Cómo crear un producto innovador en turismo rural


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Ponencia impartida por Katia Sidali. profesora e investigadora de la Universidad de Gottingen, Alemania, sobre "Cómo crear un produto innovador" que tuvo lugar durante el desarrollo del IV Congreso Internaciona de Turismo Rural en Pamplona en febrero de 2013

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Cómo crear un producto innovador en turismo rural

  1. 1. Cómo crear un producto innovador / Creating innovative products Dr. Katia L. Sidali13.04.2013 1
  2. 2. The role of tourism in rural areas• In rural economies, diversification towards non-farming activities is considered a key factor among rural development policies (Hjalager 1996, Jang &Yong-Lyoul 2007, Knowd 2006)• Above all, tourism is recognized as a tool to increase the income of farmers and employment opportunities in rural regions (Embacher 1994, Wood et al. 2000) Farm tourism: a cross-country empirical study in 2 Germany and Italy
  3. 3. Image of rural areas has changed!• Shift from an undifferentiated space for food production (Lowe et al., 1993) to a diversified space performing multiple functions!• Increasing demand looking for alternatives to mass tourism• Opening of new economic opportunities!
  4. 4. ...However, rural operators are faced to several challenges:• ... have limited financial capabilities due to deteriorating agricultural subsidies• ... lack of entrepreneurship skills• ... are overtaxed by flexibility of “new“ customers• ... are territorially isolated (e.g. infrastructural digital divide)• ... lack of information technology skills (e.g. cultural digital divide) • Rural operators require counselling with respect to implementation of successful strategies! Farm tourism: a cross-country empirical sudy 4 in Germany and Italy
  6. 6. Researchproject! Farm tourism in Germany• Almost 25 000 farm operations• Turn over 943 million euros• 1.6 million guests• 1997 farm tourism reached a peak of almost 3.9 million guests!6
  7. 7. Reasons for the decreasing trend• Decrease of the birth rate of the German population• New appealing tourist destinations (i.e. new European countries, Turkey)• Rapid increase of low-cost airlines (Ryanair, Tuifly etc.)• Lack of awareness of German farm tourism among the population?7
  8. 8. Experimental approach of the present study:• Identification of 4 possible scenarios of farm tourism (n=500)8
  9. 9. Stated interest1 for farm tourism in the whole sampleManor house farm tourism = 0.26 (σ = 1.21 )Organic farm tourism = 0.13 (σ = 1.16 )Current farm tourism = -0.02 (σ = 1.20 )Beauty farm tourism = -0.05 (σ = 1.29 )Wild-west farm tourism = -0.08 (σ = 1.21 )1five-point Likert scala from +2 totally agree to -2 totally disagree 9
  10. 10. Interesting niches • Organic farm tourism: – guests and potential guests seem to appreciate this scenario – encouraging sign for farm operators thinking about converting to organic farming – Inclusion of organic farming activities in the leisure programs – Integration of organic-products shops within the farms – Explicit promotion of the sustainable nature of organic farm tourismSection Marketing of Food and Agricultural Products Sidali / Spiller 10
  11. 11. • Wild-west farm tourism: – guests of current farm tourism appreciate to challenge their skills in a natural environment – Inclusion of “adventure-oriented” activities in leisure programsSection Marketing of Food and Agricultural Products Sidali / Spiller 11
  12. 12. Risky niches... Beauty farm tourism: – guests and potential guests clearly show to dislike this scenario – Current guests might perceive an “image-conflict” with the current supply of farm tourismSection Marketing of Food and Agricultural Products Sidali / Spiller 12
  13. 13. Managerial implications: Beauty farm tourism: • Do not invest if you want to retain the current customers segment – Image-correction techniques would be too expensive and little efficientSection Marketing of Food and Agricultural Products Sidali / Spiller 13
  14. 14. Preliminary conclusions • Farmers greatest power of attraction is their „mediating role“ between nature and individuals – Farmers as teachers (e.g. organic farming) – Farmers as entertainers (e.g. re-inventation of tradition) – Farmers as backstage providers for rural-tourism activities (e.g. sole accommodation) Differentiation is the right strategy to orient the farm business towards customers‘ needsSection Marketing of Food and Agricultural Products a cross-country empirical study in Farm tourism: Sidali / Spiller 14 Germany and Italy
  15. 15. GOVERNANCE
  16. 16. Community-type destinations (Franch, 2010)• A territorially differentiated supply succeeds to attract tourists!• However this implies a creative and innovative governance of rural areas: – Actors’ involvement and coordination – Valorisation of all actors (empowerment) • The symbolic capital of a region needs community-based strategies16
  17. 17. “Albergo Diffuso”Best practice!
  18. 18. Best practice????
  20. 20. Dagevos, 2009
  21. 21. From a Asian authentic food specialty ... Personalexperience!
  22. 22. ...to an icon of territorial identity:the German festival of Asian authentic food!
  23. 23. What do all these examples have in common?• Strong support of governmental body• Interdisciplinary and pluralistic approach (e.g., inventory of food specialty or artistic objects are commonly created by marketers, historians, anthropologists, citizens, etc.)
  24. 24. What do all these examples have in common?• Bottom-up approach!• Supply: each farmer, each retailer counts• Demand: development of innovative practices in the field of adult education (e.g. Grundtvig and Leonardo Da Vinci European projects!)
  25. 25. Thank you for your kind attention! Contact: Dr. Katia Laura Sidali University of Göttingen Dpt. of Agricultural Economics and Rural Development Göttingen E-Mail: ksidali@gwdg.de Tel: + 49 (0) 551 39 78 3833
  26. 26. Challenges posed by changing consumer behaviourNowadays, tourists...• ... travel more frequently but stay shorter• ... need flexible tourist products (e.g. „glamping“)• ... want to be independent on holiday• ... prefer to directly search and book their holidays (Web 2.0)• ... value real, authentic experiences (e.g. favela tourism)• ... are more environmentally conscious• ... have new cultural horizons (cultural context vs single attraction) Farm tourism: a cross-country empirical sudy 34 in Germany and Italy