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Wireless for Stationary Applications


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Many more useful measurements could be taken in discrete manufacturing and process plant applications without the expense and labor related to wire and cables for some hard-to-reach applications. Wiring in manufacturing or process-plant settings, with the accompanying complex supporting infrastructure and labor, drops from high ceilings or trenching can add 10-fold or more to installation costs. It doesn’t have to be that way. Industrial wireless technologies can provide cost-effective reliable communications. Key considerations and application examples will be discussed by Dan Capano, owner and president of Diversified Technical Services Inc. Mark T. Hoske, content manager and editor with Control Engineering, will explain wireless trends based on Control Engineering research and will moderate the webcast.

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Wireless for Stationary Applications

  1. 1. Wireless for Stationary Applications Sponsored by:
  2. 2. Speakers for this webcast 2 Daniel E. Capano, CWNA Owner and President, Diversified Technical Services ... has more than 30 years of experience providing instrumentation and electrical consulting services to municipalities and clients in the private sector. He has been published extensively, including a textbook, “Network Cabling for Contractors,” in 2000, and contributing to “The Instrument Engineer's Handbook,” providing chapters detailing the use of proprietary data buses and wireless networking technology. Capano is owner and president of Diversified Technical Services Inc., of Stamford, Conn., providing technical services and staffing to the water treatment industry since 1997. He also serves as the president of the New York Section of the ISA and vice-chair of the Stamford Water Pollution Control Authority. He is a Certified Wireless Network Administrator (CWNA). Moderator: Mark T. Hoske Content Manager, Control Engineering, CFE Media
  3. 3. Control Engineering research, November 2013 Mobility, Ethernet, and Wireless Study: Wireless results Mark T. Hoske Content Manager Control Engineering, CFE Media
  4. 4. Executive summary: Wireless research Control Engineering identified the following trends about integration, use, and spending for wireless technologies and how they help users of automation, controls, and instrumentation to be more productive. • More than 25% of respondents use, specify, or expect to specify five wireless products; 46% do so for routers. Eighty-one percent of respondents have some familiarity or consider themselves to be experts with wireless devices. • Most used wireless protocols: IEEE 802.11n (WLAN) (58%), Bluetooth (50%), and IEEE 802.11g (43%); 20% or more use eight wireless protocols. • A strong correlation exists between wireless spending and productivity. Just over half of respondents expect their wireless products and services spending to increase next year and expect that productivity resulting from wireless will increase. • More than half of respondents reported that wireless is either somewhat or highly integrated with their controls, automation, and instrumentation at their locations. Only 23% felt wireless integration was easy; more than one-third called it difficult or worse. • Greatest wireless benefit is data access (59%); also important are productivity increases (41%), followed closely by cost savings, time savings, and ease of use. • Challenges are security, no capital budget, lack of training to support adoption or integration, need for use cases, and no integration or services budget.
  5. 5. Wireless products specified, expertise
  6. 6. Wireless research: Protocols
  7. 7. Wireless research: Spending, productivity
  8. 8. Wireless research: system integration
  9. 9. Wireless research: Wireless benefits
  10. 10. Wireless research: Challenges
  11. 11. Wireless Networking Technology Benefits and Applications Daniel E. Capano Owner and President Diversified Technical Services
  12. 12. Pervasive computing means: WIRELESS IS EVERYWHERE Network coverage will vary.  Wide area networks – WAN  Metropolitan area networks – MAN  Local area networks – LAN  Personal area networks – PAN Users demand mobility and access!
  13. 13. Mobility BYOD – bring your own device Mobile data access is a way of life. Mobile devices are getting smaller and ubiquitous.
  14. 14. Wi-Fi then In 1997 Wi-Fi was: • Slow and unreliable • An unsecured network segment – open to hackers and denial of services Today: Wi-Fi still suffers from the stigma of being untrusted.
  15. 15. Wi-Fi now By 2012, Wi-Fi was: Fast and reliable Secure and protected Capacity and coverage are the next challenges.
  16. 16. Projections By 2015: • 80% of all data and voice will be carried by the wireless medium • Home appliances will be wirelessly connected • Cars will be wirelessly connected • Wired telephones will be nearly extinct • What's a fax machine?
  17. 17. Wireless applications  Data – internet, email, messaging  Voice – cellular/Wi-Fi convergence, VOIP (voice over Internet protocol)  Video – streaming anywhere  Surveillance – cameras, home awareness  Tracking – real time location services  Inventory – radio frequency identification (RFID), barcode  Process monitoring and control, SCADA  High density multimedia delivery  Providing connectivity in difficult applications: historic, finished, sensitive.
  18. 18. Where can Wi-Fi be used? Short answer: Everywhere! • Offices: replace/enhance existing wired network • Warehouses: stock inventory and tracking  Retail: customer tracking, targeted marketing  Auditoriums: multimedia/lecture notes  Stadiums: multimedia/advertising/services  Classrooms: course material/textbook delivery  Hotels: widespread use as a value-added service  Hospitals: patient, equipment and billing updates  Nursing homes: patient tracking and monitoring  Auto rental/dealers: track fleet on and off lot  Dormitories: Internet and email, communication  Public spaces: public Wi-Fi, targeted marketing.
  19. 19. What exactly is Wi-Fi? Uses radio frequency (RF) spectrum as transmission medium An “unbounded” medium as opposed to a wired “bounded” medium There are many different and competing technologies:  Ethernet – traditional wired computer network  Bluetooth – short range, low power technology  Z-Wave – mesh network used for home automation  ZigBee – IEEE standard, not widely adopted. IEEE 802.11 Wi-Fi has become the de facto networking standard.
  20. 20. IEEE standards  Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers  Standardizes features and functionality  Provides a framework for development and enhancement  Allows for a common set of capabilities, eliminating proprietary operation  Promotes interoperability.
  21. 21. Evolution of Wi-Fi • The IEEE 802 project: begun in February 1980. • It was responsible for developing computer networking standards. • Wi-Fi standard is 802.11, released in 1994. • First standard was slow and sloppy. 802.11a/b released in 1997 – fast and slow 802.11g released in 2004 – fast 802.11n released in 2010 – very fast 802.11ac released in 2012 – lightning fast.
  22. 22. Wi-Fi Alliance ... is the other big player in the wireless industry. • Provides certification testing to confirm standards compliance and interoperability • Provides the Wi-Fi certified logo to devices that comply with standards of interoperability.
  23. 23. Speed The first big hurdle: IEEE 802.11 operated at 2 Mbps 802.11a operates at 54 Mbps 802.11b operates at 11 Mbps 802.11g operates at 54 Mbps 802.11n operates at 450 Mbps 802.11ac will operate at 7 Gbps 802.11af (White-Fi) will operate at 570 Mbps 802.11ad (WiGig) will operate at 7 Mbps.
  24. 24. Security The biggest obstacle to wireless deployment The wireless network segment was untrusted. It was vulnerable and open. Now, it is secure and reliable.
  25. 25. Network reliability • Good design makes for a reliable network. • Good design balances coverage and capacity. • Users need mobility and portability. • Delivery of quality data and multimedia demand a high quality of service (QoS). More users = More traffic = Network congestion = POOR QoS Multiple channels and wireless access points (APs) make a reliable wireless network possible.
  26. 26. Inflection points Security: IEEE 802.11-2007  802.11i – robust security networks  Mutual authentication key concept  Fixed the early security flaws Speed: 802.11g/n/ac  5x – 10x throughput  QoS enhancements  Wider bandwidth  Use of multiple radios and data streams  Wireless will surpass wired speeds by 2015.
  27. 27. Radio spectrum Wi-Fi operates in unlicensed spectrum  ISM band - Industrial, Scientific and Medical: 2.4-2.5 GHz  UNII band – Unlicensed National Information Infrastructure band: 5.1-5.8 GHz  ISM band is typically used for local connection, UNII band is used for backhaul or long haul.
  28. 28. ISM band channels The ISM band allows 11 channels in U.S., 13 in Europe and Israel, 14 in Japan  Channels 22 MHz wide  Only three non-overlapping channels – 1, 6, 11 – Channels must have 25 MHz separation  Co-channel interference results from radios on same channel  Adjacent channel interference results from overlapping channels.
  29. 29. UNII band channels UNII band allows 23 non-overlapping channels  Channels are 20 MHz wide  Four separate sub-bands: UNII-1,2,2e,3  Lower, lower middle, upper middle, upper  UNII-2&2e use TPC (transmit power control) and DFS (dynamic frequency selection) to avoid interference with commercial and weather radar  Power is limited by band.
  30. 30. Network architectures Autonomous: • Independent access points (APs) • All intelligence resides in the AP Ad hoc: • Wireless device to device • Wireless device-to-device connection without AP • Personal “hotspot” Controller based: • Uses a central controller to manage network • Uses “lightweight” AP at network “edge” • Single point of failure Cooperative: • Distributed management, “cloud based” and off-site • Intelligence sharing among APs • De-centralized management.
  31. 31. Multipath: The last frontier Multiple signals arrive at the receiver at different times because of reflections  Reflections cause data corruption – echoes and ghosts – results in increased data overhead  IEEE 802.11n radios combine signals either constructively or destructively to increase reliability  Pre-IEEE 802.11n radios suffered from multipath problems.
  32. 32. MIMO: Multiple in, multiple out The cure for multipath is to use IT. • MIMO uses combinational algorithms to utilize multipath • Can increase throughput by sending multiple “spatial streams” 3x3:3 = 3 transmitters + 3 receivers using 3 separate radio links (chains, or “spatial streams”) IEEE 802.11n is 4X4:4; 802.11ac will eventually be 8X8:8.
  33. 33. Comparative costs: Wired vs. wireless Wired: requires cable ($), conduit($), routers ($), installation($$$), termination($$), configuration($), testing($), long-term maintenance($), costly replacement/upgrade($$$) = ($$$$$$$$$$$$$$$) Wireless: requires access points (APs)($$), mounting of APs($), plug in Ethernet to one AP($), configuration($) = ($$$$$)  There is a real potential of 50-75% savings in installation costs alone  ROI (return on investment) is faster than physical infrastructure network  Long term costs – very low cost of ownership  Replacement or upgrade costs negligible  No maintenance costs.
  34. 34. Ironically, wireless still needs wires  At least one access point (AP) needs to be connected to the wired infrastructure  Wired/fiber distribution system (WDS) still needed for enterprise network connectivity  After root AP is connected, WDS can be achieved without additional wiring using a wireless management system (WMS)  Mesh systems form self-routing and healing networks, greatly improving speed and reliability – scalable up or down as required  Wireless bridges connect physically separated WDS  Most facilities have existing wired backbone.
  35. 35. APs still need power • Access points still need to be powered • AC power is an option where available, but not essential • Using Power over Ethernet – PoE – power can be sent over existing CAT5/6 to power devices • Delivers 30 W@48 V dc dynamically configured • PoE eliminates the need for providing ac power at the remote location • Dramatic savings in cost, especially for remote locations.
  36. 36. Cost estimate for wire and conduit in a 300 ft trench Excavation 140 yards: $6500 Saw cut 300 ft pavement: $3000 Stone base: $1000 Backfill: $4500 Patching: $3500 Conduit and cable: $500 Router and accessories: $600 Electricians: 5 worker days @ $1120/day = $5600 Grand total: $25,200* *Does not include design services, appurtenances, management and IT configuration; costs can increase depending on conditions, other utilities, and environment. Maximum distance for data/PoE is 330 ft because of restrictions on length of Ethernet segment.
  37. 37. Cost estimate 300 ft wireless outdoor link Design/site surveys: $2500 Access points (APs): 2@$800 = $1600 Labor (mounting APs, attaching cables): $1120 (1 day) IT configuration: $1200 Grand total: $6420 • Additional coverage only requires additional AP • Only one AP needs to be physically networked • Distance restriction is not an issue – Theoretically unlimited range with multiple APs. • APs can use PoE, local power, battery or solar • Unlimited number of wireless devices can access the medium without “plugging in.”
  38. 38. Cost analysis summary for a 300 ft link Wired link: $25,200 Wireless link: $6420 A savings of $18,780, or about 4:1, resulting in a 74.5% savings on installed costs.
  39. 39. Wireless hotspot deployment  Coverage model is based on coverage, not capacity  Use of a captive portal provides access control and revenue  User security not provided  Users are transient  Commonly used as a marketing tool by retailers.
  40. 40. Auditorium/ stadium deployment model  Coverage and capacity are primary design goals  Many access points (APs) are required to keep the user/AP ratio as low as possible  Requires use of directional antennas to control AP use  Attenuation from bodies becomes a factor  Security is mandatory; system must prohibit device to device connectivity  Fosters “augmented reality.”
  41. 41. Classroom deployment model  Coverage is primary design goal, capacity close second, but crucial in terms of multimedia  Attenuation from bodies becomes a large factor in AP placement  Radio frequency (RF) must be contained in classroom to avoid adjoining classroom interference  Directional antennas and transmission power control required  Allows for scalable and flexible options for educators: new students and devices easily accommodated.
  42. 42. Bridging and point-to-point links  Connects networks in different physical locations  Connects multiple buildings without trenching or overhead wiring  Connects a wired direct sequence (DS) to a wireless DS or vice versa  Connectivity to areas where wiring is cost prohibitive  Theoretically no limit to length of wireless link.
  43. 43. Case study: Stamford WPCA  Proposed solution for replacement of aging and unreliable wired plant using a wireless network  Delivery of data, voice and video to process locations  Scalable architecture, low cost for expansion  Short and long term cost savings for maintenance, communications, labor  ROI immediate – savings in labor offsets equipment costs  Flexibility in process measurement design  Integration into supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) systems  Wireless communication can be “sculpted” to match fence line to avoid spillover to surrounding businesses  Wireless and instrument vendors provided equipment for proof of concept  WirelessHART technology key to instrument interface  Project started in April, will run for three months.
  44. 44. Stamford Water Pollution Control Authority (WPCA) facility
  45. 45. Case study: Stamford WPCA Phase one – proof of concept
  46. 46. Case study: Stamford WPCA Phase 2 – full deployment
  47. 47. Site survey  Predictive vs. manual survey  Predictive done off site, manual on site  Planning software: GIGO – garbage in, garbage out  Manual surveys will identify sources of interference and other networks  Interference is the chief cause of network connectivity and capacity problems  Attenuation of common items:  Concrete: -10 dB to - 30 dB, stair towers, elevator shafts  Sheetrock: -3 dB, partition walls  Windows: -3 dB to -6 dB  Free air: -60 dB at 100 m (330 ft)  Human body: -3 dB to -6 dB.
  48. 48. Pre- and post-deployment surveys • Pre-deployment surveys can be either predictive or manual • Post-deployment are always manual surveys used to check predictions and to tweak the network • Post-deployment should be done under actual business conditions, not on a Sunday • Surveys are essential for good design and performance • Periodic survey/audit should be performed yearly – conditions change.
  49. 49. Future of wireless  IEEE 802.11ac: Multi-Gigabit, wide bandwidth, will eventually surpass wired networks  802.11ad: 60 GHz spectrum, multi-Gigabit, wide bandwidth, very short range  802,11af (White-Fi), uses the white space in TV transmissions for high rate long distance transmission.
  50. 50. Speakers for this webcast: Q&A session 50 Daniel E. Capano, CWNA Owner and president Diversified Technical Services 917-940-8235 Moderator: Mark T. Hoske Content Manager, Control Engineering, CFE Media NEW: Industrial Wireless Tutorials blog
  51. 51. Wireless for Stationary Applications Sponsored by: