HVAC: ASHRAE 62.1, 62.2 and Air Movement


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Achieving good indoor air quality (IAQ) in nonresidential and low-rise residential buildings requires designers to understand and balance many HVAC system parameters. Following the ASHRAE standards that apply to ventilation, air movement, and exhausting of contaminants ensures that IAQ requirements will be met. A well-designed HVAC system must provide sufficient air flow, control moisture and contaminants in building assemblies and mechanical systems, limit contaminants from indoor and outdoor sources, meet system performance requirements, and minimize lifecycle costs.

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  • 62-73 had 14 definitions62.1-2010 has 34
  • Common Sense issues that could undermine the air quality in the space if not addressed.
  • Common Sense issues that could undermine the air quality in the space if not addressed.
  • Common Sense issues that could undermine the air quality in the space if not addressed.
  • Common Sense issues that could undermine the air quality in the space if not addressed.
  • Common Sense issues that could undermine the air quality in the space if not addressed.
  • Common Sense issues that could undermine the air quality in the space if not addressed.
  • Common Sense issues that could undermine the air quality in the space if not addressed.
  • HVAC: ASHRAE 62.1, 62.2 and Air Movement

    1. 1. HVAC: ASHRAE62.1, 62.2, and AirMovementSponsored by:
    2. 2. Related information regarding the webcast:• Presentation: http://www.csemag.com/index.php?id=7539• CEU Exam: http://www.csemag.com/index.php?id=7549• Learn more about Armacell: http://bit.ly/107svbe• Learn more about Siemens:http://www.usa.siemens.com/hvac• For more information on another Consulting-SpecifyingEngineer webcast visit http://www.csemag.com/media-library/webcasts.html
    3. 3. AIA CES learning units (LU)To obtain AIA CES learning units:• Go to the “Links” tab and click on the exam link• Take a 10-question exam for 1 LU (learning unit)• Get 8 answers correct to pass• Certificate available to download once you pass• You must be registered for the Webcast to take the examand qualify for continuing education credits• If attending as a guest of a registrant:• Access the archive at www.csemag.com• Complete the registration form• View the archive and download slides• Take the exam to obtain learning units (LU)
    4. 4. Quality AssuranceConsulting-Specifying Engineer, as a publication of CFEMedia, is registered provider J619 with The American Institute ofArchitects Continuing Education Systems. Credit earned oncompletion of this program will be reported to CES Records forAIA members. Certificates of Completion for non-AIA membersare available on request.This program is registered with the AIA/CES for continuingprofessional education. As such, it does not include content thatmay be deemed or construed to be an approval or endorsementby the AIA of any material of construction or any method ormanner of handling, using, distributing, or dealing in any materialor product.Questions related to specific materials, methods, and serviceswill be addressed at the conclusion of this presentation.
    5. 5. Speakers:• David Okada, PE, LEED AP,Arup, Seattle• Peter D. Zak, PE,Graef-USA Inc., Milwaukee• Jack Smith, Consulting- SpecifyingEngineer and CFE Media LLC
    6. 6. HVAC: ASHRAE62.1, 62.2, and AirMovement
    7. 7. ASHRAE Std. 62.1 PrimerDavid Okada, PE, LEED APArupSeattle
    8. 8. What is Good Air Quality?
    9. 9. Acceptable Air Quality“provide indoor air quality that isacceptable to human occupants and thatminimizes adverse health effects”
    10. 10. Guidelines for Air Quality• ASHRAE 62.1 Commercial/Institutionalbuildings/High-rise Residential• ASHRAE 62.2 Residences• ASHRAE/ASHE 170 Healthcare• Other Standards- Labs, Industrial• Local Codes• LEED IAQ Credits
    11. 11. Ventilation History051015202530351820 1840 1860 1880 1900 1920 1940 1960 1980 2000VentilationRate(CFM/Person)ASHVE RESEARCH (1936)Yaglou, Riley and Coggins1836 Thomas TregoldPublishes first ventrequirement formine workersStd A53.(1946)ENERGY CRISISSICK BUILDING‘EPIDEMIC’Crimean WarUS Civil WarStd 62-73
    12. 12. Outdoor Air QualityInvestigation• Regional Air Quality• Document Local Survey• Discuss with owner’s rep.
    13. 13. Outdoor Air QualityRegional Air QualityCarbon MonoxideLeadNitrogen DioxideParticulate (PM10)Particulate (PM 2.5)OzoneSulfur Oxideshttp://www.epa.gov/air/criteria.html
    14. 14. Outdoor Air QualityInvestigation• Regional Air Quality• Local Survey• Discuss with owner’s rep.
    15. 15. Intake and Relief RequirementsOutdoor Air Quality- Location
    16. 16. Air Classes and Recirculation• “Class 1: Air with low contaminantconcentration, low sensory-irritationintensity, and inoffensive odor.”• Most regularly occupied spaces such asoffices, classrooms, bedrooms, livingrooms, courtrooms, libraries, supermarkets• Can be recirculated anywhere
    17. 17. Air Classes and Recirculation• “Class 2: Air with moderate contaminantconcentration, mild sensory-irritationintensity, or mildly offensive odors. . . orinappropriate for transfer or recirculation tospaces used for different purposes.”• Restaurants, commerciallaundry, warehouses, retail, barbershops, fitness clubs, parking garages• Can recirculate to Class 2, or 3 spaces withsimilar pollutant sources, and Class 4 spaces
    18. 18. Air Classes and Recirculation• “Class 3: Air with significant contaminantconcentration, significant sensory-irritationintensity, or offensive odor.• Daycare Sickroom, RefrigerationMachinery rooms, Janitor Closets, TrashRooms, General Manufacturing• Recirculation only within room of origin.
    19. 19. Air Classes and Recirculation• “Class 4: Air with highly objectionablefumes or gases or with potentiallydangerous particles, bioaerosols, orgases, at concentrations high enough tobe considered harmful.”• Commercial kitchen grease hoods, Paintspray booths, chemical storage rooms• No Recirculation
    20. 20. Air Classes and RecirculationHeat Recovery Exceptions:• Up to 10% leakage/carryover of Class 2air to outdoor air serving Class 1 space.• Up to 5% leakage/carryover of Class 3 airinto outdoor air serving Class 1 space.
    21. 21. Procedures• Natural Ventilation• Ventilation Rate• Indoor Air Quality
    22. 22. Natural Ventilation ProcedureFree area ≥ 4% of Net Occupiable Floor areaSingle sided:max distance to window = 2x room heightDouble sided:max distance to window = 5x room heightCorners:Ventilated area must be within 5x of line connectingmost distant windowsReadily Accessible & Controlled to work
    23. 23. Ventilation Rate Procedure
    24. 24. AzPzRpRa
    25. 25. Ez Standard Overhead MixingOverhead HeatingUFAD-Cooling ModeDisplacement-Cooling ModeDisplacement-Heating ModeSide Transfer
    26. 26. Ventilation Rate ProcedureAll you need forDOAS andSingle Zone SystemsMultiple Zone VAVSystemsControl for meetingvent requirements inall zonesDiversitySystem EffectivenessTable 6-3 or Appendix ASum for all zones
    27. 27. Ventilation Rate Procedure
    28. 28. General Requirements• Exhaust Rates• Design for Air Balancing• Ventilate Each Space• Document Minimum Air Flows• Rain & Snow Intrusion• Controls for all occupied conditions• Mold Resistant Materials• Drain Pan Provisions• Distribution System and Coil Access• Construction IAQ• . . .
    29. 29. Conclusion• The ASHRAE 62.1 Standard addressesacceptable indoor Air Quality in many buildingtypes• Investigate Outdoor Air Quality• Pay attention to Air Classes• For Ventilation Rate procedure, considercontrollability when selecting systems• Ensure good ventilation and efficiency at bothpart load and design conditions• Many good practical details in the Standard
    30. 30. Sponsored by:Referenceshttps://ashrae.org/ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 62.1-2010Standard 62.1-2010 User’s Manual(ISBN: 9781933742984)Janssen, John E., “The History of Ventilation and TemperatureControl” ASHRAE Journal. September 1999: 47-52http://www.epa.gov/iaq/largebldgs/i-beam/index.html
    31. 31. HVAC: ASHRAE62.1, 62.2, and AirMovement
    32. 32. ASHRAE Std. 62.2 OverviewPeter D. Zak, PEGraef-USA Inc.Milwaukee
    33. 33. Why 62.2• 62.1 defines airflow/quantity based onoccupancy and use• 62.1 basis is more appropriate forcommercial/institutional buildings• 62.2 is ASHRAE response for a need toprovide guidance with respect toresidential facilities
    34. 34. The Role of 62.2• Defines minimum requirements forresidential ventilation and exhaustsystems• Defines minimum requirements forbuilding envelope• By defining a set of minimum guidelinesthe intended outcome is to provide anacceptable indoor air quality andreasonable energy efficiency
    35. 35. Standard 62.2 does provide guidelines for:• Specific sources of pollution(gas, solvents, voc, etc.)• Outdoor contamination sources (air pollution)• Occupant created pollution(smoking, cleaning agents, painting, etc.)• Recommended ventilation rates• Exhaust systems• General duct sizing• Fan sound ratings
    36. 36. Three primary sets of requirements• Whole house ventilation– Dilute air born contaminants• Local exhaust– Remove contaminants from specific roomssuch as bathrooms, kitchen and garage• Source control– Devise methods to prevent pollutants frombeing released
    37. 37. Ventilation rate guidelines• Based on formula Qfan = 0.01Afloor + 7.5 (Nbr+1)– Qfan = fan flow rate– Afloor = floor area– Nbr = number of bedrooms• Final value must be equal to or greater thanvalues published in Table 4.1a or 4.1b• For example:– 2600 sf home with 3 bedrooms requires 0.01(2600) + 7.5 (3+1) = 56 CFM, from Table 4.1arequired airflow is 60 CFM
    38. 38. There is a default credit for buildinginfiltration of 2 CFM/100 sf ofoccupied floor space, thepotential total ventilation air wouldbe 110.0 CFM
    39. 39. Stack EffectAir pressure patternsin buildings caused bybuilding heat and airflow around building.Force of air exfiltrationincreases with buildingheight.Infiltration forceincreases with depth.
    40. 40. • Systems – Whole house ventilation– Supply exhaust fan– Controls– Assumes system is on continuously• Intermittent operation must meet effectiveventilation rate Qf = Qv/(Ɛƒ)– Qf = fan capacity (ventilation)– Qv – ventilation required (Table 4.1a/4.1b)– Ɛ ventilation effectiveness (Table 4.2)– ƒ = fractional on time (determines effectiveness)
    41. 41. • Using previous example and assuming thefan is on 50% of the time Qf = 60/.5 = 120CFM• Suggest that the process operating at 50%of the time will require twice as muchventilation air to dilute any contaminatedair
    42. 42. Exceptions to whole building mechanical systems must meetone of the following criteria:• The building is in zone 3B or 3C off theIECC climate zone map• There is no mechanical cooling and is inzone 1 or 2 of the IECC climate zone map• The building is conditioned for humanoccupancy for 876 hours per year or less
    43. 43. Climatic system restrictions• Purpose is to prevent moisture damage andcontrol energy efficiency• Based on Table 8.1 and 8.2 list of cities• Hot humid climates– Net building exhaust shall not exceed 7.5 CFM/100 sf• Very cold climates– Mechanical supply system shall not exceed 7.5CFM/100 sf• Strategies are subject to review and final approvalof the Authority Having Jurisdiction
    44. 44. Alabama:• Mobile• Selma• MontgomeryArkansas:• TexarkanaFlorida:• Apalachicola• Daytona• Jacksonville• Miami• Orlando• Pensacola• Tallahassee• TampaGeorgia:• Savannah• ValdostaHawaii:• Hilo• Honolulu• Lihue• KahuluiLouisiana:• Baton Rouge• Lake Charles• New Orleans• ShreveportMississippi:• Biloxi• Gulfport• JacksonNorth Carolina:• WilmingtonSouth Carolina:• Charleston• Myrtle BeachTexas:• Austin• Beaumont• Brownsville• Corpus Christi• Dallas• Houston• Galveston• San Antonio• WacoHot, humid U.S. climatesBased on ASHRAE 62.2, Table 8.1
    45. 45. Alaska:• Anchorage• FairbanksMaine:• CaribouMichigan:• Marquette• Sault Ste.MarieVery cold U.S. citiesBased on ASHRAE 62.2, Table 8.2Minnesota:• Duluth• InternationalFallsNorth Dakota:• Fargo• Grand Forks• Williston
    46. 46. Exhaust Systems• Required in kitchens and bathrooms as minimumrequirement• Intermittent flow must meet requirements ofsection 5.1• Continuous flow must meet requirements ofsection 5.2• Ventilation air quantity must be equal to or greaterthan exhaust air flow• Allowed controls are intermittent or continuous• System designed to operate during occupiedhours
    47. 47. Requirements and considerations• Air cannot be transferred dwelling todwelling• Equipment must have labels whichdescribe operating instructions• Clothes dryers must be vented outdoors• Solid fuel burning appliances (fire place)need adequate combustion air
    48. 48. • Air contamination from a garage or similarspace to occupied space is prohibited• Air supplied to an occupied space viaductwork exceeding 10’-0” in length mustbe filtered with a minimum MERV 6 filter• Air inlets and sources of contaminationshall be minimum
    49. 49. Air Moving Equipment• Guidelines set by Home VentilatingInstitute• Prescriptive duct sizing (generalguidelines)• Sound ratings for fans (Sones) 1= low, 10= high
    50. 50. Things to Consider• Be aware of outdoor air source, which canbe more contaminated than indoor air• Relationship of intake and exhaust withrespect to each other• In ideal world building pressure will beneutral
    51. 51. • When possible use sealed or separatedcombustion appliances• Whenever possible use air to air heatexchanger• Humidity control in cold climates is critical
    52. 52. • In warmer climates be aware of ventilationair moisture content• Part of the air conditioning (coolingprocess) is to remove the moisture formthe space (latent cooling)• High levels of moisture will condense oncold ductwork/pipes etc.
    53. 53. Conclusion• Codes and standards outline minimumrequirements• Be aware of other factors/process that willeffect environment• Strive for balance/neutral pressure• Be aware of thermal envelope characteristics• Leave some room/capacity in design ifmodifications are required
    54. 54. Submitting Questions, Exit Survey and ArchiveQuestion?Type your question in the “Questions & Answers” box on theWebcast console and click “Send.” We will get to as manyquestions as we have time for.Exit Survey:Please take a moment to answer a few questions on our exitsurvey that should pop up on your screen. We use the answersto help make improvements to our webcast program.Archive:• Within 7 days, an archive with Q&A will be posted• We will send an email to registered attendees withhyperlink• Can also access from www.csemag.com home page
    55. 55. Speakers:• David Okada, PE, LEED AP,Arup, Seattle• Peter D. Zak, PE,Graef-USA Inc., Milwaukee• Jack Smith, Consulting- SpecifyingEngineer and CFE Media LLC
    56. 56. Today’s Webcast Sponsors
    57. 57. HVAC: ASHRAE62.1, 62.2, and AirMovementSponsored by: