Increasing Learner Opportunities With Recent Technologies


Published on

This presentation examines three categories of technology for use in Higher Ed Instruction:
1) Web2.0: Slides 5 - 17
2) Cell Phones: Slides 18 - 31
3) Virtual World Learning and Second Life: Slides 33 - 56

Published in: Education, Technology
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

Increasing Learner Opportunities With Recent Technologies

  1. 1. Increasing Learner Opportunities with Recent Technologies <ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Presented at Stellenbosch University </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>By Alice Bedard-Voorhees, PhD </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>September 2009 </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  2. 2. Presentation Categories <ul><li>Web 2.0 : Web-based applications that allow learners to create and submit content and interact with others (Slides 5 – 17) </li></ul><ul><li>Mobile Devices: Cell phones (Slides 18 – 31) </li></ul><ul><li>Virtual Worlds and Simulations: 3-D Immersive Learning with Second Life (Slides 32 – 56) </li></ul>
  3. 3. Motivations for Adapting Instructional Models Increase Learning Engagement Institutional Opportunity 21 st Century Participation Constructivist, Cognitive Theory Technological Literacy More Ways to Deliver Learning (and Professional Development)
  4. 4. Institutional Considerations: Khan’s E-Learning Model (Khan, 2008. Used with permission)
  5. 5. Web 2.0 is characterized by the shift in the role of the web user to take an active role in creating and sharing web-content. The original presentation was based on a forthcoming chapter, “ Creating Online Assessments and Preparing Learners for Authentic Displays of Learning ” by Alice Bedard-Voorhees, LisaMarie Johnson, and Phyllis Dobson in 2007. It has become an ongoing project as new tools have developed. A earlier slideshow version of this presentation can be viewed at Web 2.0: Letting Them Show What They Know
  6. 6. Sample Web2.0 Accounts <ul><li>Examples of Web2.0 Applications: Audacity, Flickr, Slideshare, YouTube, Voicethread, e-portfolio, blog, wiki, Twitter, Delicious… </li></ul><ul><li>Trial accounts have been set up for your use. Links to the tools and user and password information for trial accounts is provided at this link: </li></ul><ul><li>http:// </li></ul>
  7. 7. Student Questions that Matter <ul><li>What applications are you using? </li></ul><ul><li>Would X help you with learning in this course? </li></ul><ul><li>If so, how? </li></ul>
  8. 8. Audio Content: Audacity <ul><li>Audacity if free, but requires both that you </li></ul><ul><li>download the application and, for exporting </li></ul><ul><li>to MP3 format, a plug-in. </li></ul><ul><li>Audacity files are created on the desktop and </li></ul><ul><li>uploaded into a course shell directly or through </li></ul><ul><li>another service like a paid account in gabcast. </li></ul><ul><li>Tip: Consider file size… try to limit to 1MB or less. Do brief segments rather than longer recordings (break it up! Spice it up!) </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Download page for Audacity: </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Download page for MP3 encoder plugin: </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Help using Audacity: or </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Image Service: <ul><li>Images can be uploaded from multiple sources (e.g., phone, camera) </li></ul><ul><li>Annotation </li></ul><ul><li>Link or embedded viewer could be placed in class </li></ul>
  10. 10. Visual Images <ul><li>Example: Learners take pictures of public art that illustrates certain artistic principles. Can send from camera phone to Flickr account created for the class. Link or RSS feed could be placed in class. Students can also use Flickr tools to annotate images. </li></ul><ul><li>To set up an account for the class. Go to http:// / </li></ul><ul><li>User Name will be the name you enter in the name field </li></ul>
  11. 11. Image found at Thomas Sly’s Leopard from <ul><li>This Creative Commons License Requires Attribution to Author </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  12. 12. Using Flickr Collections on the Web
  13. 13. Blogs http:// / Blogger https:// / Bloglines http:// / Blue Kaffee http:// / EduBlogs http:// / LiveJournal http:// / Vox http:// / http:// / Many options Multiple forms of media can be integrated with a Blog (video, audio, images, etc.) Tip! Student privacy is an issue when using technologies external to your institution’s servers. Know your institution’s policies.
  14. 14. Twitter: Microblogging (140 Char.)
  15. 15. Replacing Favorites with Social Bookmarking: Delicious
  16. 16. Wikis <ul><li>Allows for quick content creation and editing </li></ul><ul><li>Contributory or collaborative </li></ul><ul><li>Vary in complexity (e.g., PBWiki, MediaWiki) </li></ul><ul><li>Wiki comparison http:// </li></ul>
  17. 17. For Course or Capstone: ePortfolio ePortfolio = electronic portfolio, aka: webfolio, digital portfolio ePortfolio is a digital representation of understanding and performance artifacts that can lead to personal reflection and promote exchange of ideas and encourage feedback (Lorenzo and Ittelson, 2005). ePortfolios tend to share the common characteristics of being purposeful, progressive, and reflective endeavors (Gilman, Andrew, and Rafferty, 1995).
  18. 18. Mobile Devices: Cell Phones
  19. 19. Phone Uses <ul><li>As Receptors for Content Delivery/Retrieval </li></ul><ul><li>As Devices for the Creation of Content </li></ul><ul><li>As Transmitters, Interactive Devices for Class Activity </li></ul>
  20. 20. Content Delivery/Retrieval: Louisiana Community College and Technical System
  21. 21. Cell Phones IN the Classroom A Beta Story Alice Bedard-Voorhees, PhD, Colorado Mountain College Rebecca Woulfe, Acadium, Inc. Photo Used with Permission
  22. 22. Beta: An SMS Classroom Response System <ul><li>Students used cell phones to respond to multiple choice or short answer questions </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher incorporated questions into PowerPoint or web interface </li></ul>
  23. 23. Beta Test - Results <ul><li>Ease of use </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Frustrating 46% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some difficulty 23% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Okay 31% </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Use by choice </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Yes 15% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No 62% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unsure 23% </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Impression * </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Better able to pay attention 15% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More likely to come to class 7% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Distracting 62% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Frustrating 62% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>*Note: Percentage does not equal 100% as students could select more than one item </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Data - Demographics <ul><li>Gender </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Female 46% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Male 54% </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Previous use of clickers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Yes 92 % </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No 8 % </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Age </li></ul><ul><ul><li>18-21 7% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>22-25 31% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>26-30 15% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>31-35 31% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>35+ 15% </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Beta Test - Technology
  26. 26. Data – Student Comments <ul><li>Only practical for people with unlimited text messaging. </li></ul><ul><li>– 31-35 male </li></ul><ul><li>Seems like a lot of steps. </li></ul><ul><li>– 35+ male </li></ul><ul><li>Need free text plans provided by school. </li></ul><ul><li>– 22-25 female </li></ul><ul><li>I think it will work to obtain the attention of the younger students. </li></ul><ul><li>– 26-30 female </li></ul>
  27. 27. Data – Instructor Comments <ul><li>Two steps with phone rather than one for submitting response was frustrating. </li></ul><ul><li>Potential exists when unlimited texting is widespread. </li></ul>
  28. 28. Educator – Lessons Learned <ul><li>Why Beta is different from Pilot </li></ul><ul><li>That student expectations about paying for text varied (Kolb, 2007) </li></ul><ul><li>Students wanted it to work quickly like their Clicker exercises (Prensky, 2007). </li></ul><ul><li>That survey embedded in case studies engaged students (Oblinger, 2005). </li></ul>
  29. 29. Developer – Lessons Learned <ul><li>Set “beta” expectations </li></ul><ul><li>Important to match “texting” demographic </li></ul><ul><li>Early adopter approach </li></ul><ul><li>Issue with “join” – teacher experimented in class more than anticipated </li></ul>
  30. 30. Questions for Further Study <ul><li>Does learner prior experience with Clickers </li></ul><ul><li>create a different set of expectations? </li></ul><ul><li>Does learner experience with paying for technology in courses impact satisfaction? </li></ul><ul><li>What part do demographics play? </li></ul><ul><li>What part do economics play in expectations about the use of technology? </li></ul><ul><li>What considerations need to be made by the institution about mobile devices? </li></ul><ul><li>How would this technology serve distance interactions? </li></ul>
  31. 31. Relevant Bookmarks <ul><li>Sources and notations for this presentation can be viewed at this link: </li></ul><ul><li>http:// </li></ul>
  32. 32. Virtual World Learning Experiences
  33. 33. What is a Virtual World? <ul><li>Virtual Worlds: three-dimensional simulation environments </li></ul><ul><li>Elements: computer-generated artificial environments, role and/or game participation, human participation through characters called avatars </li></ul>
  34. 34. “Immersive Digital Environment” <ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Computer-generated environment </li></ul><ul><li>Can be reality-based or fanciful </li></ul><ul><li>Allows participants to enter into that experience </li></ul>
  35. 35. Virtual Worlds: 3-D Immersive Environments <ul><li>Individual software that is installed on individual machines or servers </li></ul><ul><li>Simulations that are connected to the internet. </li></ul><ul><li>There are simpler versions of virtual worlds and there are also Serious Games. Second Life is being used by hundreds of higher education institutions. </li></ul>
  36. 36. Why SL? <ul><li>Immersive Environment provides experience, allows application and creation (create 3D objects and events, interact with others through voice and text, interact with objects). </li></ul><ul><li>Student participation through avatars (representative characters) allows students to participate in ways they might not in classroom due to shyness or self-consciousness. </li></ul><ul><li>Extends the traditional classroom: Allows field trips and guest visits that might not otherwise be possible. </li></ul>
  37. 37. Virtual Worlds Examples <ul><li>Hipihi </li></ul><ul><li>Second Life </li></ul><ul><li>Metaplace (Beta) </li></ul><ul><li>World of WarCraft </li></ul><ul><li>Sims Online </li></ul><ul><li>Virtual University </li></ul><ul><li>Serious Games (Food Force, Beer Game, </li></ul><ul><li>Sushi Roll) </li></ul>
  38. 38. Second Life: Virtual Africa
  39. 40. Learner: Dr. Alice Bedard-Voorhees Avatar: MustangQuimby Messmer Evaluating A Second Life Course Experience: A Learner Evaluates and the Faculty Responds Presented at AECT, November 2008 Graduate Course from Boise State University EDU 597 Teaching and Learning in Second Life Faculty: Dr. Lisa Dawley Avatar: Mali Young
  40. 41. Khan’s E-Learning Model (Khan, 2008. Used with permission)
  41. 42. Implementation Realizations <ul><li>Users must be have technological capacities to actually download and run Second Life. (Dial-up won’t work.) </li></ul><ul><li>New users will have a learning curve. </li></ul><ul><li>Instructors will want to consider how best to use the virtual world for course experiences. </li></ul><ul><li>Campus needs to make rental or ownership, and policy decisions. </li></ul>
  42. 43. Needed Materials and Services in Addition to Instruction <ul><li>technical support </li></ul><ul><li>advising </li></ul><ul><li>library </li></ul><ul><li>object repositories </li></ul><ul><li>tutorials </li></ul><ul><li>(Source: Khan 2005a; Khan 2005b) </li></ul>
  43. 44. Technological Checklist: ED597 <ul><ul><li>Blackboard needs provided by Boise State (Boise, 2004) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SL Technological and pre-requisite skills appear in the syllabus; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Linden Labs provides tech support. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>System: http:// </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Prerequisite skills: </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Use of camera controls </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ability to fly, walk, and teleport </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Knowledge of communication tools (IM and chat) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Basic building skills (create prims, add textures and content) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Basic inventory management (can find items, wear </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>clothing, make a note card) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>It is recommended that participants have at least 10-20 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>hours of prior participation in Second Life before the </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>course begins (Dawley, Syllabus, 2007b. Used with permission). </li></ul></ul></ul>
  44. 45. What Simulations Offer Source for Learning Opportunities Provided in EDU597 While we can read, view, and listen to learning resources, virtual worlds offer a level of experiential learning: Simulations: (Example: creating and running a business) Role Play: Taking on an identity as part of the learning process Building: Creation, Design, Exhibit Participating in Social Events (Example: guest visits, conferences, job fairs, socials, campus fairs) Source: Robbins & Bell, 2008, pp. 284 – 285.
  45. 46. Design Challenges and Development <ul><li>It is challenging to offer an entire course experience in SL. </li></ul><ul><li>While chat can serve a hearing-impaired guest, screen readers don’t work in chat. </li></ul><ul><li>R and D groups are working on access for visually and kinesthetically restricted users. (Sierra, 2007; Foster, 2007) </li></ul><ul><li>Like Other Apps: Plan B thinking is needed when the SL grid has problems </li></ul>
  46. 47. Guest Presenter
  47. 48. Project Based-Learning Assessment Products: Slideshow Project + Additional Project Container to Share with Class
  48. 49. Conclusions <ul><li>Faculty member in this course had done an excellent job organizing considering institutional and learning support, modeled learning experiences, and communicated extensively. </li></ul><ul><li>Second Life can provide an interesting and lively space for social learning and exploration; Second Life is best used for more than text discussions only. </li></ul><ul><li>Data-driven research is developing to measure the learning effectiveness of Second-Life learning experiences (Example:,1,Really Engaging Accounting: Second Life™ as a Learning Platform </li></ul>
  49. 50. Second Life Screen Shots <ul><li>Second Life educators are providing a wide array of rich, educational activities. </li></ul>
  50. 51. Dubai Women’s College Open Area—Engaged in a Map Game 208, 42, 29
  51. 52. Immersed in Cellular Structure 148, 149, 34
  52. 53. Accounting: Interactive T-Account <ul><li>Students become game pieces </li></ul><ul><li>Enables students to practice their understanding of the concept of normal account balances </li></ul><ul><li>Feedback is provided </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Correct responses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Incorrect responses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Wrong side Correct type </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Wrong type, Correct side </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Wrong side, Wrong type </li></ul></ul></ul>Source: /
  53. 54. Source: 444, 176, 22
  54. 55. Sloodle: Course Management and SL Converge 240, 160, 33
  55. 56. ColoradoEduIsland: A Collaboration among Colorado Community Colleges