook aims to be a tool for all people involved in animal long distance transport. The main objective of the handbook is to provide CP owners with guidance on what constitutes good practice in relation with High Quality Control Post. This handbook will also provide the transporters with information about what services they can expect in a high quality control post, and where to find them. Moreover, official veterinarians and other stakeholders will find in this handbook the rules that CP owners commit themselves to follow. To sum up, this handbook aims to lay the basis for a new deal between the different stakeholders regarding animal long distance transport in terms of animal welfare, bio-security and working conditions. HO W THI S GUI DE W AS B UI LT? This document is divided into 2 Parts: - Part I-HIGH QUALITY CONTROL POST BASICS (referred as HQCP): basic knowledge about long distance transport, the European regulation and HQCP certification. - Part II-HQCP GUIDELINES: operational guideline for the management of HQCP, including technical recommendations. This part includes technical recommendations and standardized procedures for the management of the CP before the arrival of the animals, during their resting at the CP and after the departure of the animals. This handbook complements different tools developed in HQCP project. The eLearning material or the details of the certification scheme are available on the website http://www.controlpost.eu/ with various examples of HQCP layout developed during the project. The focus of this handbook is on a specific step of long distance transport, i.e. the control post or staging point where animals are unloaded to rest during long distance transport. Call for proposals SANCO D5/10753/2010 Grant Agreement no. SANCO/2010/D5/CRPA/SI2.578062
  4. 4. 4 PART I-HIGH QUALITY CONTROL POST BASICS This Part includes relevant information aimed to motivate operators to improve farm animal welfare principles and bio-security standards during transport, and provides an overview of the legislation and of the certification of CP. W HY TAKI NG CARE O F ANI MALS? It is widely accepted, and explicitly stated in the regulations, that animals should be kept in good condition during transport. This is a matter of paramount importance, as far as both animals and all the economic operators involved in animal production, transport and slaughteri ng are concerned, and involves issues of both ethical and legal commitment. In addition, it is important to keep in mind that the transport of animals and, in particular, the long distance transport across Europe, is a very sensitive issue which also has an impact on public opinion, as demonstrated by the millions of European citizens who have supported campaigns against long distance transport over the last years. Good management and good conditions of transport will then result in benefits for both animals and operators in the field. As far as animals are concerned, the benefits of a good management of transport are:  lower risk of injuries and accidents  good health status from the beginning to the end of the transport  freedom from hunger and thirst and better nutritional state  reduced fatigue  reduced stress and fear. A good management of the transport will provide benefit to the welfare of the animal. From the operator point of view, the benefits of good management of transport are:  reduced cost of transport and higher return  reduced risk of diseases outbreak  better working conditions  increased social acceptability of animal transport. This is a “win-win” situation, combining good management and better conditions of animal transport, that will also improve the sustainability of animal production. To achieve this objective, several conditions have to be taken into account: - Active collaboration among the parties involved in the organization and in the planning of the transport is required. High quality standards must be maintained during all the phases of animal loading, transport, resting and unloading High quality standards must be maintained so as to ensure disease prevention and biosecurity All the means used for the transport, and all the procedures to be applied in the process should be well designed, and in compliance with current available knowledge. Call for proposals SANCO D5/10753/2010 Grant Agreement no. SANCO/2010/D5/CRPA/SI2.578062
  5. 5. 5 The EU legislation defines the basic requirements for animal care during transport. The legislation is science-based and takes into account both the available literature and the EFSA’s opinion. The certification scheme implements the legislation and sometimes defines some stricter requirements. Training helps the operators to better understand the different requirements and to take appropriate decision. Recommendations and guidelines to good practice complement each other and provide guidance to interpret the legislation and to explain practical rules. L ON G DISTAN CE TRAN SPORT AN D CON TRO L POSTS W HAT I S A CP? According to EC legislation (EC 1/2005), the journey means the entire transport operation, from the place of departure to the place of destination, including any unloading, accommodation and loading occurring at intermediate points of the journey. Long journey is defined as a journey longer than 8 hours from the moment the first animal of the consignment is moved. In this document, long journey as defined in EC 1/2005 will also be referred as long distance transport or long transport. However, regulations also establish a maximum duration of long journey, which varies according to the species and the age of the animals, and requires a specific resting period (Table 1). Table 1. Maximum permitted travelling times for pigs, cattle and sheep (EC 1/2005). Maximum duration of the first period Minimum duration of the rest period Maximum duration of the second period Adult cattle and sheep 14 hours 1 hour with access to water 14 hours Calves 9 hours 1 hour with access to water 9 hours Pigs 24 hours with access to water The maximum permitted travelling time is of 29 hours for cattle and sheep, 24 hours for pigs and 19 hours for unweaned calves, with a tolerance in all cases of 2 additional hours to reach the final destination. At the end of the legal maximum permitted travelling time, the animals shall be unloaded for a resting period of 24 hours in a CP before travelling further. CPs are facilities under the control of an official veterinarian which have been approved by competent authorities for the housing of specific animal species, so as that the animals may rest, be fed and watered and taken care of during long distance transport. The animals housed at a CP must receive adequate care. The adequateness of the care provided to the animals is guaranteed by both the presence of staff working at the CP and by appropriate housing conditions. Animal care provided at the CP will ensure that optimum welfare conditions, including compliance with animal-health requirements, are restored and that animals are fit to resume their journey to their final destination. CPs are establishments approved by the national Competent Authorities provided that they comply with the requirements laid down in Regulation (EC) No 1255/97. Rules laid down in this Regulation aim at ensuring that animals are kept in good welfare conditions and at preserving their health and safety. Only animals of certified health status are allowed to be housed in the CP. Call for proposals SANCO D5/10753/2010 Grant Agreement no. SANCO/2010/D5/CRPA/SI2.578062
  6. 6. 6 W HAT ARE THE BENEFI TS O F A CP FRO M THE ANI MAL W ELFARE PO I NT O F VI EW ? It is well documented that the effects of transport on the animal increase with increasing duration of transport. For example, in the case of cattle, blood parameters are affected, and there is an increased risk of weight loss. Moreover, an increased risk of injuries due to animals’ losses of balance during the second part of 29 hours transport has been highlighted by recent experiments. The effects of transport duration on animals are of course influenced by other parameters, such as the road conditions, the driver behaviour, the vehicle design and the space allowance. Anyway, a resting period of 1 hour appears not to be sufficient to ensure an adequate food and water intake for the ruminants. Furthermore, vehicle design, watering and feeding systems or space allowance may impact on animals’ access to food and water. In the light of such considerations, the resting period in the CP emerges as the most appropriate solution to the problems described above, ensuring that all animals get adequate rest, food and water, according to their needs, as they can access a comfortable bedding area, as well as feeding and watering resources. it is therefore possible to say that the use of control post is an efficient means to improve animal welfare, and that it in turn provides a benefit for the economic operators during very long animal transport. W HAT ARE THE RI SKS F O R ANI MALS AT CP ? The permanence of animals at a control post during their transport is a major issue with respect to the spread of diseases in Europe. Risks are due to the mixing in the same place of animals of different origin not only because of the simultaneous presence of the animals in the CP, but also due to poor cleaning and disinfection procedures between successive consignments. The European regulation establishes rules and procedures, applying to a list of diseases. However, the CP owner and staff, transporters and the official veterinarian in charge should also be aware of the possibility that non-listed disease may spread, ant should be therefore well informed and trained so as to be able to detect non listed diseases, as well as symptoms or changes in the behaviour of the animals that could indicate health problems. CP could also have detrimental effect on animal welfare linked to the unloading/loading procedure s which are stressful situations for animals. However, this negative effect should be minimised with good design of ramp and corridors and good handling practices. Space allowance and pen size in the CP have also to be taken into account so as to ensure comfortable resting conditions without entailing competition and aggressive behaviour between animals. W HERE ARE THE APPRO VED CO NTRO L PO STS? CPs are spread all over member states (Figure 1) to provide accommodations for animals during the compulsory 24 hours resting period. Some are approved for cattle and/ or pigs and/or sheep and/or horses. Please check on the EC official list: http://ec.europa.eu/food/animal/welfare/transport/docs/council_regulation_1255_97.pdf Under regulation (EC 1/2005), the booking of the CP has to be done before the beginning of the transport and must be indicated in the journey log. Call for proposals SANCO D5/10753/2010 Grant Agreement no. SANCO/2010/D5/CRPA/SI2.578062
  7. 7. 7 Figure 1. Control posts location in Europe. Call for proposals SANCO D5/10753/2010 Grant Agreement no. SANCO/2010/D5/CRPA/SI2.578062
  8. 8. 8 L EGISL ATION IN FORCE: FOCUS ON KEY POIN TS FOR THE CP Several enforcements of the European Regulation (1255/97 amended by 1/2005 for transport, and by 1040/2003 for staging points) concern directly or indirectly the CP and are relevant key points for its management. FI TNESS FO R TRANSPO RT Fitness for transport is one main technical specification of EC 1/2005 (Annex 1, chapter 1, summary in Table 2). Under EC 1255/97, the fitness of transported animals shall be checked by the CP staff at the unloading and at least once every 12 hours during the resting period. The official veterinarian must check that the animals are fit for transport before they resume their journey (EC 1/2005 & EC 1255/97). Table 2. Fitness for transport as defined in EC 1/2005 (Annex 1, Chapter 1). Are unfit for all type Wounded animals (serious open wounds or prolapse) of transport Animals with physiological weakness Animals with pathological status Animals which are unable to move without assistance or without suffering Pregnant females (over 90% of the gestation) Females that have calved within the previous week New born animals with unhealed navel Piglets under 3 weeks old, Calves under 10 days old and Lambs under one week old (except if transport distance less than 100 km) Are unfit for long All the previous plus: Piglets under 10kg and Calves older than 14 days. journey National and European guidelines are available to help transporters and operators to check for the fitness for transport of cattle and pigs (Contact competent authorities). BI O -SECURI TY DURI NG TRANSPO RT AND AT CP The CP must ensure that the bio-security criteria are applied correctly, in order to protect animals which are hosted by the facility (EC 1255/97). Every CP must be located, designed, constructed and operated so as to ensure sufficient bio-security, thus preventing the spreading of infectious diseases to other holdings and between consecutive consignments of animals passing through the same premises (EC 1/2005). CPs must be used exclusively to receive, feed, water, give rest, accommodate and care animals passing through. By way of derogation, Member State may also approve as control posts assembly centres provided that the use of the control post facilities shall exclusively reserved for this purpose during the period concerned and they are not used for the purchase and sale of the animals concerned. Animals may be housed at the CP only if their health status is certified. To guarantee the bio-security of the CP, all pens, ramps, corridors and loading/unloading equipment of the CP must be cleansed and disinfected after each use, as required by the official veterinarian (EC 1255/97). Since last foot and mouth disease outbreaks, health and hygiene measures have been reinforced in particular in relation to cleansing and disinfection of the CP premises and equipment (EC 1040/2003). Before hosting animals, the premises that will house them must be cleaned and disinfected within 24 hours following the departure of all animals previously held, and must remain clear of animals until the cleansing and disinfection operations are completed to the satisfaction of the official veterinarian. It shall be completely cleared of all animals for a period of 24 hours (sanitary breaks) before the arrival of a new consignment (except if animals come from the similar zone, region of compartment), and in any case after a maximum of 6 days use. Call for proposals SANCO D5/10753/2010 Grant Agreement no. SANCO/2010/D5/CRPA/SI2.578062
  9. 9. 9 LO ADI NG/UNLO ADI NG CO NDI TI O NS Loading and unloading are stressful situations for transported animals, due to the rapid changes of their close environment. Regulation EC 1/2005 indicates that loading and unloading equipment, including flooring, must be designed and operated so as to prevent injuries and suffering, to minimize excitement and distress, and to insure the security of animals (Annex 1, Chapter 3). Nonslipping flooring and proper lightning of the loading/unloading area is also required. To prevent slipping, specific maximum slopes are imposed according to the categories of animals ( Table 3). However, for the loading of cattle, a slope of 10° can be recommended as threshold that should not be exceeded in order to minimize the animal stress. In case the slope exceeds 10°, the ramps of the truck for all categories of animals should be equipped with foot battens, so as to prevent slipping. All these obligations and recommendations are also applicable to CPs, in addition to obligations on CP ramps (lateral protections, no gap and the lowest possible slope, Figure 2) and corridors (non-slipping flooring) to prevent any risk of injuries to animals and in order to take full advantage of the animals’ gregarious behaviour (EC 1255/97, Annex, Chapter B). When lift platforms or upper floors are used, safety barriers must be applied. Table 3. Compulsory maximum slopes of loading/unloading ramps for various categories of animals (EC 1/2005, Annex 1, Chapter 3). The height h is measured 1 meter before the end of the ramp. Maximum height Slope h Pigs ≤ 20° 36 cm Calves ≤ 20° 36 cm Horses ≤ 20° 36 cm Sheep ≤ 26°34’ 50 cm Other cattle ≤ 26°34’ 50 cm All species > 10° 17,6 cm Foot battens necessary Figure 2. Possible recommended features for (un)loading animals at CP. Call for proposals SANCO D5/10753/2010 Grant Agreement no. SANCO/2010/D5/CRPA/SI2.578062
  10. 10. 10 HANDLI NG O F ANI MALS The quality of handling operations when loading, unloading and moving the animals into the CP has a major impact on the welfare of transported animals. For this reason, regulation (both EC 1/2005 and EC 1255/97) recommends to be careful not to frighten, unduly excite and maltreat animals when handling them. Assembly and holding areas should be designed so as to allow animals to remain in social groups and to rest without risk of mixing groups. Several handling practices are forbidden (Table 4). The use of the electric prod is only permitted for adult pigs and adult cattle which are reluctant to move when they have room ahead of them in which to move. The shocks shall last no longer than one second, be adequately spaced and only applied to the muscles of the hindquarters. They shall not be used repeatedly if the animal fails to respond. Table 4. Handling practices at CP. Forbidden practices during transport and at CP: To strike or to kick animals To apply pressure to any sensitive part of the body of the animal to cause unnecessary pain or suffering To suspend the animal by mechanical means To lift or drag animals by ears, horns, legs, tail or fleece or handle them in such a way to cause them unnecessary pain or suffering To use prods or other implements with pointed ends Forbidden practices at CP: To crush or twist or break the tail To grasp the eyes Animals shall not be tied by the horns, the nose rings, nor by legs tied together. Calves shall not be muzzled. Animals shall be transported and handled separately when they are: Different species (except if raised together) Significantly different in sizes or age (except if raised together) Adult breeding boars (except if raised together) Sexually mature males and females Animals with horns and without horns (except if raised together) Animals hostile to each other Tied animals and untied animals EC 1/2005 EC 1255/97 EC 1255/97 EC 1/2005 EC 1/2005 ADMI NI STRATI VE DO CUMENTS Under EC 1255/97 regulation, the CP owner shall be responsible to admit only animals which have been certified or identified in accordance with relevant Community legislation. The CP owner shall be responsible to check, or have others check, the health or accompanying documents belonging to the species or categories. The CP owner must keep a database record of the information indicated in Table 5 and must hold it at the disposal of the competent authorities for at least 3 years. The staying at CP and the actual duration of the resting period shall be indicated on the journey log in section 4. Before the animals leave the CP, the official veterinarian shall confirm that the animals are fit to continue their journey on the route plan adjusted to that end. Any relevant information about anomalies shall be indicated in section 5 of the journey log. Call for proposals SANCO D5/10753/2010 Grant Agreement no. SANCO/2010/D5/CRPA/SI2.578062
  11. 11. 11 Table 5. Information to be recorded by CP (EC 1255/97, Annex, Chapter C). Date and time of completion of unloading and commencement of reloading of each consignment Date and duration of the depopulation periods Animal health certificate numbers relating to each consignment Any necessary remarks concerning the health or welfare condition of animals, especially: the particulars and the number of animals discovered dead at unloading or which died during their stay, the particulars and the number of animals discovered seriously injured at unloading or which were severely injured during their stay. Names and addresses of the transporters and drivers Registration numbers of the vehicles THE CERTIFICATION SC HEME OF HIGH QUAL ITY CON TROL POST Because of the growing consumer’s demand on food safety and transparency in food supply chain, quality insurance schemes are becoming increasingly popular in the food industry. This trend cannot ignore animal welfare principles and bio-security issues, especially during long distance transport. In this framework, the HQCP certification scheme sets up a reference for highest standards concerning the welfare of animals resting at CPs. Several CPs located at the crossroads of important flows of animals transported over long journeys across the EU have been renewed and improved within the project. Certification criteria include building details and equipment, animal welfare and bio-security, and CP general management. This certification scheme aims to create an opportunity for better compliance with transport legislation in EU. In order to meet high quality expectations, some criteria are above regulation requirements, especially the space availability in pens. The assessment of the welfare of animals as a result of unloading/resting conditions is part of the certification, as well as a selfmonitoring procedure for CP staff. All relevant information of the certification system is publicly available, including the certification criteria, the evaluation criteria, the scheme owner and recognized certification bodies, as well as the list of certified CPs. (www.controlpost.eu). Online booking of these CPs is also available, with detailed information on the CPs concerned. E.L EARN IN G TRAIN IN G In order to be authorised to transport living animals in Europe (EC 1/2005), it is mandatory that drivers receive a specific training. This training provides basic knowledge on legal requirements of EC 1/2005 and good practices of animal handling. Both the training bodies and the training programs, as well as the procedures to evaluate the trainees, have to be approved by national competent authorities. EC 1255/97 imposes that also staff of the CPs receive a specific training within the undertaking of, or from a training body, or that they have appropriate practical experience qualifying them to handle animals. Apart from these compulsory trainings, the HQCP project has developed a multi-modules eLearning training to complete the basic knowledge of all stakeholders involved in the transport of animals over long journeys. This eLearning tool provides useful information and awareness targeted to transport companies, CP staff and official veterinary inspectors on how to improve the welfare and the bio-security of transported animals (www.controlpost.eu). The pursued objectives are to: Call for proposals SANCO D5/10753/2010 Grant Agreement no. SANCO/2010/D5/CRPA/SI2.578062
  12. 12. 12 - Understand the social, cultural and scientific bases supporting European norms on the protection of animal during transport, and to achieve knowledge on special requirements for long distance transport and CP - Learn basic principles of animal physiology, with special references to animals’ needs and behaviours - Be able to draw up and maintain all documents related to transport - Perform all loading/unloading operations in an appropriate way, be able to provide first care to animals in case of emergency and to ensure staff safety. The e-learning training modules are available in English, French, German, Greek, Italian, Russian and Spanish. Call for proposals SANCO D5/10753/2010 Grant Agreement no. SANCO/2010/D5/CRPA/SI2.578062
  13. 13. 13 PART II-HQCP GUIDELINES: HOUSING WHY IS IT IMPORTAN T TO TAKE CARE OF IT? It is important that during the resting time at the CP, animals are provided with a shelter to protect themselves from extreme climate conditions (sun, rain, cold weather). A correct thermal environment prevents the apparition of sickness, and improves animal welfare. Animal welfare conditions vary according to the different species that can be housed at the CP. CPs must ensure a high level of animal welfare because the animals these facilities house are transported over long distances. CPs should favour the recovery of animals from the stress caused by long journeys, so as to put the animals in the best conditions for their journey to be resumed. GOOD PRACTICES RECOMMEN DATION S CPs housing should be constructed with walls and roofs that should provide adequate protection to animals from adverse weather conditions. Temperature and ventilation have a direct influence on animal health. Extreme temperatures (very low/very high temperatures) can be dangerous. For all farm species, it is important to be maintained within a balanced temperature range called the thermo-neutral zone. This temperature range depends upon the floor type, its insulation properties, the air speed, the air temperature and humidity, radiation and the insulation of the building. Building insulation is required if the housing must be heated and frost-free (particularly in fully slatted floored houses). Cattle and sheep are more tolerant than pigs to thermal changes, but should nonetheless be kept within comfort temperature and humidity ranges. The CP must have adequate mechanical or natural ventilation in order to provide fresh air and keep the effective environmental temperature as good as possible within the comfort zone of the animals. Air circulation should take place above the head of the animals. ●To keep inside temperature above the indicated minimum, additional heating may be applied if necessary, especially for younger animals. If the temperature is higher than the indicated maximum, additional measures have to be taken: more floor space, additi onal fans for ventilation (and when necessary water spraying). Recommended temperatures are given in Table 6. If the air is humid, the animals can feel that the temperature is colder than the actual one. Table 6: Recommended temperatures in farm building to minimize health problems for animals. Animal categories Minimum temperature Maximum temperature Piglets < 15 kg Growing-finishing 16 to 110 kg +20°C +15°C +35°C +30°C Pigs above 160 kg +10°C +28°C Ewes Lambs +6°C +14°C + 26°C +21°C Calves before weaning +5°C +25°C Cattle ≤ 400 kg Cattle >400 kg and Cows Difference with outside temperature : no more than 3 to 6°C Comfort from -5°C to +25°C ●The control post is divided in pens, whose number should allow for the animals to be kept and housed in the same groups as in the truck. In order to allow the creation of separated groups of animals, according to provenance and animal species, the control post should be equipped with mobile barriers. These barriers must be constructed in such way that they cannot harm or injure the Call for proposals SANCO D5/10753/2010 Grant Agreement no. SANCO/2010/D5/CRPA/SI2.578062
  14. 14. 14 animals, and that all materials used for their construction are nontoxic, cleanable and can be disinfected. As youngest animals, like calves, are highly sensitive to cold, isolating material is recommended on walls (wood, bricks) provided it can be properly cleansed and disinfected. In each pen, space allowance must be provided according to the animal species. Recommended values are given in table 7; for pigs and cattle these values have been calculated according to the allometric formula: A = k * W0.67 where: A is the minimum area in m2 k is a multiplier (0.027 for growing pigs; 0.035 for sows, gilts and boars; 0.0315 for cattle), W is the unit live weight in kg. For fattening pigs weighing more than 110 kg an average live weight of 140 kg was considered. For boars the value in the table is valid only for the group housing. In case of individual housing of mature boars, a minimum area of 5 m2 is considered, with the shorter side of the box at least 2.2 m long. Table 7: Suggested minimum space allowances at CP Animal categories (m2/head) <10 kg 0.13 10 kg > < 20 kg 0.20 20 kg > < 30 kg 0.26 30 kg > < 50 kg 0.37 50 kg > < 85 kg 0.53 Pigs 85 kg > < 110 kg 0.63 > 110 kg 0.96 Sows1 (200 kg LW) 1.22 2 Gilts (110 kg LW) 0.63 Boars3 (200 kg LW) 1.22 Sheep Cattle Ewes Lambs 1 0,5 Small calves (50 kg LW) Medium sized calves (110 kg LW) Heavy calves (200 kg LW) Medium sized cattle (325 kg LW) Heavy cattle (550 kg LW) Very heavy cattle (> 700 kg LW) 0.43 0.73 1.10 1.52 2.16 > 2.544 1 ) ‘sow’ means a female pig after the first farrowing ) ‘gilt’ means a female pig after puberty and before farrowing 3 ) ‘boar’ means a male pig after puberty, intended for breeding 2 ●The floor material must be non-slippery, cleanable, and sufficiently drained (i.e. kept free from urine, water). It must be adapted to animal species. If concrete slatted floor is used for pigs, it must comply with the EU regulation (Table 8). A portion of the total flooring of the housing building must be assigned to the accommodation of piglets. This dedicated space must be sufficient to allow Call for proposals SANCO D5/10753/2010 Grant Agreement no. SANCO/2010/D5/CRPA/SI2.578062
  15. 15. 15 the animals to rest together at the same time and the floor material must be solid or covered with a mat. Table 8. Recommended shape for concrete slatted floor for pigs Piglets Weaned piglets Growing-finishing pigs Gilts and sows Maximum width of the openings (mm) 11 14 Minimum width of the slats (mm) 50 50 18 80 20 80 For cattle, sufficient bedding should be provided: between 8 to 12 kg of clean straw for adult cattle, between 2 to 3 kg of clean straw for calves. Straw must be dry, good quality and must be renewed between each truck load. Straw can be associated to wood chips to improve liquid absorption. For sheep, 2 kg of straw per adult is recommended. For sheep, straw bedding should be provided in the pens, 0.5kg/head for ewes, between 0.20 and 0.25 kg/head for lambs. ●Lighting of the control post building is important in order to avoid stressing the animals with light contrast, darkness or high luminosity. Diffuse natural or proper artificial lighting should be provided along the whole from the (un)loading area to the resting area. The lighting can be around 40 lux in the regular pens (reading a newspaper is possible), but it must be stronger in the nursery pen (250 lux), and in the milking parlour and on the unloading area (100 to 150 lux). Care should be taken in order to avoid any light contrast, light reflection on metal equipment, or high luminosity because this causes animals to stop, and sometimes to turn back . ●One fire extinguisher must be available in each building, according to the quantity and type (solid, liquid, gas) of combustible materials. WHAT TO DO IF? If there are not enough pens in the CP with respect to the number of pens in the truck: do not mix more than 2 pens of the truck. Observe behaviour, and isolate injured or stressed animals if necessary. If outside temperature is above 30 °C, water must be sprayed on the alley, without making the floor slippery, and if necessary water is to be sprayed on pigs as well. Cattle and sheep are less sensitive to heat, but ventilation (natural or mechanical) may be necessary above 30°C. If inside temperature is lower than 5°C, it is necessary that the bedding be correctly made with straw. A heating device can be used as well, if needed, especially for calves and piglets. In case new buildings are to be constructed or renovation made to the existing facilities, floor heating and cooling can be interesting options. If the floor is covered with a mat, attention must be paid to slippery areas when the mat is dirty or wet. SEL F MON ITORIN G: Openings used for natural ventilation must be tested every month, and test results must be entered in the business administration records. Call for proposals SANCO D5/10753/2010 Grant Agreement no. SANCO/2010/D5/CRPA/SI2.578062
  16. 16. 16 Heating devices must be tested at least once a year, before winter time and test results must be entered in the business administration records. The alarm system signalling malfunction of the mechanical ventilation system has to be tested every month and results and test results must be entered in the business administration records. If an emergency generator is used in the CP, it must be tested every month and test results must be entered in the business administration records. Once a year mats used for covering floor have to be checked, and changed if they have become uncomfortable for animals. General remark: facilities and equipment must be tested before each new delivery of animals. Refer to www.controlpost.eu for more technical information and examples of design of HQCP. Call for proposals SANCO D5/10753/2010 Grant Agreement no. SANCO/2010/D5/CRPA/SI2.578062
  17. 17. 17 HQCP GUIDELINES: HANDLING ANIMALS WHY IS IT IMPORTAN T TO TAKE CARE OF IT? Inappropriate or stressful handling can frighten animals, and increases the risk of injuries for them. Stress is likely to be a major issue with respect to the housing of animals in a CP, as the animals are not familiar neither with the place nor with the handler. It is more difficult to move stressed animals, because they may refuse to move , or may try to escape from the corridors. Such behaviours can be risky for the handler as well, if they result in the animals turning back, or kicking and running away. Good practices help to minimise stress and to secure the handling of animals. It is part of the CP owner’s responsibility to take good care of the animals and to avoid them to get injured. GOOD PRACTICES RECOMMEN DATION S When handling animals, in moving them to the pen after they have been unloaded, or when bringing them back to the truck compartment to be loaded, it is necessary to take into account sensorial and behavioural characteristics. ●Most of the animals (cattle, pigs and sheep) are social animals. They are less stressed when the congeners are around. So they need to be handled by groups in order to minimise stress and to facilitate and secure the handling. It is important to respect group partition in the truck but, if necessary, groups can be divided for handling purposes. The recommended number of animals to be handled together differs according to the species: it takes into account animal behaviour, but also handling security. - Pigs: 5 to 12 animals together. Depend on handling facilities. - Adult cattle: 10 to 15 animals together. - Calves: 5 to 10 animals together when unloading; more at loading. - Sheep: no more than 20 sheep in the flock. Young animals are more reactive than adult ones, and they are often less used to human presence. Direct handling, with body contact with the animal, can be used if some young animals are reluctant to move. For instance, young calves can be moved by pair with hands on their back or with one hand under the head and the other on the back. Do not twist nor turn the tail . ●Vision of animals differs from human vision: the vision angle is wider but accuracy is lower, especially on the sides where the vision in monocular. It is hence necessary for the handler to position side-behind, to enter slowly into the flight zone and make them move away calmly. Solid wall corridors, especially if curved, improve the moving because animals don’t see around and focus attention on moving forward to escape. Steps, interruptions ("jumps"), shrinkage and bends at right angle should be avoided or limited. Animals may be slowed by the presence of objects on the walls along the path (clothing, aprons and plastic bags), grids of canals or water collection wells and floor textures and / or uneven colour. Call for proposals SANCO D5/10753/2010 Grant Agreement no. SANCO/2010/D5/CRPA/SI2.578062
  18. 18. 18 Point of balance Flee zone Flee zone Blind area Blind area Point of balance Handling board Figure 3. Flee zones of pigs and cattle and application in handling. ●Prey animals like pigs, cattle and sheep, do not have a good vision of depth. Visual contrasts on the floor (grids, deep or dark areas on floor) can stop them before passing over. These obstacles must be avoided, or covered with bedding for instance. ●Animal eyes are sensitive to bright light and it takes them several minutes to adapt to light changes, for instance at loading, to go from daylight to darkness in the truck. They can be stopped by light reflecting on the truck ramp or any bright metal equipment. It is then necessary to avoid light contrasts or to let the animals some time to adapt. Bedding on the unloading ramp can improve the unloading when sunlight is reflecting. ●Hearing of prey-animals is well developed and they are sensitive to high pitch sounds, like shouting, metallic sounds and whistling. These sounds should be avoided to minimize stress, except when it is necessary to make move an animal which is reluctant to move. ●Animals are also sensitive to pain. Any hits (hand or stick) should be avoided except if it is necessary to make one animal move forward when stopped. PRO HI BI TED AND REGULATED HANDLI NG TO O LS (EC 1 /2 0 0 5 ): - Sharp tools are prohibited. - The use of electric prods is limited to adult cattle and adult pigs. It should be used for one second bouts only, only on the blocking animal when it can move on, and only on the rear area of the animal. - Kicking animals is prohibited. - Hitting sensible body areas is prohibited when it causes unnecessary pain. - Holding animals by ears, horns, legs, tail or wool fleece is prohibited. WHAT TO DO IF? If an animal stops and refuses to move on: - First, calm down and let the animal calm down; then check that it isn’t sick, wounded or unfit for transport. If so, follow the appropriate procedure. Call for proposals SANCO D5/10753/2010 Grant Agreement no. SANCO/2010/D5/CRPA/SI2.578062
  19. 19. 19 - Second, check for any obstacle on the way (visual or physical) and if possible remove it, or change lightning if light contrast is the problem. If all this is not possible, then give time to the animal to get used to the obstacle in order to be able to get past it. . - Stimulate the animal to make it move: shout or whistle or give it a light hit on the back. If this provokes no reaction, then you can use the electric probe according to the instructions of the EU regulation: this instrument shall only be used for adult cattle or adult pig which refuse to move and only when they have room ahead of them in which to move. The shocks shall last no longer than one second, be adequately spaced and only applied to the muscles of the hindquarters. They shall not be used repeatedly if the animal fails to respond. SEL F MON ITORIN G: Observation of the behaviour of the animals during loading/unloading: check especially if the animals are reluctant to move or if they turn back. Training of staff for handling good practices Refer to eLearning programs in www.controlpost.eu for more information. Call for proposals SANCO D5/10753/2010 Grant Agreement no. SANCO/2010/D5/CRPA/SI2.578062
  20. 20. 20 HQCP GUIDELINES: ALIMENTATION AND WATERING WHY IS IT IMPORTAN T TO TAKE CARE OF IT? During transport, animals have no easy access to food and water, so it is important that they can drink and eat during the resting period at the CP. When animals are resting in the CP, they must be able to fulfil their biological needs. Free access to water is then essential so as to maintain animals in good health. Moreover, animal feeding at the CP is essential to the animal welfare, as it prevents them from a long starving period. An insufficient amount of food or water, as well as an inadequate quality of food and water, or the wrong presentation of food and water can cause animals hunger, thirst, stress and social stress. This can lead animals to competitive behaviours, and increases the risk for illnesses and injuries. Moreover, in case of very high temperatures, lack of water can increase mortality risks. GOOD PRACTICES RECOMMEN DATION S The feeding and watering of animals shall be carried out in such a way as to ensure that every animal accommodated at the CP can have at least sufficient clean water and appropriate feed to satisfy its bodily needs during its stay and for the expected duration of its journey to the next feeding point. Feed shall be stored in a (closed) clean, dry and labelled (visually identifiable) facility. Feed storage facilities are to be used for feed only, unless feed is stored in closed containers/packaging material . No chemicals (e.g. pesticides, biocides, veterinary pharmaceuticals) can be stored in feed storage facilities. The feed storage facility must be included in the pest control program. The minimum quantity of feed to be provided should correspond to the food amount required for the animal’s body maintenance, as shown in Table 9. Feed must be of homogeneous quality, in order to avoid any competitive behaviour for feeding. Food must be palatable and suitable for the species age of the animals it is destined to. Recommendations are given in Table 9. Feeding equipment must be suitable to the handling of the type of feed provided. The feeding equipment shall be constructed and installed so that food contamination and competition among animals are minimised, and that the equipment is no obstacle for the animals or cause for injuries. If animals are fed ad libitum, at least 1 feeding place per 10 heads in group housing must be available. If animals are not fed ad libitum, all animals in the pen must be able to eat at the same time. The minimal feeder space per head is given in Table 10. Feeding installations must be cleaned and if necessary disinfected. Call for proposals SANCO D5/10753/2010 Grant Agreement no. SANCO/2010/D5/CRPA/SI2.578062
  21. 21. 21 Table 9. Suggested feed quantity per head (recommendations for farming systems that can be used to estimate the amount of concentrate or hay to provide at CP) Animal categories Feed(kg/head/24h) Concentrate feed Piglets < 15 kg 0.35 Weaners 16 to 50 kg 0.75 Growers 51 to 110 kg 1.00 Fatteners 111 to 160 kg 1.25 Sows, boars 1.50 Hay Ewes 3 kg Lambs 1 to 2 kg Milk replacer Calves before weaning 2 l/12 h Hay Cattle ≤ 400 kg 7 kg Cattle > 400 kg 15 kg Table 10. Suggested feeder space per head (recommendations for farming system that should be used to estimate the feeder measurements to minimize the competition between animals) Animal categories Feeder/trough space (m/head) Linear Circular Piglets < 15 kg 0.15 0.12 Weaners 16 to 50 kg 0.25 0.20 Growers 51 to 110 kg 0.33 0.25 Fatteners 111 to 160 kg 0.40 0.33 Sows, boars 0.50 0.40 Linear Circular Ewes 0.40 0.40 Lambs 0.30 0.30 Linear Circular Individual feeders Calves before weaning (one 2l feeder /animal) Not recommended Calves after weaning 0,34 Cattle ≤ 400 kg 0,50 Cattle > 400 kg 0,65 Cows 0,70 All animals should have free access to fresh drinking water, delivered ad libitum. Young calves should not be watered with cold water, especially in winter, as it may cause diarrhoea. It is rather recommended to provide them with warm water (about 30°C) or electrolytes to meet the water needs without compromising the health of calves. Drinking devices must be designed and positioned in a way that is appropriate for the species, the age and the size of the animals. The number of watering places should at least be 1 per 10 animals for pigs or sheep. In the case of cattle, 2 accessible drinkers per pen assure free access to water when most of the animals are willing to drink at the same time: keep 60cm of open space over the drinker to give easy access. To avoid freezing, wherever the climate requires, water pipes should be buried between 0.50 to 1.0 m deep and protected against freezing by isolating thermal protection when in the building. Call for proposals SANCO D5/10753/2010 Grant Agreement no. SANCO/2010/D5/CRPA/SI2.578062
  22. 22. 22 The drinker height must be adequate to the size of each category of animals that is allowed to be housed in the CP (see Table 11). Pollution of the drinking water can lead to insufficient water absorption and illnesses. Litter in the drinkers can also lead to this, in particular in warm weather conditions, as bacteria can grow faster. Therefore it is necessary that drinking bowls can be emptied and cleaned thoroughly. The drinkers should not constitute an obstacle for the animals, or the workers, the machines or the mechanical systems. Drinkers should not be placed next to the feeders and the resting areas, in order to prevent possible water leaks that could wet food and bedding. Water flow at the drinker must be adjusted to the species. For pigs, recommended values are 1.0 l/min for bowl and 0.5 l/min for nipple. For cattle, minimum recommended water flow in bowl is 12l/min. No suckling buckets for calves to avoid water in abomasums. No nipples drinkers for sheep. Table 11. Suggested height of installation above the floor of nipples and water bowls Animal categories Height of installation (m) Nipples Water bowls Piglets < 15 kg 0.30 0.12 Weaners 16 to 50 kg 0.40 0.15 Growers 51 to 130 kg 0.50 0.20 0.70 Nipples Not recommended Not recommended Not recommended Nipples Not recommended Not recommended Not recommended Not recommended Not recommended 0.30 Water bowls 0.50 0.30 0.40 Water bowls 0.50 0.55 0.70 0.70 0.75 Sows, boars Ewes Lambs < 30 kg Lambs > 30 Kg Calves 50 kg Calves 150 kg “Broutards” Heifers Cows 650 kg WHAT TO DO IF? If young animals are not able to use the drinker, it is important that a little leak be kept at the drinker so as to initiate drinking behaviour. If an animal stays lying without eating and drinking, first contact and get advice from the veterinary, then bring water with a bucket, and if possible isolate the animal. SEL F MON ITORIN G: The water installation (including water tank if present) is to be inspected at least once a year. The inspection results must be entered in the business administration records.At least once a year, and before winter period, procedures/tools for preventing frost of watering system are to be checked. The inspection results must be entered in the business administration records. Stock of feed for each animal category is to be registered every week and compared to the estimated quantity of food necessary for a period defined by CP owner. Refer to www.controlpost.eu for more examples of equipment of high quality control post. Call for proposals SANCO D5/10753/2010 Grant Agreement no. SANCO/2010/D5/CRPA/SI2.578062
  23. 23. 23 HQCP GUIDELINES: MILKING DAIRY COWS WHY IS IT IMPORTAN T TO TAKE CARE OF IT? Transported lactating dairy cows must be milked every 12 hours. Otherwise the increasing inner udder pressure would lead to a strong burden for the udder tissue. In order to preserve the quality of later milking and to reduce the risk for udder illnesses, hygienic rules must be complied with at the CP, and professional milking practices must be used. According to many analyses concerning important milk producing countries, udder health problems are the illness causing the most relevant losses to dairy farming. Losses are also caused by an earlier disposition of affected animals. Losses due to mastitis are avoidable, the prerequisite being a healthy udder. GOOD PRACTICES RECOMMEN DATION S During milking staff should wear clean protective clothes and must have the possibility to wash hands and arms before and during milking. Milking equipment and the premises where the milk is stored, handled or cooled must be located and constructed so as to limit the risk of milk contamination. After use, such surfaces must be cleaned and disinfected. CLEANI NG THE UDDER B EFO RE MI LKI NG Before milking, it is necessary to clean the animal’s teats and udder. This reduces the bacterial pressure on the udder and, as a consequence, the risk mastitis. Cleaning of the udder can be made using a single use cloth and by rapid soaking of the udder into a cleaning solution. MI LKI NG If the milk has to be collected, first milk from every udder/quarter has to be used to check the milk for organoleptic and physic-chemical abnormalities. This should not be done on the floor or in one’s hand, as the splashing of milk can increase bacterial pressure in the stable and on the udder. After cleaning the udder and testing for organoleptic or physic-chemical abnormalities, the udder should be enough stimulated to start with the actual milking process. This should be not later than 90 seconds after the first contact with the udder. Vacuum and relief shall change in a proportion of 3:2. Vacuum shall give round about 40 kilopascal to the teats. During milking pay attention to ensure the correct emptying of the udder. Call for proposals SANCO D5/10753/2010 Grant Agreement no. SANCO/2010/D5/CRPA/SI2.578062
  24. 24. 24 AFTER MI LKI NG After milking, udder should be disinfected so as to reduce mastitis risk. If the milk has to be collected, immediately after milking, it must be held in a clean place designed and equipped to avoid contamination. It must be cooled immediately to not more than 8 °C in the case of daily collection, or not more than 6 °C if collection is not daily. CLEANI NG O F MI LKI NG EQUI PMENT: The outside of the equipment must be cleaned first, using warm water (30 °C), in order to remove leftover milk from pipelines, then rinsed with cold water to avoid protein coagulation. After that, it must be cleaned with hot water and the pipelines must be disinfected. The last step in the cleaning procedure requires the equipment to be rinsed with drinking water. Surfaces of equipment that are meant for coming into contact with the milk (utensils, containers, tanks, etc. intended for milking, milk collection or transport) must be easy to clean and, where necessary, to disinfect, and must be maintained in a sound condition. This requires the use of smooth, washable and non-toxic materials. The cloth used to clean the udder should be washed at 65°C after each use. WHAT TO DO IF? Visible Acute Mastitis: one quarter of the udder is heavily swollen. In this specific case, after milking, it is important to make sure that this quarter has been thoroughly emptied, in order to reduce pathogenic organisms and destructed udder tissue. It is also important to contact a veterinarian immediately. SEL F MON ITORIN G: - Before each milking time: o Replace filter of milking machine o Check vacuum - Before and during milking: o - Keep in mind the hygiene! After milking: o Dispose filter of milking machine o Clean milking machine systematic from outside before cleaning and disinfection of the inside o During cleaning, use cold water first to avoid protein coagulation, then hot water can be used afterward o After cleaning and disinfection dry milking equipment with open side down o After Flushing the milk duct get the water out o Check the cooling device for the milk Call for proposals SANCO D5/10753/2010 Grant Agreement no. SANCO/2010/D5/CRPA/SI2.578062
  25. 25. 25 HQCP GUIDELINES: BIOSECURITY WHY IS IT IMPORTAN T TO TAKE CARE OF IT? Bio-security is a central issue to CPs, in order to prevent the spreading of diseases between animals and humans. Biosecurity ranked highest among the preferences expressed by transporters with reference to their expectations on the HQCP. Bio-security at CP is also of paramount importance to guarantee food safety all across Europe. Bio-security is especially important for travelling animal, as stress during transport may impact on their immune system and make them more sensitive to diseases. Also, transport conditions increase contact between animals and can increase the risk of pathogens spreading. Bio-security is based on good hygiene practices aimed to limit pathogens development, animal management to prevent contacts between different consignments and global management of the CP to minimise sanitary risk and hazards. GOOD PRACTICES RECOMMEN DATION S CP GLO BAL MANAGEMEN T PRO CEDURE TO MI NI MI ZE BI O -SECURI TY HAZARDS ●The control post should be located according to local regulation. In any case, it is recommended at least 100 m far from human housing, and at least 500 m, preferably 1,000 m from the nearest farm. Gate and barriers must prevent the entrance in the CP without admission clearance of the owner. All visitors and vehicles are to be registered (date, hours, reason of visit). ●Hygienic routing of transport must be organised to prevent external transport (feed deliveries, removal transport of waste) to cross internal transport (animals). Different routes can be signed or lined on pavement to separate “clean” and “dirty” routes to: animal buildings, lorry wash station, feed and bedding storage, and manure storage. If physical separation is not possible, these transports have to be separated in time. ●The control post should be divided into zones dedicated to specific uses, so as to allow the CP owner to plan for traffic patterns, work organization and biosecurity measures. Zones should be large enough to permit later expansion without overlapping with other areas. The control post can be divided into three concentric rings or activity zones (Figure 4): Zone 1 office and main entrance; Zone 2 accommodation for drivers, store house and truck wash; Zone 3 animal houses, truck parking and waste storages. In Figure 5 an example of layout is given according to this criterion. Call for proposals SANCO D5/10753/2010 Grant Agreement no. SANCO/2010/D5/CRPA/SI2.578062
  26. 26. 26 Figure 4. Logical of organization of a control post to optimize the biosecurity. Figure 5. Possible organizational layout of a control post. ●Traffic areas and truck paths between entrance, (un)loading areas, truck wash and parking must be planned according to the maximum size for trucks, trailer and semitrailers ( Figure 6) and to their radius of curvature (Figure 7). Call for proposals SANCO D5/10753/2010 Grant Agreement no. SANCO/2010/D5/CRPA/SI2.578062
  27. 27. 27 Figure 6. Some standard dimensions of various types of livestock trucks. Figure 7. Radius of curvature of various types of livestock trucks. ●Dead animals must be stored separately from other animals and away from housing buildings (Figure 4 and 5) and the place must be paved, and cleaned and disinfected after every use. Carcasses are to be taken to the destruction facilities in such a way that the truck transporting them does not have to enter the premises of the CP (Regulation (EC) N. 1069/2009). ●Buildings housing animals must be clearly indicated. CP staff should be the only persons allowed to enter into these buildings of the CP. All people entering the buildings have to wear clean, Call for proposals SANCO D5/10753/2010 Grant Agreement no. SANCO/2010/D5/CRPA/SI2.578062
  28. 28. 28 working clothes and shoes whose use is to be limited to the CP only (or single-use disposable clothing) or walk through footbath facilities to disinfect the ir shoes before entering into the CP. Drivers have to fulfil this procedure to handle animals into the CP. A rest room should be made available to visitors and drivers so as that they can wash their hands. ●Changing rooms (Figure 8) should be made available both for CP staff, drivers and visitors (veterinarians, inspectors, etc.) in a building separated from building housing the animals. A basin with hot and cold running water, soap, disinfectants and clean towels must be available in the changing rooms. The control post shall have showers, toilets and a leisure room for drivers and a well-kept first aid kit. Figure 8. A possible layout for changing rooms and drivers facilities in a control po st. ●The control post should provide drivers with communication facilities (telephone, fax, internet connection) and a website, including: the name of the contact person of the CP, phone number, e-mail address, address, route planner, opening times, availability of facilities, language spoken, services available for the driver (sanitation, leisure facilities, etc.) and health service. A list of local medical doctors with phone numbers and contacts, and the phone contacts of local hospitals, police, fire department and veterinarians must be provided as well. GO O D HYGI ENE PRACTI C ES TO LI MI T PATHO GENS DEVELO PMENT The CP premises must be cleaned and disinfected after each transport and before any new transport is accepted: cleaning and disinfection must be done after all animals have been loaded into the truck and left the CP and before any other animal enters the premises of the CP. To prevent pathogens spreading, the CP premises should be completely cleared of animals for a period of at least 24 hours Call for proposals SANCO D5/10753/2010 Grant Agreement no. SANCO/2010/D5/CRPA/SI2.578062
  29. 29. 29 after a maximum of 6 days’ use and after cleaning and disinfecting operations have been carried out (Regulation 1255/97/EC as amended in 2003). See “Cleaning and Disinfection recommendation” sheet for detailed recommendations. A program to control pests in the CP building and related areas must be contracted by the CP owner with one local relevant company and controls be realised at least once a year. ANI MAL MANAGEMEN T TO PREVENT DI SEASES SPREADI NG Animals being transported on different trucks must be housed in different areas of the CP without direct contact between animals of different provenance: solid walls or spare pens clear of animals can be used to isolate different consignments. Unloading areas are a critical point for bio-security. During unloading and loading procedures, ways should be organized in the CP to avoid mixing or path crossing of groups of animals from various trucks. Staff should be organised to avoid the same person to handle animals from various trucks without changing clothes, and washing and disinfecting hands and any handling equipment. These areas must be cleaned and disinfected. CP W ASTE MANAGEMENT PRO CEDURE TO MI NI MI ZE ENVI RO NMENTAL HAZARDS Manure must be stored separately from the facilities that contain feed, chemicals, pharmaceuticals and bedding material, and should preferably be delivered to a manure treatment facility (fermentation). Waste water is to be stored with liquid manure, by means of appropriate storing procedure aimed to avoid environmental pollution. Chemical waste (for instance vet. pharmaceuticals, pesticides past their best before date etc.) is to be stored separately and disposed of according to local regulations. General waste is to be stored separately (containers) and disposed of according to local regulations. WHAT TO DO IF? If several trucks arrive together at CP with animals of different sanitary status: - Call for competent authorities for official recommendations. - Isolate animals with different status. If possible, keep them in different buildings or in physically isolated areas of the building. - Refuse trucks if they can cause sanitary hazards. - If a local sanitary crisis occurs when animals are expected to come to the CP. - Contact competent authorities for official recommendations. - Inform the driver and the owner of the transported animals before the consignment arrival. Use mobile disinfection systems (wheel splash-boards) when the truck enters the CP. - Refuse the truck if it can cause a sanitary hazard for the transported animals and/or for the animals already in the CP. Call for proposals SANCO D5/10753/2010 Grant Agreement no. SANCO/2010/D5/CRPA/SI2.578062
  30. 30. 30 SEL F MON ITORIN G: Management procedures. Training of CP staff for good practices and animal management procedures. Records of all sanitary information, and cleaning and disinfection of the building and equipment are to be kept in the CP register. The register must be checked before confirming any new reservation. Transport documents for sanitary status of all animals entering the CP must be checked. Refer to eLearning program at www.controlpost.eu for more information on bio-security in high quality control post. Call for proposals SANCO D5/10753/2010 Grant Agreement no. SANCO/2010/D5/CRPA/SI2.578062
  31. 31. 31 HQCP GUIDELINES: CLEANSING AND DISINFECTION WHY IS IT IMPORTAN T TO TAKE CARE OF IT? To prevent diseases and sanitary hazards, all equipment in the CP and the CP premises must be cleanable and , if necessary disinfected, including: floor materials, pen equipment, feeding and watering installations. Reminder: The CP must have a lorry wash area which must have been checked and approved by competent authorities. This area should be located close enough to the stocking area for manure so as to allow for the removal of the bedding off the truck after unloading. Waste waters must be collected according to local regulation, into a storage tank or to the sewerage system. «Every control posts must be constructed, equipped and operated as to ensure that clean sing and disinfection procedures can be carried out. A lorry wash shall be provided on the spot. Such facilities must be operational under all weather conditions» (Council Regulation (EC) No 1/2005). GOOD PRACTICES RECOMMEN DATION S BUI LDI NG CLEANI NG AND DI SI NFECTI O N The building and premises of the CP must be cleaned and disinfected before and after each use. Cleansing and disinfection must be recorded into the CP register. Bedding and manure must be thoroughly removed, scrapped and swept, after the animals have departed from the CP and they have been loaded into the truck. Then, the cleaning and the disinfection of the building and equipment must be done within 24h after the animals have left the pens. Buildings and equipment must be dry before they can be used to house animals again. Cleaning of barriers and flooring (pens and ways) should be done using high pressure water (40-200 bars, 25 to 70 l/min). Hot water is especially recommended for metallic barriers but it is not necessary and should be used with caution. Before cleaning, it can be useful to soak those items that are to be cleaned, in order to facilitate the process. Moreover, foaming can improve the washing. When pens wall and barriers are clean and still humid, disinfection must be carried out. Authorized disinfectant products should be sprayed according to fabricant recommendations. Only authorised products (under national agreements) can be used: for national lists of products, refer to official veterinarian and check for AFNOR reference (NFT 72-150/151, 72-170/171, 72-200/201, 72-180/181). EQUI PMENT CLEANSI NG AND DI SI NFECTI O N Cleaning of drinkers and feeders can be done according to the same procedures described for partitions, floors and walls using warm high pressure water, or if possible by soaking equipment for 20 to 30 minutes in warm water before pressure cleaning. Then disinfection should be carried out by soaking the equipment in authorized products (refer to local official vets). To complete the procedure, rinse each item with water. When the CP is equipped for calves feeding, it is important not to forget to clean and disinfect the whole system: from the tank to prepare the artificial milk to the equipment to deliver the artificial milk into the feeders, including pipes. Call for proposals SANCO D5/10753/2010 Grant Agreement no. SANCO/2010/D5/CRPA/SI2.578062
  32. 32. 32 TRUCKS CLEANSI NG AND DI SI NFECTI O N Lorry wash areas should be 25 m long to be suitable to the dimensions of the trucks, with a 5 to 7% slope to conduct waste water to the relevant collecting system (Figure 9). Cleaning and disinfection area should be free of obstacles around the truck for at least 2 meters. Lighting must be available at night time; 400 lux should be provided at the level of objects to be cleaned. All washing facilities and products must be kept close and protected from weather. Upper decks must be cleaned first to avoid afterward contamination. Figure 9. Recommendations for truck washing areas. Trucks are to be cleansed directly after unloading, before they enter the overnight parking space. Dirty bedding should be first removed from the truck and stored into the manure treatment facility or in the manure stocking area. Then the truck compartment should be cleansed, preferably using high pressure warm water (>70 bars). During the cleansing, it is recommended that the driver wears protective waterproof clothes. When the walls and compartment barriers are clean and still humid, disinfection can be done using authorised disinfectant products. Disinfection is compulsory only at the end of the transport. The cleaning and disinfection place must have sufficient (hot and cold) water available (volume, pressure) to clean the maximum number of trucks that can be hosted at the CP each day. Drivers must keep a record of each cleaning/disinfection procedure indicating the trade name of the disinfectant product used and the doses. STO CKI NG O F CLEANSI NG EQUI PMENT AND O F DI SI NFECTANT PRO DUCTS Cleansing equipment (clothes, gloves, boots…) should be kept clean and stored into a reserved area (storing closet in the building or storing premises close to the lorry wash). Disinfectant products must be kept locked in a dedicated closet with all relevant indications of use. WHAT TO DO IF? If animals remain in the CP after the truck has departed (e.g. injured animals, or animals unfit for transport), they must be kept in a separated building, away from washed and disinfected areas. Local Call for proposals SANCO D5/10753/2010 Grant Agreement no. SANCO/2010/D5/CRPA/SI2.578062
  33. 33. 33 competent authorities must be kept informed. No disinfection should be carried out when animals are inside a building. SEL F MON ITORIN G: Cleaning and disinfection standardised procedures. It is necessary to keep record of the operations of cleaning and disinfection of the building and of the equipment. Such records are to be kept in the CP register. The register must be checked before confirming any new reservation. Records of cleaning (and disinfection, if applicable) of the trucks are to be kept in the CP register. A copy of the record is to be made available to the driver. Call for proposals SANCO D5/10753/2010 Grant Agreement no. SANCO/2010/D5/CRPA/SI2.578062