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Conference #alu16 - Aluminium recycling essentials by olivier neel

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Aluminium recycling: from Material Flow Analysis to optimal recycling

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Conference #alu16 - Aluminium recycling essentials by olivier neel

  1. 1. Olivier Néel ALUMINIUM 2016 11th World Trade Fair & Conference November 30, 2016 Aluminium recycling: from Material Flow Analysis to optimal recycling
  2. 2. An introduction to Constellium 2015 Constellium is a leader in innovative aluminium-based solutions Over 10,000 full-time employees €5.2 billion in sales 22 manufacturing sites C-TEC, our world-class Technology Center Headquartered in Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Corporate offices in Paris, France, Zurich, Switzerland and New York, USA 2015 key figures 2An introduction to Constellium 2016
  3. 3. An introduction to Constellium 2015 Structured into 3 business units 3 Aerospace and Transportation € 1.355 billion in revenues #1 worldwide for aerospace plates #1 in the USA for large coils Packaging and Automotive Rolled Products € 2.748 billion in revenues #1 worldwide in closure stock #2 in Europe and North America for can body stock Major player in auto body sheet: #4 worldwide Automotive Structures and Industry € 1.047 billion in revenues #1 in Europe for large profiles #1 in Europe for hard alloy extrusions Joint leader worldwide in Crash Management Systems An introduction to Constellium 2016
  4. 4. An introduction to Constellium 2015 The life cycle of aluminium products 4 Recycling Collecting and sorting Product design and manufacturing Product use Casting/rolling and extrusion Aluminium smelting Alumina refining Bauxite extraction Aluminium recycling: from Material Flow Analysis to optimal recycling – ALUMINIUM 2016 - O. Néel – 2016-11-30
  5. 5. An introduction to Constellium 2015 Challenges arising 5 Increasing focus on a value chain approach (circular economy, life cycle approach, responsible purchasing...) Increasing concern on environmental aspects (climate change, water & resources depletion…) Need for evidence of environmental performance, hence dedicated assessment tools Aluminium recycling: from Material Flow Analysis to optimal recycling – ALUMINIUM 2016 - O. Néel – 2016-11-30
  6. 6. An introduction to Constellium 2015 Tools to assess environmental performance Complementary tools are available From a PRODUCT perspective Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) Commonly used in many areas From a MATERIAL perspective Material Flow Analysis (MFA) Less widely used, but gaining momentum In both cases, recycling is key 6Aluminium recycling: from Material Flow Analysis to optimal recycling – ALUMINIUM 2016 - O. Néel – 2016-11-30
  7. 7. An introduction to Constellium 2015 Life Cycle Assessment (LCA): environmental impacts from a product perspective Examples of impact categories Water (use, eutrophication, acidification…) Air (ozone layer depletion, acidification, smog) Land (use, deforestation, acidification…) Resources depletion Ecosystems or Human Toxicity Energy (total, from non renewable sources…) Global warming (greenhouse gas – GHG - emissions) Life Cycle Assessment summarize environmental impacts of a product throughout its production, usage and end-of-life (incl. recycling) phases 7Aluminium recycling: from Material Flow Analysis to optimal recycling – ALUMINIUM 2016 - O. Néel – 2016-11-30
  8. 8. An introduction to Constellium 2015 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Glass Steel Copper PE PP Primary Al Recycled Al GHGemissions(kgCO2eq./kg) 8 LCA: effect of aluminium recycling on greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions Recycling is the cornerstone of Aluminium Sustainability Primary Al GHG Impact is highest Recycled Al GHG Impact is lowest Aluminium recycling: from Material Flow Analysis to optimal recycling – ALUMINIUM 2016 - O. Néel – 2016-11-30
  9. 9. An introduction to Constellium 2015 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Climate change [g CO2 eq. / can] Effect of recycling rate for an aluminium beverage can 2020 European target Actual result for 2013 recycling rate Including Can manufacturing. 9Aluminium recycling: from Material Flow Analysis to optimal recycling – ALUMINIUM 2016 - O. Néel – 2016-11-30
  10. 10. An introduction to Constellium 2015 0,00E+00 1,00E-04 2,00E-04 3,00E-04 4,00E-04 5,00E-04 6,00E-04 7,00E-04 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Terrestrial acidification [kg SO2 eq.] 0,00E+00 5,00E-06 1,00E-05 1,50E-05 2,00E-05 2,50E-05 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Freshwater eutrophication [kg P eq.] 0,00E+00 2,00E-06 4,00E-06 6,00E-06 8,00E-06 1,00E-05 1,20E-05 1,40E-05 1,60E-05 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Marine eutrophication [kg N eq.] 0,00E+00 2,00E-04 4,00E-04 6,00E-04 8,00E-04 1,00E-03 1,20E-03 1,40E-03 1,60E-03 1,80E-03 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Ecotoxicity [kg 1.4-DB eq.] Freshwater ecotoxicity [kg 1.4-DB eq.] Marine ecotoxicity [kg 1.4-DB eq.] Terrestrial ecotoxicity [kg 1.4-DB eq.] Effect of recycling rate on other indicators Except for one, clear positive effect. 10 Rare case where recycling doesn’t reduce impacts. Aluminium recycling: from Material Flow Analysis to optimal recycling – ALUMINIUM 2016 - O. Néel – 2016-11-30
  11. 11. An introduction to Constellium 2015 Material Flow Analysis principle (MFA): mapping material flows along the life cycle 11 Building Rolling Wire Extrusion Casting Packaging Cable Transport Other Appl. Recycling In Use Primary Aluminium End of Life ManufacturingSemi-production Aluminium recycling: from Material Flow Analysis to optimal recycling – ALUMINIUM 2016 - O. Néel – 2016-11-30
  12. 12. An introduction to Constellium 2015 Material Flow Analysis: Constellium approach Existing work from International Aluminium Institute (IAI) European model Applications, lifetime & recycling rates included Allows for estimate of future recycling flows Need for a more detailed model to better understand recycling flows Location Composition Developing a more detailed model Finer geographical granularity: down to countries Split into alloys families Design allowing for scenarios (parameters can vary with time) 12Aluminium recycling: from Material Flow Analysis to optimal recycling – ALUMINIUM 2016 - O. Néel – 2016-11-30
  13. 13. An introduction to Constellium 2015 Constellium MFA model: System boundaries & data categories 13 Different data categories: This complexity is necessary: • Understanding of scrap flow composition (alloy, origin, location) and volumes contributes to recycling strategy. 31 countries EU27 + Turkey +EFTA) 4 Semi-Products Extrusion / Rolling / Casting / Semi-other Automotive Car Transportation Rail Marine Aerospace Commer cial Space Packaging Cans Skyline Building House 12 product categories 10 alloys family Aluminium recycling: from Material Flow Analysis to optimal recycling – ALUMINIUM 2016 - O. Néel – 2016-11-30
  14. 14. An introduction to Constellium 2015 MFA first use: why we will still need primary metal 14 AnnualconsumptioninEurope(t) 0 2 000 000 4 000 000 6 000 000 8 000 000 10 000 000 12 000 000 14 000 000 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2015 Average product lifetime: ≈ 20 years Available for recycling today Production 20 years ago Source: European Aluminium Aluminium recycling: from Material Flow Analysis to optimal recycling – ALUMINIUM 2016 - O. Néel – 2016-11-30
  15. 15. An introduction to Constellium 2015 More detailed MFA results: recycling flow depends on recycling rate & lifetime: 15 2015 European production and end-of-life flows by application domain 50 y. lifetime < 1 y. lifetime No EOL recycling Aluminium recycling: from Material Flow Analysis to optimal recycling – ALUMINIUM 2016 - O. Néel – 2016-11-30
  16. 16. An introduction to Constellium 2015 If we were to consider recycled content for LCA VS.Can 1 Can 1 16 LCA could possibly show this to be « greener », is it correct? Aluminium recycling: from Material Flow Analysis to optimal recycling – ALUMINIUM 2016 - O. Néel – 2016-11-30
  17. 17. An introduction to Constellium 2015 MFA can help getting a more relevant picture VS. Average recycled content for every product One product getting more doesn’t change the overall environmental impacts, as others get less Can 1 Can 2 Can 3 Can 1 Can 2 Can 3 17 MFA shows that it doesn’t improve the big picture… Aluminium recycling: from Material Flow Analysis to optimal recycling – ALUMINIUM 2016 - O. Néel – 2016-11-30
  18. 18. An introduction to Constellium 2015 Example of MFA use: Evolution of Automotive EOL scrap vs. castings demand 18 In the long run, EOL scrap may exceed demand Aluminium recycling: from Material Flow Analysis to optimal recycling – ALUMINIUM 2016 - O. Néel – 2016-11-30
  19. 19. An introduction to Constellium 2015 Conclusion and perspectives LCA & MFA are complementary tools to assess environmental performance LCA can assess the benefits for recycling from a product perspective Evaluating where efforts are most needed to improve a products life cycle Calculating how recycling helps avoiding environmental impacts MFA provides insight on key issues from a material perspective Detailed timeline and composition of recycling flows Sustainable material flows implies EOL recycling is a sound performance indicator Need for better sorting in the future Selecting the most efficient way to sort by addressing the right flows. 19Aluminium recycling: from Material Flow Analysis to optimal recycling – ALUMINIUM 2016 - O. Néel – 2016-11-30
  20. 20. THANK YOU!
  21. 21. An introduction to Constellium 2015 2 1 Visit us: www.constellium.com

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