Critical Power: Integrating Renewable Power into Buildings

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Building owners have more questions and requests on how to integrate renewable power into their buildings. And as the Smart Grid evolves, integration of renewable energy sources is increasing. Possible renewable power technologies include solar, wind, geothermal, and biomass. As the technologies that support increasing use of renewable energy mature, the codes and standards that define their use, interconnection, and interoperability with the grid must keep pace with them. Engineers involved with integrating renewable power into buildings must be aware of the applicable energy codes and standards and how to properly implement them into the building design. They must also evaluate the design objectives, materials, systems, and construction from all perspectives. It’s critical for designers to assess the design for cost, quality of life, expansion capabilities, efficiencies, impact on environment, creativity, and productivity.

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  • P&G Sustainability Goals LONG TERM PRODUCT ENDPOINTS Using 100% renewable or recycled materials for all products and packaging Having zero consumer waste go to landfills Designing products to delight consumers while maximizing the conservation of resourcesLONG TERM OPERATIONAL ENDPOINTSPowering our plants with 100% renewable energy Emitting no fossil-based CO2 or toxic emissions Delivering effluent water quality that is as good as or better than influent water quality with no contribution to water scarcity Having zero manufacturing waste go to landfills
  • 90.1 - On-site renewable energy sources or site-recovered energy shall not be considered to be purchased energy and shall not be included in the design energy cost. 189.1 – Mandatory Provision: 7.3.2 On-Site Renewable Energy Systems. Building projects shall provide for the future installation of on-site renewable energy systems with a minimum rating of 3.7 W/ft2 or 13 Btu/h∙ft2 (40 W/m2) multiplied by the total roof area in ft2 (m2). Building projects design shall show allocated space and pathways for installation of on-site renewable energy systems and associated infrastructure. 189.1 – Prescriptive Option: On-Site Renewable Energy Systems. Building projects shall contain on-site renewable energy systems that provide the annual energy production equivalent of not less than 6.0 KBtu/ft2 (20 kWh/m2) of conditioned space. The annual energy production shall be the combined sum of all on-site renewable energy systems. Exception: Buildings that demonstrate compliance with both of the following are not required to contain on-site renewable energy systems: 1. An annual daily average incident solar radiation available to a flat plate collector oriented due south at an angle from horizontal equal to the latitude of the collector location less than 4.0 kW/m2∙day, accounting for existing buildings, permanent infrastructure that is not part of the building project, topography, and trees, And 2. Purchase of renewable electricity products complying with the Green-e Energy National Standard for Renewable Electricity Products of at least 7 kWh/ft2 (75 kWh/m2) of conditioned space each year until the cumulative purchase totals 70 kWh/ft2 (750 kWh/m2) of conditioned space. * if peak demand is reduced by 5% renewable energy requirement is lessened to a minimum of 4.0 kBtu/ft2 (13 kWh/m2).
  • LEED NC 2009 –% Renewable Energy 1 Point (1%) - 7 Points ( 13%) % Energy Savings 1 point (12%) – 21 points (48%
  • Critical Power: Integrating Renewable Power into Buildings

    1. 1. Critical Power: Integrating Renewable Power into Buildings Sponsored by: #CSErenewpower
    2. 2. Today’s Webcast Sponsor:
    3. 3. Learning Objectives: 1.The audience will understand the applicable codes: ASHRAE Standard 90.1: Energy Standard for Buildings Except Low-Rise Residential Buildings; ASHRAE 189.1: Standard for the Design of High-Performance Green Buildings Except Low-Rise Residential Buildings; and NFPA 70: National Electrical Code, Article 705: Interconnected Electric Power Production Sources 2.Attendees will learn about identifying specific renewable energy technologies to be included in a new building or major retrofit project 3.Viewers will understand how to connect renewable energy technologies to the grid 4.Viewers will learn how employing energy management techniques reduce energy consumption and costs by driving efficiencies, improving system reliability, and providing data to support energy sustainability.
    4. 4. Scotte Elliott, CEM, Electrical Engineer, NABCEP Certified PV Installation Professional, Metro CD Engineering LLC Andrew Solberg, PE, CEM, LEED AP, Director of Advanced Design and Simulation, CH2M HILL Moderator: Jack Smith, Consulting-Specifying Engineer and Pure Power, CFE Media, LLC Presenters:
    5. 5. Scotte Elliott, CEM, Electrical Engineer, NABCEP Certified PV Installation Professional, Metro CD Engineering LLC Andrew Solberg, PE, CEM, LEED AP, Director of Advanced Design and Simulation, CH2M HILL Critical Power: Integrating Renewable Power into Buildings #CSErenewpower
    6. 6. Efficient Design
    7. 7. Energy Conservation • Right Sizing • Conservation * Improvements at this level will result in biggest reduction in plant energy use Energy Efficiency • Efficient systems • Understanding and Documentation • Control and system optimization • New Technology • Innovative Design Renewable Energy • Integrate renewable energy only after the most energy efficient process and building/facility are realized • Take advantage of regional renewable resources Energy Strategy 7
    8. 8. ASHRAE Standard 90.1: Energy Standard for Buildings Except Low-Rise Residential Buildings Minimum energy-efficient requirements for the design, construction, and a plan for operation and maintenance of buildings and their systems. Design requirements are divided into sections. The sections most commonly utilized Include: A. Section 5: Building Envelope B. Section 6: Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning C. Section 7: Service Water Heating D. Section 8: Power E. Section 9: Lighting F. Section 10: Other Equipment G. Normative Appendix D: Climatic Data H. Informative Appendix G: Performance Rating Method ASHRAE Standard 189.1: Standard for the Design of High-Performance Green Buildings Except Low-Rise Residential Buildings Minimum requirements for the siting, design, construction, and plan for operation of high-performance green buildings. Minimum criteria to address site sustainability, water use efficiency, energy efficiency, indoor environmental quality (IEQ), and the building’s impact on the atmosphere, materials, and resources. Design requirements are divided into sections. The sections most commonly utilized Include: A. Section 5: Site Sustainability B. Section 6: Water Use Efficiency C. Section 7: Energy Efficiency D. Section 8: Indoor Environmental Quality (IEQ) E. Section 9: The Building’s Impact on the Atmosphere, Materials, and Resources F. Section 10: Construction and Plans for Operation Design Standards – Efficiency First
    9. 9. ASHRAE 189.1 Mandatory to provide for the future installation of on-site renewable energy systems and allocated space and pathways for installation of on-site renewable energy systems and associated infrastructure. Prescriptive option for building projects to contain on-site renewable energy systems that provide the annual energy production equivalent of not less than 6.0 KBtu/ft2 (20 kWh/m2) of conditioned space. * Exceptions for buildings with poor solar resource, and for purchase of renewable electricity complying with Green-e Energy National Standard. Design Standards – Onsite Renewable Energy ASHRAE 90.1 On-site renewable energy sources or site-recovered energy shall not be considered to be purchased energy and shall not be included in the design energy cost.
    10. 10. U.S. Green Building Council LEED - Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design new construction standards evaluate environmental performance from a whole-building perspective over a building's lifecycle. Prerequisites and credits in the LEED Green Building Rating Systems address 7 topics: 1. Sustainable Sites (SS) 2. Water Efficiency (WE) 3. Energy and Atmosphere (EA) 4. Materials and Resources (MR) 5. Indoor Environmental Quality (IEQ) 6. Innovation in Design (ID) 7. Regional Priority (RP) * Integrated renewable energy is rewarded both in a reduction of onsite energy use as well as onsite renewable energy production. Other International Green Building Programs: BREEAM - UK, DGNB – Germany, ESTIDAMA – UAE, CASBEE - Japan Green Building Programs and Renewable Energy
    11. 11. Owner Goals Economic: Balance financial objectives on a project lifecycle basis. Good sustainability practices result in measurable lifecycle financial savings. Social: Address community and stakeholder values including health and safety of construction workers, clients/owners, occupants and users of facilities Environmental: Reduced impact to and consumption of natural resources throughout the lifetime of the building 11
    12. 12. Renewable Energy Resources
    13. 13. Renewable energy is derived from natural processes that are replenished constantly. In its various forms, it derives directly from the sun, or from heat generated deep within the Earth. Included in the definition is electricity and heat generated from solar, wind, ocean, hydropower, biomass, geothermal resources, and biofuels and hydrogen derived from renewable resources. —International Energy Agency (IEA) Renewable Energy Sources Solar Wind Geothermal Biomass Biofuel Ocean EnergyHydropower
    14. 14. Solar Resource Map
    15. 15. Wind Resource Map
    16. 16. Geothermal Resource Map
    17. 17. Biomass Resource Map
    18. 18. A Good Resource is Only Part of the Equation The economic value of onsite renewable power generation will depend on: 1) Building electrical load (hourly load curve) 2) Renewable energy generation (hourly energy production curve) 3) Utility Rate Structure (flat rate, time of day pricing, demand charges, etc) 4) Incentives (rebates, tax credits, special improvement districts) Regional power price is the most important variable an ROI analysis of PV system. Building type and solar resources impact are less important.
    19. 19. Renewable Energy for Buildings
    20. 20. Solar Photovoltaic (PV) Rooftop – Roof must support up to an additional 5 pounds/sq ft for a solar array – Need to consider structural integrity of roof in existing buildings – New buildings (solar-ready buildings) must be designed to support the additional load
    21. 21. Solar Photovoltaic (PV) Ground Mount – Requires open land adjacent to building – PV Array electrical connections must be inaccessible, which may require fencing
    22. 22. Solar Photovoltaic (PV) Carports and Pavilions – Multipurpose Structures – Carports with EV Charging Stations for renewable-powered transportation
    23. 23. Solar Photovoltaic (PV) • Siting – Orientation as close to south (180 degrees) as possible for optimal energy production • +/- 15 degrees of south has minimal impact to production • East and West orientations may result in significant production degradation – Shade-free location for optimal energy production • Shade analysis tools (Solar Pathfinder, Solmetric SunEye) can quantify shade impacts • Microinverters or DC Optimizers can help mitigate shade impacts by isolating losses to individual solar panels rather than the entire array
    24. 24. Solar Thermal – Hot Water, Absorption Cooling
    25. 25. Proven Energy 2.5 kW Downwind Horizontal Axis Swift 1.5 kW Upwind Horizontal Axis Windspire 1.2 kW Vertical Axis Helix Vertical Axis Other manufacturers: • Bergey • Evance • Skystream • Raum • XZERES Small Wind Turbine Types
    26. 26. Tower height is the most important factor in obtaining the best wind resource and achieving economic viability. The best wind turbine installation will be at the highest spot on the property and will use a tower that is high enough so the turbine is out of the turbulent region caused by buildings and vegetation. This is roughly twice the height of surrounding buildings and trees. * American Wind Energy Association * American Wind Energy Association Small Wind Considerations
    27. 27. Prevailing Wind Prevailing Wind IV Complete Flagging Often trees in the general vicinity of the proposed wind turbine site will reveal the prevailing wind direction and give and indication of average wind strength. II Slight to Moderate Flagging at tree top * American Wind Energy Association Wind Indicators
    28. 28. Figure A Model of Downtown Reno Reno Wind Demonstration Urban Wind Flow Patterns
    29. 29. 10 ft Above Grade – Wind Speed (15 mph at 30 ft ) 100 ft Above Grade – Wind Speed (15 mph at 30 ft) Wind Shadowing
    30. 30. Southeast peninsula has relatively less Wind Resource due to its situation downwind of high elevation topography Northwest areas on the peninsula have relatively better Wind Resource due to its situation upwind of high elevation topography NW Prevailing Wind Wind Shadowing
    31. 31. Wind Frequency Distribution shows the number of hours per year at a specific wind speed (i.e. X hrs at 1 mph, Y hrs at 2 mph, etc….) The Wind Rose shows the percentage of the year the wind is out of a certain direction, as well as the percentage of time at specific wind speeds. Wind speed and direction is indicated by the colored wind barbs overlaid on the compass rose. Percentage of time is shown in concentric circles. Wind Distribution vs. Average Wind Speed
    32. 32. Turbine Power Curve
    33. 33. Skystream 3.7 : 2.4 kW rating, 12 ft diameter, 3 Blade Horizontal Axis Estimated Annual Power Produced per Turbine = 6,922 kWh/yr Estimated Annual Power Produced for 8 Turbines = 55,380 kWh/yr Proven 7 : 2.5 kW rating, 11.5 ft diameter, 3 Blade Horizontal Axis Estimated Annual Power Produced per Turbine = 10,520 kWh/yr * Estimated Annual Power Produced for 8 Turbines = 84,160 kWh/yr * * Power curve has unrealistic power production at low wind speeds Raum 3.5 : 3.5 kW rating, 13 ft diameter, 5 Blade Horizontal Axis Estimated Annual Power Produced per Turbine = 9,470 kWh/yr Estimated Annual Power Produced for 8 Turbines = 75,760 kWh/yr Name Skystream Proven Raum Rating (kW) 2.4 2.5 3.5 Tower 45 ft 36 ft 47 ft Count 8 8 8 Turbine, Installation, & Maintenance $237,171 $331,410 $249,410 Tax $9,866 $13,787 $10,375 Simple Payback Period (years) 13.7 12.6 10.6 Internal Rate of return (20 year) 5.7% 6.7% 8.9% Return on Investment (20 years) 77.0% 92.5% 130.3% Expenses Return Rate Turbine Information Example Return on Investment Varying turbine manufacturers same wind resource
    34. 34. Renewable Energy Integration Requirements
    35. 35. NFPA 70: National Electrical Code (NEC) Articles • Article 705: Interconnected Electric Power Production Sources • Article 690: Solar photovoltaic (PV) Systems • Article 694: Small Wind Electric Systems Some key provisions to keep in mind • Labeling – At the point of interconnection: “Warning: Dual Power Supplies – Second Source is Photovoltaic System” – At the panelboard: “Warning: Electric Shock Hazard. Both Line and Load Sides May Be Energized in the Open Position.”
    36. 36. NFPA 70: National Electrical Code (NEC) Some key provisions to keep in mind • 20% Backfeed Rule – Generation backfeed cannot exceed 20% of the bus rated ampacity of a panelboard – For example, for a 200 A panelboard, 40 A of generation can be backfed – Backfeed amount can be increased by reducing the main breaker size • Arc Fault Circuit Protection – Required for PV systems 80+ Vdc with conductors installed on or in a building • Grounding and Bonding – Generation systems treated as separately derived systems – Equipment grounding for safety in the event of a line fault
    37. 37. NFPA 70: National Electrical Code (NEC) 2014 NEC • A significant number of Solar related code updates are forthcoming – Provisions for systems up to 1000 Vdc for locations other than one and two-family dwellings – Rapid Shutdown of PV Systems on Buildings, which covers conductors more than 10 ft from the array or 5 ft within the building – Chapter VIII (Battery Systems) Reinstated
    38. 38. Building Department / AHJ The Building Department / Authority Having Jurisdiction dictates the requirements for integrating renewable power into buildings – In general, national codes such at those from NFPA and the International Code Council are adopted – It is important to find out which code versions are in effect before designing a project – There may also be local/regional requirements – Permitting and Inspection requirements vary widely
    39. 39. Fire Protection Requirements • Fire protection concerns have become a major issue in many jurisdictions • While renewable generation systems are considered safe when designed an installed in a code-compliant manner, if a building is on fire they are potential hazards to firefighters – When solar panels are exposed to light the PV circuits remain energized on the DC conductors even after AC power has been disconnected – Roofs covered by solar panels may impede firefighter’s ability to ventilate roofs during a fire • The National Association of State Fire Marshals and SEIA have developed recommendations for fire safety and solar
    40. 40. Utility Requirements Most utilities have standard requirements and procedures for interconnecting renewable generation sources to the electrical grid – For small systems (10 kW and under) system studies are typically not required as long as equipment is listed and complies with applicable safety standards – For mid-size systems (up to 1 MW) there is typically a streamlined screening process – For large systems (1 MW+) detailed studies are usually required • The system owner is responsible for costs incurred by the utility for system upgrades that may be needed (larger transformers, larger conductors, protective equipment, metering and monitoring, etc.) – Some utilities require a Utility-Accessible External Disconnect Switch
    41. 41. Utility Requirements Net Metering – The most common and often the most favorable way to interconnect – Typically available for systems that generate less energy on an annual basis than what is used by the facility – The generated energy offsets the energy that would otherwise be purchased from the utility – At times when generation is greater than the building loads, the excess energy is exported to the grid and the utility meter “spins” backwards providing a bankable credit for later use – Most states have laws requiring investor-owned utilities to offer net- metering to their customers – Public Power utilities (i.e. Municipal Utilities, Rural Electric Co-ops) may not be required to offer Net Metering but many still do
    42. 42. Utility Requirements Net Metering – Sites that produce more energy than what they consume may not be eligible for net metering • Other options include interconnecting with the Utility as a PURPA Qualifying Facility and selling the excess energy to the Utility at their avoided cost of generation; or interconnecting with the Regional Transmission Organization as a wholesale generator and selling all of the system output on the wholesale market • Neither of these options are as desirable as net metering from implementation or financial perspectives
    43. 43. Project Examples
    44. 44. Alvarado Water Treatment Plant, San Diego, CA; 1 MW atop water reservoirs; PPA with Sun Edison West Basin Municipal Water District, El Segunda, CA North Hudson Sewerage Authority, Hoboken, NJ Photos courtesy of Kurt Lyell, CH2M HILL AUS PV Integration at Water Treatment Facilities
    45. 45. MASDAR 10 MW PV Abu Dhabi, UAE • 5 MW thin film, 5 MW crystalline • Differences in panel efficiency are evident in the area required for each 5 MW array Enviromena llcEnviromena llc Photo by Enviromena LLC
    46. 46. Slide courtesy of David Perron, CH2M HILL Wind Turbine Integration at Landfill
    47. 47. Melink Inc. Net Zero Energy Corporate Headquarters, Milford, Ohio • 20,000-sq-ft building constructed in 2006 • Energy Use Intensity (EUI) of 18.8 kBtu/sq ft/yr • RE systems include Geothermal, PV (rooftop, ground mount, carport), Wind Turbine, and Biomass (wood pellet stoves for space heating)
    48. 48. Star Peak Energy Center Geothermal + Solar + Wind + Energy Storage
    49. 49. High-Efficiency Data Center
    50. 50. Putting Waste Heat to Good Use
    51. 51. Energy Balance
    52. 52. Ohio State University Stone Laboratory Biological Research Station, Gibraltar Island, Lake Erie • Island predominantly covered in trees • Extensive field surveys to evaluate suitable locations for Solar (shade analysis, building conditions) • Solar used to meet environmental goals, reduce energy costs, and as an education tool for 7,000+ students, researchers and visitors annually
    53. 53. Ohio State University Stone Laboratory Biological Research Station, Gibraltar Island, Lake Erie Solar Thermal on Dining Hall
    54. 54. Ohio State University Stone Laboratory Biological Research Station, Gibraltar Island, Lake Erie • Facility Operational Spring – Fall (closed during Winter) • Solar Access during the operating months sufficient to provide nearly all the hot water needed at the dining hall (primarily for dish washing)
    55. 55. Ohio State University Stone Laboratory Biological Research Station, Gibraltar Island, Lake Erie Solar Pavilion • Installed over an abandoned water filtration sand pit • Previously the site was unusable • Now the site is utilized for education and as a gathering place for students and visitors
    56. 56. Ohio State University Stone Laboratory Biological Research Station, Gibraltar Island, Lake Erie
    57. 57. Tools and Reference Information
    58. 58. 1.DOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy 2.California Power Grid 3.NREL Energy Analysis Models and Tools 4.NREL Renewable Resources Maps and Data http://www.nrel.gov/renewable_resources http://www.nrel.gov/rredc/wind_resource.html http://www.nrel.gov/rredc/solar_resource.html http://www.nrel.gov/rredc/geothermal_resource.html References
    59. 59. 5. Star Peak Energy Project 6. Update to the 2014 NEC – Changes for PV 7. Database of State Incentives for Renewables and Efficiency (DSIRE) 8. EMerge Alliance, Standards for DC Power Distribution 9. Bridging the Gap: Fire Safety and Green Buildings Guide 10.Fire Safety and Solar 11.Economics of Solar Electric Systems: Payback and other Financial Tests 12.Utility External Disconnect Switch - Practical, Legal, and Technical Reasons to Eliminate the Requirement References
    60. 60. 13.Utility-Interconnected Photovoltaic Systems: Evaluating the Rationale for the Utility-Accessible External Disconnect Switch 14.PVWatts Calculator for Energy Production and Cost Savings of PV Systems 15.Interstate Renewable Energy Council (IREC) 16.American Solar Energy Society (ASES) References
    61. 61. Scotte Elliott, CEM, Electrical Engineer, NABCEP Certified PV Installation Professional, Metro CD Engineering LLC Andrew Solberg, PE, CEM, LEED AP, Director of Advanced Design and Simulation, CH2M HILL Moderator: Jack Smith, Consulting-Specifying Engineer and Pure Power, CFE Media, LLC Presenters:
    62. 62. Thanks to Today’s Webcast Sponsor:
    63. 63. Critical Power: Integrating Renewable Power into Buildings Sponsored by: #CSErenewpower

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