Translational Research in Functional Optical Brain Imaging


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Presented at International Workshop on
Frontiers of Neuroengineering,
Brain-machine Interfaces
& Neural Prostheses
Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China
March 29, 2011

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Translational Research in Functional Optical Brain Imaging

  1. 1. Translational Research in<br />Functional Optical <br />Brain Imaging<br />International Workshop on <br />Frontiers of Neuroengineering<br />Brain-machine Interfaces <br />& Neural Prostheses<br />Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China<br />March 29, 2011<br />Banu Onaral, PhDH.H. Sun Professor and DirectorSchool of Biomedical Engineering, Science and Health SystemsDrexel University, Philadelphia, PA<br />Bossone Research Enterprise Center<br />
  2. 2. You are cordially invited to the <br />Britton Chance, Ph.D., Sc.D., M.D. (Hon)Life and Times Symposium and Satellite meetings<br />June 3 & 4, 2011<br />Philadelphia PA, USA<br />
  3. 3. Timeline of Trust Building…<br />1960 – Learned Chinese from the first Chinese family in Istanbul, Turkey.<br />1981 – Mentored by Professor H.H. Sun as Assistant Professor at Drexel.<br /> Mentored many Chinese students jointly with Professor H.H. Sun.<br />1997 – President Jiang Zemin announced H.H. Sun Professorship.<br />2000 – Led Eisenhower Foundation Biomedical Engineering Delegation to China.<br /> Organized 1st Asia Pacific Biomedical Engineering Conference, Hangzhou.<br />2005 – IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Annual International<br /> Conference, Shanghai.<br />2008 – Delegation to accompany Professor H.H. Sun back to China.<br />2010 –Academic and Corporate Partnerships formed: Shanghai Jiao Tong <br /> University (SJTU) and Carestream Health Inc., Shanghai<br />President of China, Jiang Zemin <br />and Drexel University President <br />Constantine Papadakis - 1997<br />H.H. Sun, Jiang Zemin, and Constantine Papadakis - 1997<br />
  4. 4. Outline<br /> Optical Brain Imaging (fNIR)<br />Physiological and Physical Principles<br /> Instrumentation and Device Designs<br />Applications<br />CONQUER Collaborative - Regional and Global Outreach<br />Human Performance, Learning and Clinical Applications <br />Translational Research<br /> Field and Clinical Deployment<br />Translational Partners<br />Technology Commercialization<br />Conclusion<br />
  5. 5. Optical Brain Imaging<br />Near Infrared Based Platform<br />Functional Near-Infrared Monitor [fNIR]<br />>> Cortical activation-related to hemodynamic changes in natural environments and diverse field conditions <br />
  6. 6. Physiological Principles of fNIRNeural Activity & Hemodynamic Response<br />Neurons consume energy (glucose) when activated<br />Oxygen is required to metabolize the glucose<br />As clusters of neurons are activated, there is an increased need for oxygen in that area<br />Oxygen is transported to neural tissue via oxy-hemoglobin in the blood<br />The oxygen exchange occurs in the capillary beds<br />As oxy-hemoglobin gives up oxygen to the neural tissue, it is transformed into deoxygenated hemoglobin<br />Oxy-Hb and deoxy-Hb are correlates of brain activity through oxygen consumption by neurons<br />David J. Heeger & David Ress. (2002)What does fMRI tell us about neuronal activity? Nature Reviews Neuroscience 3, 142-151<br />
  7. 7. Source<br />Detector<br />Physical Principles of fNIR I <br />Photon Migration in Tissue<br />Photons that enter the tissue undergo two types of interaction:<br /><ul><li> Scattering</li></ul>(cell membranes)<br /><ul><li> Absorption</li></ul>(Hb,HbO2water)<br />H Obrig  , R Wenzel, M Kohl, S Horst, P Wobst, J Steinbrink, F Thomas, A Villringer. Near-infrared spectroscopy: does it function in functional activation studies of the adult brain? International Journal of Psychophysiology 35(2-3):125-142, 2000 <br />
  8. 8. Near IR<br />Stimuli <br />Presentation<br />Peak<br />Oxygenation<br />Initial Dip<br />Post stimulus<br />undershoot<br />Physical Principles of fNIR II <br />Optical Window in Tissue<br />.G<br />Io<br />I<br />.G<br />Modified<br />Beer-Lambert <br />Law<br />
  9. 9. fNIR Designs Currently Available<br />Example CW System: Hitachi ETC-4000<br />MONSTIR: The UCL 32-channel time-resolved imager <br />IMAGENT: ISS, Inc <br />
  10. 10. Drexel fNIR Instrumentation<br />fNIR Technology Evolution<br />Fiber-Based Full Head System<br />Wireless system<br />Continuous Wave<br />Portable system<br />2001-08<br />2008-<br />
  11. 11. CONQUER CollabOrativeCognitive Neuroengineering & Quantitative Experimental Research Collaborative <br />A unique brain function research facility that houses <br />human experiment rooms equipped with <br /><ul><li>brain activity monitoring modalities, such as </li></ul>near-infrared based functional optical brain imaging [fNIR] <br />electroencephalogram [EEG]<br /><ul><li>experimental protocol design tools and simulation technologies </li></ul>sensor and device test & development labs<br />
  12. 12. CONQUER CollabOrative(Cont’d)Cognitive Neuroengineering & Quantitative Experimental Research Collaborative <br />Strong emphasis on collaborative research in the field of<br />Human Performance and Training<br />Cognitive workload assessment…<br />Brain integrated Learning (Neuro-Learning)<br />Math, Reading, Problem solving<br />Motor Learning<br />Learning Disabilities<br />Brain Computer Interface (BCI)<br />Neurorehabilitation in Traumatic Brain injury<br />Pediatric monitoring, etc…<br />
  13. 13. Global Outreach<br />in Functional Optical Brain Imaging<br /> University of Maryland (Dr. José L. Contreras-Vidal)<br /> University of Pittsburgh (Dr. Joseph Ricker)<br /> Albert Einstein College of Medicine (Dr. Roee Holtzer)<br /> Italy – Polytechnic University of Milan (Dr. Sergio Cerutti)<br /> Spain – University of Seville ((Dr. Jose Leon-Carrion) <br /> – Hospital Nacional de ParaplejicosToledo & Dr. GuglielmoFoffani)<br />Israel – HaifaUniversity (Dr. Zvia Breznitz)<br />Turkey – Middle East TechnicalUniversity (Dr. Veysi Isler)<br /> – DokuzEylulUniversity (Dr. Murat Ozgeren )<br />China – Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics(Dr. ShokoNioka)<br /> Hangzhou DianziUniversity?<br /> Med-X, Shanghai Jiao Tong University?<br /> Zhejiang University?<br />United Kingdom – The Defence Science and Technology Laboratory (DSTL)<br />Japan – Bukkyo University (Dr. Yasufumi Kuroda)<br />
  14. 14. Optical Brain Imaging<br />Human Performance Assessment…<br />
  15. 15. Air Traffic Controller <br />Cognitive Workload Monitor<br />Human Performance Assessment<br />Portable brain imaging technology <br />can “bring more of brain on <br />task”* <br />UAV Ground Operator <br />Training and Workload Monitor<br />Safe & Effective <br />Piloting<br />Brain Activity<br />Monitor<br />Pilot <br />Expertise Development Monitor<br />Crew can <br />manage & maintain high levels of cognitive information processing<br />Safe & effective performance <br />*DARPA: Dylan Schmorrow, Ph.D. LCDR, MSC, US Navy, Program Manager, ITO<br />
  16. 16. Air Traffic Controller<br />FAA Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) Study<br />Similar to SESAR (Single European Sky ATM Research) Program<br />16-channel fNIR sensor <br />ATC part-task<br />Communication type: <br /><ul><li>Voice Comm and Data Comm</li></ul>Workload manipulated by number of aircrafts in the sector: n= 6,12,18<br />
  17. 17. UAV Safe Piloting<br />US Army Medical Research and Materiel Command (USAMRMC) <br />The Telemedicine & Advanced Technology Research Center (TATRC)<br /><ul><li>UAV ground controller’s expertise level, cognitive workload and situational awareness are critical.
  18. 18. Operation failures due to human</li></ul> error (60% - 80% )<br /><ul><li>ground flight crew’s mental workload increase
  19. 19. inadequate training</li></li></ul><li>UAV Safe Piloting<br />Integration of the functional brain monitoring system with <br /><ul><li>training procedures
  20. 20. ground control systems
  21. 21. objective measure of expertise level to validate adequate training
  22. 22. real-time monitor of mental workload</li></ul>safe operation of UAVs…<br />
  23. 23. Optical Brain Imaging<br />Brain integrated Learning…“Brain in the Loop”<br />
  24. 24. Problem Solving & Math Learning<br />Tangram<br />Arithmetic<br />
  25. 25. Language Learning & Learning Disability<br /><ul><li> Brain activity during language learning (Hebrew,…)
  26. 26. Brain activity of regular and dyslexic readers
  27. 27. Learning enhancement</li></ul>…identifying processing similarities and differences between special populations and control groups <br />Director: <br />Prof. Zvia Breznitz<br />…Lexical Decision Task<br />
  28. 28. Simulation & Multimedia Application<br />Brain Activity Monitoring in VR Environment<br />
  29. 29. Optical Brain Imaging<br />Clinical Solutions…<br />
  30. 30. Optical Brain Imaging…<br />Near Infrared Based Platform<br />Traumatic Brain Injury<br />>> Portable Near-Infrared Technology for <br /> Detection of Hematoma<br />Drexel Optical Brain Imaging Team<br />Hasan Ayaz, PhD<br />BIOMED <br />InfrascannerTM<br />Kurtulus <br />Izzetoglu, PhD<br />BIOMED<br />Kambiz <br />Pourrezaei, PhD<br />BIOMED<br />…Solutions<br />Baruch <br />Ben Dor, PhD<br />BIOMED<br />Banu <br />Onaral, PhD<br />BIOMED<br />
  31. 31. Life Saving…<br />Near Infrared Based Platform<br />Neurorehabilitation<br />>> Assessment of Cognitive Impairment and Recovery <br /> Following Traumatic Brain injury (TBI)<br />Healthy<br />Subject<br />Anna C. <br />Merzagora, PhD<br />BIOMED<br />Maria <br />Schultheis, PhD<br />Psychology, CoAS<br />TBI<br />Patient<br />Banu <br />Onaral, PhD<br />BIOMED<br />…Solutions<br />
  32. 32. Life Saving…<br />Near Infrared Based Platform<br />Depth of Anesthesia<br />>> Portable fNIR system for monitoring depth of anesthesia to prevent awareness during surgery<br />Patient wearing fNIR Sensor <br />Kurtulus <br />Izzetoglu, Ph.D<br />BIOMED<br />George <br />Mychaskiw, MD <br />Anesthesiology, COM<br />fNIR<br />Awareness Monitor <br />James <br />Reynolds, MD, COM<br />Meltem<br />İzzetoğlu, Ph.DBIOMED<br />…Solutions<br />Banu <br />Onaral, PhD<br />BIOMED<br />Kambiz <br />Pourrezaei, PhD<br />BIOMED<br />
  33. 33. Optical Brain Imaging…<br />Near Infrared Based Platform<br />Cognitive Aging<br />fNIR<br />Roee Holtzer<br />Albert Einstein <br />CoM<br />Subject wearing fNIR during attention task <br />Meltem<br />Izzetoglu, PhD<br />BIOMED<br />Brain activity monitor while walking <br />>> Assessment of cognitive functions in natural settings<br />KurtulusIzzetoglu<br />BIOMED<br />…Solutions<br />Joe Verghese, MBBS, MS<br />Albert Einstein, CoM <br />Banu <br />Onaral, PhD<br />BIOMED<br />
  34. 34. Optical Brain Imaging…<br />Near Infrared Based Platform<br />Autism, Schizophrenia…<br />Functional Optical Brain Imaging Sensor<br />Drexel Optical Brain Imaging Team<br />Scott Bunce, PhD<br />Psychiatry, Penn State University COM<br />Personality and psychiatric disorders...<br />…Solutions<br />Kambiz <br />Pourrezaei, PhD<br />BIOMED<br />Banu <br />Onaral, PhD<br />BIOMED<br />
  35. 35. Optical Brain Imaging…<br />Near Infrared Based Platform<br />ALS, Spinal Cord Injury, Paralysis<br />Target Patient Population:<br /><ul><li>Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS)
  36. 36. Spinal Cord Injuries/Paralysis
  37. 37. Cerebral Palsy, Muscular Dystrophy
  38. 38. Brainstem Stroke, and others…</li></ul>Terry Heiman-<br />Patterson, MD<br />Neurology, COM<br />Patricia Shewokis, PhD<br />Nursing, CoNHP<br />>> Brain Computer Interface (BCI)<br />Hasan Ayaz, PhD<br />BIOMED<br />…Solutions<br />Banu<br />Onaral, PhD<br />BIOMED<br />
  39. 39. Life Saving…<br />Near Infrared Based Platform<br />Depression, Chronic Pain, Stroke…<br />>> To investigate the neurophysiological effects of manipulation of <br /> cortical excitability by <br />Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) device<br />Guglielmo Foffani,<br />FUHNPAIIN <br />Antonio Oliviero<br />FUHNPAIIN<br />Anna C. Merzagora, PhD Student<br />BIOMED<br />…Solutions<br />Banu <br />Onaral, PhD<br />BIOMED<br />Kambiz <br />Pourrezaei, PhD<br />BIOMED<br />
  40. 40. Life Saving…<br />Near Infrared Based Platform<br />Pediatric Monitoring<br />>> Functional Optical Brain Imaging Sensor<br />Arye <br />Rosen, PhD<br />BIOMED<br />Harel <br />Rosen, MD<br />Neonatology, CHOP<br />fNIR Sensor <br />for Neonates<br />Meltem<br />Izzetoglu, PhD<br />BIOMED<br />…Solutions<br />Kambiz <br />Pourrezaei, PhD<br />BIOMED<br />Banu <br />Onaral, PhD<br />BIOMED<br />
  41. 41. Philadelphia’s Expanding<br />TranslationalCommunity<br />Translational Partners<br />Drexel Partners <br />Medicine; Public Health; Nursing and Health Professions<br />Arts and Science; Engineering; Information Science<br />Media Arts and Design<br />Business and Law<br />Regional Partners<br />University of Pennsylvania; Fox Chase Cancer Research Institute, Thomas Jefferson University, Wistar Institute, Temple University, Childrens Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia University<br />Economic Development Agencies<br />BioAdvance, Ben Franklin Technology Partners, University City Science Center, Keystone Innovation Zone, Select Greater Philadelphia, Philadelphia Industrial Development Corporation…<br />Corporate Partners<br />Johnson and Johnson, Integra Life Sciences, Exponent, Medtronic, GSK, Becton Dickenson, Hospira…<br />Business Development, Legal and Investment Partners… Alumni and Friends…<br />…State of Pennsylvania and Federal Agencies<br />
  42. 42. National <br />TranslationalPartners<br />Wallace H. Coulter Foundation<br />National Best Practice in<br />Translational Research<br />Fusion of academic and business cultures… <br /><ul><li>Boston University
  43. 43. Case Western Reserve University
  44. 44. Drexel University
  45. 45. Duke University
  46. 46. Georgia Technology Institute
  47. 47. University of Michigan
  48. 48. Stanford University
  49. 49. University of Virginia
  50. 50. University of Washington
  51. 51. University of Wisconsin</li></ul>Wallace H. Coulter <br />“Science serves humanity”…Address unmet needs in healthcare<br />“Excellence & Sustainability to Perpetuity” <br /> through performance metrics<br />
  52. 52. Translational Research<br />Technology Commercialization<br />Translational Research<br />Gap<br />R&D…<br />Technology Proof of Concept<br />Feeder<br />Basic and Applied Research<br />Road<br />Map<br />Clinical Validation<br />Industrial PrototypeRegulatorty Pathway<br />Commercialization<br />& Manufacturing<br />Clinical<br />Prototype<br />Preclinical<br />Trials<br />Prototype<br />Feeder<br />…Health Care Products<br />Sealer Funds<br />Business Proof of Concept<br />Research and Development Projects<br />Market Assessment<br />Freedom to Operate<br />Regulatory & Reimbursement…<br />Business Plan<br />Risk Abatement<br />UNIVERSITY<br />INDUSTRY<br />SBIR, STIR, Corporate Ventures,<br />Private Foundations, Private Investors…<br />Federal and State Agencies,Corporate R&D, Private Foundations…<br />Investment<br />
  53. 53. Translational<br />Research Gap<br />Risk Abatement<br />Technology Commercialization<br />Translational Research<br />Pre-competition<br />Pre-competition<br />…Health Care Products<br />Clinical Use<br />Premarket / Regulatory<br />Approvals<br />R&D<br />Market<br />Regulatory<br />Pathway<br />Academic Value<br />Commercial Value<br />Clinical Trials<br />Degrees<br />Product <br />Development<br />Theses<br />Papers<br />Clinical Prototype<br />Intellectual Property<br />Preclinical<br />Trials<br />Business Proof of Concept<br />UNIVERSITY<br />INDUSTRY<br />Timeline<br />
  54. 54. Thank you!<br />Banu Onaral<br />3141 Chestnut StreetPhiladelphia, PA 19104Phone: 215-895-2215Fax: 215-895-4983Email:<br />WWW.BIOMED.DREXEL.EDU<br />