Critical Power: StandbyVersus Emergency PowerSystemsSponsored by:
Related information regarding the webcast:• Presentation: http://www.csemag.com/index.php?id=7095#25999• CEU Exam: http://...
AIA CES learning units (LU)To obtain AIA CES learning units:• Go to the “Links” tab and click on the exam link• Take a 10-...
Quality AssuranceConsulting-Specifying Engineer, as a publication of CFE Media,is registered provider J619 with The Americ...
Speakers:• Gerald Versluys, PE, LEED AP,TLC Engineering for Architecture,Jacksonville, Fla.• Dwayne Miller, PE, RCDD,JBA C...
Critical Power: StandbyVersus Emergency PowerSystems
Hospital GeneratorsGerald VersluysPE, LEED AP,TLC Engineering for ArchitectureJacksonville, Fla.
Hospital GeneratorsTypically, code officials focus on the installationand accessories• Generator accessories are all manda...
Hospital GeneratorsTraditional branches found in a hospital• Life safety• Critical• Equipment• Standby (NFPA 99 - Level 2)
Hospital GeneratorsTraditional hospital design• Typically uses open contact transfer switches.• There is a single transfer...
Hospital GeneratorsTransfer switch types• Bypass Isolation required for maintenance onloads that can‟t be interrupted (i.e...
Hospital GeneratorsDetermining „N‟– A single generator must be sized for life safetyand critical loads (rare exceptions).–...
Hospital GeneratorsEquipment and Level 2 loads• This can be served by a second paralleled 480 Vgenerator• Or any other tec...
Hospital GeneratorsSize of hospital generator is normally dictatedby size of largest transfer switches – not thetotal load...
Hospital GeneratorsCode required testing• NFPA 99– Requires a 12 load tests per year» Minimum interval of 20 days» Maximum...
Hospital GeneratorsWhy does testing matter?• Because the generator spends the majority of itslife (hours) serving this fun...
Hospital GeneratorsWhat is the impact on the generator design?• Any given day the life safety and critical loadswill only ...
Hospital GeneratorsWhat is the impact on the generator design?• That means that if the generator wasspecified at 125% of t...
Hospital GeneratorsSolving two problems at once• Hospital clients are finally recognizing thevalue of full-back-up power (...
Hospital GeneratorsSolving two problems at once• It‟s becoming common to add a manualconnection to back-feed the main serv...
Hospital GeneratorsChallenges for an island design• Selective overcurrent protection is still theguiding principal.• The n...
Critical Power: StandbyVersus Emergency PowerSystems
EMERGENCY VERSUS STANDBY SYSTEMSLarge Scale Hotel/Casino/ResortDwayne Miller, PE, RCDD,JBA Consulting EngineersLas Vegas, ...
EMERGENCY VERSUS STANDBY SYSTEMSLarge Scale Hotel/Casino/Resort• NEC 700 Emergency Prescriptive• NEC 701 Legally Required ...
EMERGENCY VERSUS STANDBY SYSTEMSLarge Scale Hotel/Casino/ResortNEC 700 Emergency• Purpose – loads essential for safety to ...
EMERGENCY VERSUS STANDBY SYSTEMSLarge Scale Hotel/Casino/ResortNEC 701 Legally Required• Purpose - avoid hazards or hamper...
EMERGENCY VERSUS STANDBY SYSTEMSLarge Scale Hotel/Casino/ResortNEC 702 Optional Standby• Purpose - intended to supply load...
EMERGENCY VERSUS STANDBY SYSTEMSLarge Scale Hotel/Casino/Resort• Distributed systems– Multiple generators– Independent sub...
EMERGENCY VERSUS STANDBY SYSTEMSLarge Scale Hotel/Casino/ResortDistributed systems• Dedicated to portion of facility• Sing...
EMERGENCY VERSUS STANDBY SYSTEMSLarge Scale Hotel/Casino/ResortParallel/aggregate bus system• Robust load response• Load p...
EMERGENCY VERSUS STANDBY SYSTEMSLarge Scale Hotel/Casino/ResortDesign considerations• Code requirements: NEC 700, NEC 701,...
EMERGENCY VERSUS STANDBY SYSTEMSLarge Scale Hotel/Casino/ResortGenerator sizing/system capacity• NEC 700.5 (A) entire emer...
EMERGENCY VERSUS STANDBY SYSTEMSLarge Scale Hotel/Casino/ResortDeployment• Factory acceptance testing• Field commissioning...
EMERGENCY VERSUS STANDBY SYSTEMSLarge Scale Hotel/Casino/ResortTesting• Code requirements- NFPA 110- NEC 700.4- NEC 701.5-...
Submitting Questions, Exit Survey and ArchiveQuestion?Type your question in the “Questions & Answers” box on theWebcast co...
Speakers:• Gerald Versluys, PE, LEED AP,TLC Engineering for Architecture,Jacksonville, Fla.• Dwayne Miller, PE, RCDD,JBA C...
Critical Power: StandbyVersus Emergency PowerSystemsSponsored by:
Critical Power: Standby versus emergency power systems
Critical Power: Standby versus emergency power systems
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Critical Power: Standby versus emergency power systems

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Standby and emergency power systems provide power to ensure that life safety systems and critical equipment can operate during a power outage. However, any type of generator that supplies backup power is labeled inaccurately as an emergency generator. The National Electrical Code (NEC) defines the categories that apply to generator power sources as emergency, legally required standby, optional standby, and critical operations power systems (COPS) systems.

The differences among these systems are significant. In addition to the specific code requirements, design engineers as well as authorities having jurisdiction must know the effects these classifications have on how generators are applied within an electrical distribution system.

Visit www.csemag.com to view this as an "On Demand Webcast," download the slides, and to take the CEU Exam. 1 AIA CES accredited LU available for attendees.

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Critical Power: Standby versus emergency power systems

  1. 1. Critical Power: StandbyVersus Emergency PowerSystemsSponsored by:
  2. 2. Related information regarding the webcast:• Presentation: http://www.csemag.com/index.php?id=7095#25999• CEU Exam: http://www.csemag.com/index.php?id=7101• Learn more about ASCO:http://www.emersonnetworkpower.com/asco• Learn more about Schneider Electric: http://www.schneider-electric.com• For more information on another Consulting-Specifying Engineerwebcast visit http://www.csemag.com/media-library/webcasts.html
  3. 3. AIA CES learning units (LU)To obtain AIA CES learning units:• Go to the “Links” tab and click on the exam link• Take a 10-question exam for 1 LU (learning unit)• Get 8 answers correct to pass• Certificate available to download once you pass• You must be registered for the Webcast to take the examand qualify for continuing education credits• If attending as a guest of a registrant:• Access the archive at www.csemag.com• Complete the registration form• View the archive and download slides• Take the exam to obtain learning units (LU)
  4. 4. Quality AssuranceConsulting-Specifying Engineer, as a publication of CFE Media,is registered provider J619 with The American Institute ofArchitects Continuing Education Systems. Credit earned oncompletion of this program will be reported to CES Records forAIA members. Certificates of Completion for non-AIA membersare available on request.This program is registered with the AIA/CES for continuingprofessional education. As such, it does not include content thatmay be deemed or construed to be an approval or endorsementby the AIA of any material of construction or any method ormanner of handling, using, distributing, or dealing in any materialor product.Questions related to specific materials, methods, and serviceswill be addressed at the conclusion of this presentation.
  5. 5. Speakers:• Gerald Versluys, PE, LEED AP,TLC Engineering for Architecture,Jacksonville, Fla.• Dwayne Miller, PE, RCDD,JBA Consulting Engineers,Las Vegas, Nev.• Amara Rozgus, Editor inChief/Content Manager, Consulting-Specifying Engineer and PurePower
  6. 6. Critical Power: StandbyVersus Emergency PowerSystems
  7. 7. Hospital GeneratorsGerald VersluysPE, LEED AP,TLC Engineering for ArchitectureJacksonville, Fla.
  8. 8. Hospital GeneratorsTypically, code officials focus on the installationand accessories• Generator accessories are all mandated by threecodes– NFPA 70 – 517– NFPA 99– NFPA 110• It‟s all written down, it‟s easy to follow.• Not the scope of this presentation.
  9. 9. Hospital GeneratorsTraditional branches found in a hospital• Life safety• Critical• Equipment• Standby (NFPA 99 - Level 2)
  10. 10. Hospital GeneratorsTraditional hospital design• Typically uses open contact transfer switches.• There is a single transfer switch option forsystems less than 150 kVA – not applicablefor most hospitals.• Breaker control not permitted for use inhospitals within some jurisdictions for Level 1loads.
  11. 11. Hospital GeneratorsTransfer switch types• Bypass Isolation required for maintenance onloads that can‟t be interrupted (i.e. life safetyand critical)• Open transition for most branches.• Closed transition for radiology/diagnosticwings.
  12. 12. Hospital GeneratorsDetermining „N‟– A single generator must be sized for life safetyand critical loads (rare exceptions).– „N‟ needs to be on-line within 10 seconds perNFPA 99 and 110, which limits mostparalleling options.– Most clients‟ personnel are only comfortablewith <600 V – typically these are 480 V.– KISS
  13. 13. Hospital GeneratorsEquipment and Level 2 loads• This can be served by a second paralleled 480 Vgenerator• Or any other technology that will start within 2minutes.• Chillers are not required to be on the generator –but most facilities personnel have learned that ahospital won‟t function long without one.- Most hospitals don‟t have operable windows.- Most heat in a hospital is internally generated.- Most hospitals will overheat within an hour or twowithout a source of chill water.
  14. 14. Hospital GeneratorsSize of hospital generator is normally dictatedby size of largest transfer switches – not thetotal load on the generator.• Realize the most important thing in hospitals isselective coordination of OCP devices. Nuisance tripscause the disaster scenario.• Also realize that when you design a branch size – thegenerator breaker must always trip after everythingdownstream is cleared.• This coordination is why all healthcare generators mustbe designed to provide 300% of rated current for 10seconds.
  15. 15. Hospital GeneratorsCode required testing• NFPA 99– Requires a 12 load tests per year» Minimum interval of 20 days» Maximum interval of 40 days– Requires an annual test.• NFPA 110– Chapter 8 - Describes methodology for testing.
  16. 16. Hospital GeneratorsWhy does testing matter?• Because the generator spends the majority of itslife (hours) serving this function.• The generator can‟t be wet-stacking during thisfunction.• Testing “bumps” everything (with open transitionswitches) and garners the eternal enmity of the ITand radiology folks.• The difference between “design demand” and “realworld demand” becomes apparent.• It brings potential problems to the surface.
  17. 17. Hospital GeneratorsWhat is the impact on the generator design?• Any given day the life safety and critical loadswill only demand ½ of the calculated demandload.• This is exacerbated by empty loads (i.e. firepumps, catheterization labs) that can‟t betransferred during testing.
  18. 18. Hospital GeneratorsWhat is the impact on the generator design?• That means that if the generator wasspecified at 125% of the calculated demandload - then the highest „actual load‟ thegenerator will see is 60% of the generator‟scapacity.• Typically, the engineer will design “access” tonon-essential loads to prevent wet stacking.
  19. 19. Hospital GeneratorsSolving two problems at once• Hospital clients are finally recognizing thevalue of full-back-up power (island mode).Especially in the wake of several well-publicized natural disasters.• This is a break from the traditional dogma ofits “too expensive.”
  20. 20. Hospital GeneratorsSolving two problems at once• It‟s becoming common to add a manualconnection to back-feed the main service(normal branch) from the emergencyswitchboard.• This gives access to the additional load fortesting – and – support of “normal” loads inthe case of a prolonged outage.
  21. 21. Hospital GeneratorsChallenges for an island design• Selective overcurrent protection is still theguiding principal.• The normal branch feeders MUST coordinatebeneath the trip curves of the emergencybreakers serving them.
  22. 22. Critical Power: StandbyVersus Emergency PowerSystems
  23. 23. EMERGENCY VERSUS STANDBY SYSTEMSLarge Scale Hotel/Casino/ResortDwayne Miller, PE, RCDD,JBA Consulting EngineersLas Vegas, Nev.
  24. 24. EMERGENCY VERSUS STANDBY SYSTEMSLarge Scale Hotel/Casino/Resort• NEC 700 Emergency Prescriptive• NEC 701 Legally Required Prescriptive• NEC 702 Optional Standby Owner/Business Driven
  25. 25. EMERGENCY VERSUS STANDBY SYSTEMSLarge Scale Hotel/Casino/ResortNEC 700 Emergency• Purpose – loads essential for safety to human life• Automatic system – 10 seconds• Limited to specific code-mandated loads• Required segregation from non-emergency• Protection of feeders and equipment• Typically small fraction of system load
  26. 26. EMERGENCY VERSUS STANDBY SYSTEMSLarge Scale Hotel/Casino/ResortNEC 701 Legally Required• Purpose - avoid hazards or hampering of rescueor fire operations• Automatic system – 60 seconds• Municipal, state, government, agency, AHJ driven• Required segregation from emergency• Fraction of system load
  27. 27. EMERGENCY VERSUS STANDBY SYSTEMSLarge Scale Hotel/Casino/ResortNEC 702 Optional Standby• Purpose - intended to supply loads where life safetydoes not depend on performance of system• Automatic and/or manual – no time requirement• Primarily driven by business needs (business critical)• Required segregation from emergency• Bulk of large system load
  28. 28. EMERGENCY VERSUS STANDBY SYSTEMSLarge Scale Hotel/Casino/Resort• Distributed systems– Multiple generators– Independent subsystems– Dedicated to portion of facility/property• Parallel/aggregate bus system– Multiple generators– Common generator bus– Serves entire facility/property
  29. 29. EMERGENCY VERSUS STANDBY SYSTEMSLarge Scale Hotel/Casino/ResortDistributed systems• Dedicated to portion of facility• Single generator subsystems• Transfer switches• Increased maintenance• Lower utilization• Testing challenges• Lower first cost• Simpler system
  30. 30. EMERGENCY VERSUS STANDBY SYSTEMSLarge Scale Hotel/Casino/ResortParallel/aggregate bus system• Robust load response• Load prioritization• Maximize utilization• System flexibility• Power breakers• Demand management• Complex• Costly
  31. 31. EMERGENCY VERSUS STANDBY SYSTEMSLarge Scale Hotel/Casino/ResortDesign considerations• Code requirements: NEC 700, NEC 701, NEC 702• NEC 705 interconnected electric power production sources• Business needs• Budget• System voltage• Maintainability/selectivity/flexibility• Common mode failure concerns• Load prioritization• Inherently safe (parallel systems)
  32. 32. EMERGENCY VERSUS STANDBY SYSTEMSLarge Scale Hotel/Casino/ResortGenerator sizing/system capacity• NEC 700.5 (A) entire emergency load simultaneously• NEC 700.5 (B) selective load pickup, load sheddingand peak load shaving• NEC 701.6 adequate capacity for loads intended tobe operated at one time• NEC 702.5 addresses calculation of load andcapacity implications for manual versus automatictransfer• Automatic load management• NEC 705 harmonic load considerations
  33. 33. EMERGENCY VERSUS STANDBY SYSTEMSLarge Scale Hotel/Casino/ResortDeployment• Factory acceptance testing• Field commissioning• Acceptance testing with AHJ• Handover to end-user• Operational testing
  34. 34. EMERGENCY VERSUS STANDBY SYSTEMSLarge Scale Hotel/Casino/ResortTesting• Code requirements- NFPA 110- NEC 700.4- NEC 701.5- AHJ requirements• Impact to business/property• Building load or load bank
  35. 35. Submitting Questions, Exit Survey and ArchiveQuestion?Type your question in the “Questions & Answers” box on theWebcast console and click “Send.” We will get to as manyquestions as we have time for.Exit Survey:Please take a moment to answer a few questions on our exitsurvey that should pop up on your screen. We use the answersto help make improvements to our webcast program.Archive:• Within 7 days, an archive with Q&A will be posted• We will send an email to registered attendees withhyperlink• Can also access from www.csemag.com home page
  36. 36. Speakers:• Gerald Versluys, PE, LEED AP,TLC Engineering for Architecture,Jacksonville, Fla.• Dwayne Miller, PE, RCDD,JBA Consulting Engineers,Las Vegas, Nev.• Amara Rozgus, Editor inChief/Content Manager, Consulting-Specifying Engineer and PurePower
  37. 37. Critical Power: StandbyVersus Emergency PowerSystemsSponsored by:

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