Cwp pamela trevithick powerpoint 61 slides final


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Cwp pamela trevithick powerpoint 61 slides final

  1. 1. Confronting Women’s Poverty: turning things around A one-day event International Women’s Day 2013 (8th March) Bristol City HallWomen’s poverty and the wider picture: an evidence-based journey Pamela Trevithick Feminist activist
  2. 2. Cutting Women Out This presentation builds on the report produced by the Bristol Fawcett Anti- Cuts Group – Cutting Women Out in Bristol (2010 ) I do not propose to cover issues highlighted in Vicky Boroughs’s presentation on the impact of the cuts on women’s employment and low pay status
  3. 3. What I plan to cover 1 An overview of the impact of the cuts on women 2 The poverty picture in the UK – indicators of hardship 3 The price of inequality 4 Why cuts are not the cure . . . .
  4. 4. 1. The impact of the cuts on women Government policy has a direct bearing on the extend to which millions of people are forced to live in poverty. The impact of these policies disproportionately affect women in six key areas: This has been summarised to 1. as workers by the Fawcett Society as the 2. as mothers ‘triple jeopardy’ that women face in terms of – 3. as carers (1) slashed benefits 4. as benefit claimants (2) job loses 5. as users of key services (3) loss of core public services Fawcett Society - 6. as citizens triple-jeopardy-2/
  5. 5. 1. The impact of the cuts on womenOverview: Women’s Budget Group An analysis by the Women’s Budget Group (2010) shows that: - the groups that will suffer the greatest reduction in their standard of living due to cuts in public services are lone parents and single pensioners, the majority of whom are women; - lone parents will lose services worth 18.5% and female single pensioners services worth 12% of their respective incomes; Women’s Budget Group -
  6. 6. 1. The impact of the cuts on womenOverview: Women’s Budget Group - overall single women will lose services worth 60% more than single men will lose as proportions of their respective incomes, and nearly three times those lost by couples - the cuts will lead to hundreds of thousands of women losing their job. 65% of all public sectors workers are women whose pay and conditions of employment are likely to deteriorate without our support Women’s Budget Group (2010) -
  7. 7. 1. The impact of the cuts on womenOverview: Women’s Budget Group - cuts in welfare spending fall disproportionately on the finances of women. Child Benefit is paid almost 100% to women; while 53% of Housing Benefit claimants are single women. Both benefits have been cut significantly in real terms and eligibility has been tightened Women’s Budget Group (2010) - Cuts in public services will almost inevitably increase women’s caring responsibilities and add further barriers to the employment opportunities for women
  8. 8. 1. The impact of the cuts on womenOverview: Women’s Budget Group Employment: and the public sector Just under 40% of women’s jobs nationally are in the public sector - in the NHS, schools and caring services - compared to around 15% for men’s jobs Women’s Budget Group (2010) - Within this picture UK childcare costs are rising at more than twice the rate of inflation Haroon Sidddique (2013) -
  9. 9. 1. The impact of the cuts on womenIncome inequality hits women the hardest Throughout the last decade, a much larger proportion of women than men have been low paid In 2010, around 3½ million employees aged 22 to retirement were paid less than £7 per hour. 2⁄3 were women and 1⁄3 were men Among the low-paid part-timers, women predominate. In total, in 2010 almost 2⁄5 of all part-time workers were paid less than £7 per hour The Poverty Site -
  10. 10. 1. The impact of the cuts on womenChildcare costs According to a Daycare Trust Childcare Costs Survey a part-time nursery place (25 hours) for a child under two years rose to an estimated £106.38 a week and a full-time place to £11,000 a year A Daycare survey snapshot showed that a place at Britain’s costliest nursery (£42,000) ran at 25% more than a place at a top public school such as Charterhouse (£30,574 a year) Daycare Trust -
  11. 11. 2. Poverty in the UKPoverty statistics 2010–11 – the estimated UK population living below the poverty line was 13.0 million (21.3%) when housing costs are taken into consideration Institute of Fiscal Studies (2012) Relative poverty – indicates the proportion of individuals with household incomes below 60% of the average (median) household income in a particular year after income tax, council tax and housing costs have been deducted Institute of Fiscal Studies (2012) -
  12. 12. 2. Poverty in the UKChild poverty The ‘End Child Poverty’ coalition, which is made up of more than 150 organisations and groups, calculate than 4 million children – one in three – are currently living in poverty in the UK. This is one of the highest rates in the industrialised world End Child Poverty - Ian Duncan Smith and the schools minister, David Laws, want to introduce a new range of indicators that include family stability, worklessness and educational achievement Patrick Wintour (2012) -
  13. 13. 2. Poverty in the UKChild Poverty in Bristol The ‘Ending Child Poverty’ Map of the estimated number of children in poverty in Bristol in 2012 = 21,366 children The estimated percentage of Bristol children in poverty in End Child Poverty - 2012 = 25% of children 25
  14. 14. 2. Poverty in the UK Other examples of the hardships experienced by people on low incomes or people living below the poverty line covered in this presentation include: fuel poverty food poverty homelessness debt
  15. 15. 2. Poverty in the UKFuel poverty What is fuel poverty? A household is said to be experiencing fuel poverty if it needs to spend more than 10% of its income on fuel to maintain an adequate level of warmth. In England, fuel poverty is modelled using the data from the English Housing Survey (EHS) It is estimated that around 6 million UK households are currently living in fuel poverty End Fuel Poverty -
  16. 16. 2. Poverty in the UKUtility prices Soaring gas profits. An announcement in March 2013Gas showed an 11% increase in profits for British Gas and its parent group, Centrica a staggering £1.3 billion promised to shareholders Terry Macalister (2013) - Why? Poor regulation - Despite some new requirements on companies to publish the accounts of their retail businesses, the prices they pay for the gas they supply to customers remains unknown, even to Ofgem (which regulates the electricity and gas markets in Great Britain), which does not have jurisdiction beyond UK borders Tim Webb (2010) -
  17. 17. 2. Poverty in the UK Utility prices Thames Water and Anglian Water Water paid no corporation tax on the profits. Indeed, in 2012 Thames Water enjoyed a £76m tax rebate. As a reward, Martin Baggs, chief executive, received a bonus of £420,000 on top of his £425,000 salary He is said to be in line for a further windfall of £1m based on companyDaily Mirror › February 06, 2013 performance through to 2015 Daniel Boffey, Ian Griffiths and Toby Helm (2012) -
  18. 18. 2. Poverty in the UKFood poverty What is food poverty? The Department of Health has defined food poverty as “the inability to afford, or to have access to, food to make up a healthy diet.”  Massive growth in foodbanks 2009: The Trussell Trust approved 28 food banks 2013: there are 325 foodbanks currently in operation + three more added weekly 2011-12: foodbanks fed 128,687 people nationwide The Trussell Trust - USA - an estimated 37 million people receive charity food Canada - an estimated 900,00 people use food banks each month Some eligible children denied access to free school meals Patrick Butler (2013) -
  19. 19. 2. Poverty in the UKFood poverty Bristol foodbanks - and other places - offering hot food: The Salvation Army - Bristol Citadel & Candle Community Centre Bristol Methodist Centre Bristol Soup Run Trust Churches Together Watershed Churches Together Broadmead Bus Station by subway Churches Together, Queens Road Julian Trust Matthew Tree Project Carpenters Foodstore, The Withywood Centre Matthew Tree Project Foodstore and central food hub Great George Street Mission Matthew Tree Project Foodstore, The Mede NW Foodbank
  20. 20. 2. Poverty in the UKHousing/homelessness Homelessness on the increase 2012 - Dept for Communities and Local Government data shows a 14% rise in people classed as homeless – with 69,460 children/expected children are in homeless households. Charities warn the figure is much higher Simon Rogers (2012) - Centrepoint’s research estimates that roughly 60,000 young people are using hostels or sleeping rough - over three times higher than official figures
  21. 21. 2. Poverty in the UKHousing/homelessness Homelessness on the increase According to the National Housing Federation, homeless families in Bed and Breakfast (B&B) accommodation has increase by 44% 20 councils warned by the government about housing families in B&Bs for Daily Mirror 18 February 2013 “unacceptably long time” Randeep Ramesh (2012) -
  22. 22. 2. Poverty in the UKHousing/homelessness Housing picture in Bristol 6,500 private tenants face cuts of £15 to £25 per week in their Housing Benefit, forcing many into destitution or homelessness. Over 14,300 households are waiting on the Housing Register An average of nine people chase every private tenancy Bristol Poverty (Housing) Action -
  23. 23. 2. Poverty in the UKDebt UK Debt Statistics from Credit Action January – September 2013 - 8,308 new debt problems were dealt with by the Citizens Advice Bureau (CAB) each working day September - November 213 - 1,727 people were made redundant every day Every 16 min 4 sec - a property is repossessed Credit Action -
  24. 24. 2. Poverty in the UKDebt statistics for Bristol Clients seen by the Bristol Debt and Advice Centre January – December 2012 Of the total clients seen, 55% were women A breakdown of 1,140 female clients revealed the following: Note the number of Female clients with a long term 285 women with long illness term illnesses (25%) Female clients with a priority debt 567 and the total number Employment status of female Unknown: 21 in full and part-time clients Carer: 4 Training/Education: 12 employment - yet Other: 23 still in debt (31%) Unemployed: 533 Retired: 46 Unemployment is Self-employed: 29 key feature for Unfit for work: 113 women seeking debt Working full time: 137 Working part time: 222 advice and support (46%) (from Bristol Debt and Advice Centre)
  25. 25. 2. Poverty in the UKBenefit changes There are too many changes to describe in detail but the following summary indicates the changes proposed/enacted: Migration of existing claimants to Employment Support Allowance - continues until April 2014 Increases to all working age benefits will increase by 1% annually until 2016. 10 million households effected Child benefit frozen for 3 years Maternity Grant restricted to first child only Taper on tax credits moved from 39% to 41% Childcare element of Working Tax Credit (WTC) reduced from 80% to 70% of costs (up to pre-set maximum) Local Housing Allowance capped Large increases of non dependent deductions for Housing Benefit recipients Local Housing Allowance – rates set at 30th percentile not 50th Educational Maintenance Allowance abolished Single-room rent restriction extended from people under 25 to people under 35 (From Jane Emanuel, Bristol Advice Network)
  26. 26. 2. Poverty in the UKBenefit changes What’s been proposed from January 2013 onwards: ‘Affluence test’ for Child Benefit Council Tax Benefit handed to local authorities ‘Bedroom Tax’ for social housing sector (under-occupiers will have reduced housing benefit or have to transfer to smaller property) Working-age Disability Living Allowance recipients must apply for Personal Independence Payments Crisis loans and Community Care Grants abolished, budget reduced then passed to local authorities to devise their own scheme Household Benefit Cap for all except Disabled Living Allowance (DLA) recipients and war widows/widowers Universal Credit – replaces Income Support, Income-based Job Seekers Allowance (JSA), Employment and Support Allowance (ESA), Housing Benefit, Child Tax Credit and Working Tax Credit Pathfinders in the North to start this process which may begin in Southwest 2014? (From Jane Emanuel, Bristol Advice Network)
  27. 27. 2. Poverty in the UKBenefit changes: two insidious changes 1. Universal credit scheme involves: 1 applying for benefits online 2 weekly payments being replaced with monthly payments 3 a single payment being issued per household The Womens Resource and Development Agency said: “It is estimated that in 80% of cases Universal Credit will be paid to the male partner in the household”. Rosa Prince The Telegraph - claim-universal-credit.html This change is likely to impact negatively on women’s bargaining position and status within the family, particularly for women with no other independent income
  28. 28. 2. Poverty in the UKBenefit changes: two insidious changes 1. Universal credit scheme 70 organisations submitted over 500 pages of evidence outlining concerns about the governments plans Benefits have to be applied for online Yet “The new universal credit system risks causing difficulties to the 8.5 million people who have never used the internet and a further 14.5 million who have virtually no ICT [internet + communications technology] skills” (CAB) Department for Work and Pensions (DWP) stated: “anyone without IT skills or access to a computer will be fully supported and we have processes in place to help them” but who will provide/fund this support? Rosa Prince (2012)
  29. 29. 2. Poverty in the UKBenefit changes: two insidious changes 2. The ‘bedroom tax’ New rules state that housing benefit and universal credit claimants deemed to have one unused bedroom in their council or housing association home will lose 14% of their housing benefit and those with two or more will lose 25% The ‘bedroom tax’ is likely to hit single parents and disabled people hardest Toby Helm and Tracy McVeigh (2013)
  30. 30. 2. Poverty in the UK Other dangers – changes to the NHS But not without a fight . . . 15,000 protesters march to save Lewisham A & E and to stop© Jenny Fleming the downgrading of maternity servicesOliver Letwin, Etonian, Tory Cabinet Ministerand Chief of Policy boasted in 2004:“the NHS will cease to exist within 5 yearsof a Conservative victory”.
  31. 31. 2. Poverty in the UK Other dangers – changes to the NHS The Health & Social Care Act 2012 Clauses that lead to the privatisation of health care could seriously reduce the quality and availability of health provision for people living in poverty or on low incomes On some nights the NHS out- Back door privatisation of-hours service in Cornwall, Britains leading medical body, the run by the private company Academy of Medical Royal Serco, had only 1 GP to care Colleges, has expressed grave for 535,000 patients (BBC News 29 September 2012 concern that the government is planning to privatise large sections k-england-cornwall-19770029). of the NHS by the back door – in breach of previous promises to A recent poll surveyed by the limit the role of the private sector. Royal College of General This reneges on previous Practitioners revealed that ¾ agreements with the profession of GPs want health and Observer Sunday 3rd March 2013 social care bill withdrawnThe Independent Sunday 3rd March 2013 The Guardian 12 January 2012).
  32. 32. 2. Poverty in the UKDanger posed by privatisationIt is worth remembering that the privatisation of social care has in places been disastrous. Thisarticle from the Financial Times shows how 5 Southern Cross executives sold shares beforeits value crashed and were legally able to walk away with £35m. Southern Cross provided carehomes for older people and its crash led to a crisis for people who were living in these homes.
  33. 33. 3. The price of inequality The poorest 10% will suffer 15 times more than the richest (False Economy website) What we are witnessing is the break-up of the welfare state The so-called ‘economic recession’ and financial ‘deficit’ are being used to justify cuts in the welfare budget and further privatisation of welfare and health provision
  34. 34. 3. The price of inequalityThe big picture: inequality is on the rise in most counties within theOrganisation for Economic Co-operation & Development [OECD] Increased inequality -- 2008 -- 1985 The OECD includes 34 countries (From: Divided We Stand: Why Inequality Keeps Rising © OECD 2011)
  35. 35. 3. The price of inequalityThe share of top incomes increased, especially in English-speakingcountries. The USA and UK have sharp rises for top income earners(From:Divided We Stand:Why Inequality KeepsRising© OECD 2011)
  36. 36. 3. The price of inequality This graph shows that greater the income gap between the richest and poorest 20% in a country, the greater the likelihood of health and social problems being intensified. This is detrimental not just to people living in poverty, but to the vast majority of society. This research suggest that many health and social problems, such as high levels of mental illness, numbers in prison, rates of drug and alcohol use, weight problems, and low levels of public trust tend to be worse in less equal societies graph is from Wilkinson and Pickett’s (2010) influential text The Spirit Level: Why Equalityis Better for Everyone. London: Penguin. Wilkinson and Pickett are the founders of the EqualityTrust. Equality Bristol is a local branch of the Equality Trust
  37. 37. 3. The price of inequality This ‘Infographic’ on The Price of Inequality by Adam Frost and Rosie Roche is on the Equality Trust website an enlarged version of thischart, see The New Statesman
  38. 38. 4. Cuts are not the cureCuts in BristolAn overview of Bristol’s population: 2011 Census Bristol’s population = 428,100 people Bristol is the 7th largest city in England and is one of 8 ‘core cities’ (+ Birmingham, Manchester, Liverpool, Nottingham, Leeds, Sheffield, Newcastle) 16% of Bristol’s population belong to a black/ethnic minority group
  39. 39. 4. Cuts are not the cureBristol advice centres and services Advice agencies are overwhelmed and struggling cope with the number of people seeking help Legal Aid cuts have led to redundancies in many centres Employment Support Allowance (ESA) appeals currently constitute more than 60% of specialist advice time. In Bristol area 85% of cases represented at Tribunal are successful
  40. 40. 4. Cuts are not the cureBristol advice centres and services Advice Centres for Avon (ACFA) Age UK Bristol Avon & Bristol Law Centre (ABLC) Bristol City Council Welfare Rights and Money Advice Service Bristol Citizens’ Advice Bureau (CAB) Bristol Debt and Advice Centre (BDAC) North Bristol Advice Centre South Bristol Advice Services St Pauls Advice Centre
  41. 41. 4. Cuts are not the cure The deficit ‘The deficit is simply the gap between what the government spends each year and what it receives in tax . . . UK debt has grown in the recession but is much lower than in the past’ (from False Economy) False Economy - This graph shows that for the UK, the National Debt has been much higher than it is today Quick fact Current UK national debt: 60% Average UK national debt 1988 -2010: 112% (from False Economy)
  42. 42. 4. Cuts are not the cureThe deficit grew because tax income fellIf countries spend more than they get back from tax they normally have to borrowmoney to make up the difference. If the government covers a deficit by borrowingmoney, then that will increase the national debt. When times are good and taxincome is higher than spending, governments can pay back part of the debt and itwill come down. Our UK national debt is lower than in many other countries including France, Germany, Canada and the USA (from False Economy)
  43. 43. 4. Cuts are not the cure The UK is the 7th richest country in the world butThere is money . . . the allocation of resources and funding favours certain groups or vested interests over others e.g. Renewing Trident – experts state the UKs Trident nuclear deterrent will cost a minimum of £20bn plus £100bn to build and operate Subsidising the arms trade - the level of public subsidy (from taxpayers) is estimated to be £700m per year according to research by the Campaign Against Arms Trade (CAAT) Subsidising private schools – the current subsidy to private schools is estimated to be £100m of taxpayers’ money
  44. 44. 4. Cuts are not the cureBanks and bankers A report from the London School of Economics revealed: London’s top 1,400 bankers take home an average £2 million a year including £568,000 “basic” pay London finance workers received 14.2% more in salary and cash bonuses in 2011 than 2008 average workers outside the City got 3.7% over the same period. This is equivalent to a 6% FALL because inflation rose by (9.7%) £1 in every £7 earned in Britain now goes to the top 1% of earners Brian Bell and John van Reenen (2013)
  45. 45. 4. Cuts are not the cureBanks and bankers Guardian 24 February 2013 Daily Mail online have a 83% stake in the Royal Bank of Scotland.In March 2013, 26 EU finance ministers imposed curbs on bankers bonuses as a strategy to curb bankers’incentive to gamble and repeating the excesses that led to the financial crisis. The UK opposed these curbs .
  46. 46. 4. Cuts are not the cureTax avoidance and evasion In 2010, the government, via Her Majestys Revenue and Customs [HMRC], let Vodafone off a £6bn tax bill The tax gap (1) tax avoidance (finding loopholes e.g. tax havens) is estimated to be about £25bn per annum (2) tax evasion (breaking the law) is estimated to be about £70bn per annum according to World Bank data (3)unpaid and late-paid tax – currently evaluated by HMRC to be at least £26bn per annum Together, these figures = more than £120bn, ‘enough, at least in principle, to close the whole current government deficit’ (Murphy 2010) Richard Murphy (2010) Tax Research -
  47. 47. 4. Cuts are not the cureTax avoidance and evasion Tax inspector job losses contribute to a failure to collect 1.1bn in taxes in 2004-5 staff were employed nearly 100,000 by June 2010 the numbers fell to 68,000 by 2015 the numbers are likely to fall to 55,000 (nearly half the 2005 number) Experts indicate that staff were not being properly trained and equipped for the job “Last year (2009) 5,000 frontline (tax inspector) staff went and more still are to go. This makes no sense: each frontline member of staff brings in on average 30 times in tax what it costs to employ them. The result is that tax that is so badly needed to keep services going is being given away” (Murphy 2010) Richard Murphy (2010)
  48. 48. 4. Cuts are not the cureTax reduction for companies - Top rate of tax reduced from 50% to 45% on salaries of more than £150,000 - No increase to Capital Gains tax, static at 28% - A £2,000 employment allowance allows a third of all employers to pay no National Insurance ‘ jobs tax - Corporation Tax steadily reducing from 28% in 2010 to 21% in 2014 - one of the lowest corporation tax rates in the western world The authorative Institute of Fiscal Studies estimate that the poorest 10% of households will lose an average of £127 under the 2013 budget changes, while the richest 10% will gain almost 10 times that figure - £1,265. Families with children will be hit even harder, with the poorest 10% losing £236 a year
  49. 49. Why is this happening?15,000 protesters march to saveLewisham A & E and to stop thedowngrading of maternity services The intention: to promote the breakup of the welfare state and to divert funding in order to support the profit motive and private enterprise
  50. 50. Why is this happening?15,000 protesters march to saveLewisham A & E and to stop thedowngrading of maternity services The strategy: to overwhelm and overstretch public services with the sheer number of policy changes being set in motion
  51. 51. Why is this happening?15,000 protesters march to saveLewisham A & E and to stop thedowngrading of maternity services The strategy: divide and rule by setting people against each other people on benefits versus ‘hard working people’ people on benefits versus ‘heroic’ soldiers one hospital (Lewisham) versus another hospital (S. London Healthcare NHS Trust) people who “deserve to be helped” versus “those who don’t”
  52. 52. Divide and rule The impact of stigma and other social influences on applying for benefits – some research finding suggest that the public see claimants as less deserving than they did 20 years agoNegative reporting of benefitclaimants in newspapers. From
  53. 53. Unclaimed benefits Community Links, a coalition of 27 charities co-ordinated by the Citizens Advice Bureau, stated that in 2009 an estimated £16bn in welfare benefits and tax credits went unclaimed Community Care BBC News 2010
  54. 54. The stigma of poverty feelings of shame self blame guilt secrecy powerlessness hopelessness despair injustice
  55. 55. UK cabinet 2009: 23 millionaires out of 29 Only 4 female cabinet members!!
  56. 56. Could Iain Duncan Smith (IDS), the current Work and PensionsSecretary, survive on £53 a week or £7.57 a day - a 97% reductionin his current income. As a cabinet minister, Duncan Smith earns£134,565 a year, which is £1,581.02 a week or £225 a day after tax*The Telegraph Mr Duncan Smith lives in a 16th- century Grade-II listed Tudor house in Swanbourne which is said to be worth £2m. The property includes Photo - a swimming pool, tennis courts and Independent three acres of grounds. It belongs to Tuesday 2 April Mrs Duncan Smiths father, John 2013 Tapling Fremantle, the fifth Baron Cottesloe, who moved out of the house with his wife several years ago. Mr Duncan Smith is technically a tenant and living rent-free with his wife and children. The Independent cs/george-osborne-mounts-fierce-defence-of- essential-cut-in-top-tax-8556168.html 300,000 people signed the petition at
  57. 57. As feminists we are known for our wonderful sense of humour . . . .© Jill Posener 1979
  58. 58. We are also known for our determination to builda better and fairer society – for women, forchildren, for men - both at home and abroad . . . .Please join us . . . . © Jenny Fleming
  59. 59. References Please see separate handout