Revealing the gaps A study of Business Process Modelling Language utilisation in South African organisations


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John Hill, Lisa Seymour, Lunga Silandela, Revealing the gaps: A study of Business Process Modelling Language utilisation in South African organisations

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Revealing the gaps A study of Business Process Modelling Language utilisation in South African organisations

  1. 1. Revealing the Gaps:BPML utilisation in South Africa John Hill, Lisa F Seymour, Lunga Silandela Information Systems University of Cape Town
  2. 2. Revealing the Gaps:BPML utilisation in South Africa• BPMLs• Modelling Tools• BPML Limitations• Purpose• Limitations & Findings• Conclusion• Moving Forward
  3. 3. Modelling & BPMLs• This ability to model business processes formally Transition Action is a fundamental part of BPM (business process management) Transition• Many business process modelling languages Transition (BPMLs) and models have been developed such <No op... as UML AD, Flow Charting, EPC, Petri Nets, Transition BPMN etc.• Yet BPMLs differ in that they describe or Final state highlight perspectives differently or to a different degree [4].
  4. 4. Modelling Tools• A wide range of free/inexpensive tools are available (Aris Express, Transition Visio, Oryx, etc.) [15] but often lack the support and functionality Action required for in depth, enterprise wide deployment [16] Transition Transition <No op... Transition Final state Recker [12]
  5. 5. Many Tools many BPMLs Transition• Many tools support multiple BPMLs. Action Transition Transition <No op... Transition Final state
  6. 6. Transition ActionTransitionTransition<No op...TransitionFinal state
  7. 7. BPML Limitations Transition• All BPMLs have a shortcoming in that they describe Action different aspects of business to different extents• Choosing a BPML that can describe the elements Transition (business perspectives) that are important to the Transition organisation and purpose is vital. <No op... Transition Final state
  8. 8. Purpose: “Reveal the Gaps” TransitionUsage gap: The gap between the elements that can be Action modelled by an organisation’s chosen BPML and the elements that are actually modelled by individuals within Transition that organisation. TransitionExpectation gap: The gap between the elements that an <No op... organisation expects its BPML to model and the elements which the BPML can actually model. TransitionNeeds gap: The number of elements that can’t be modelled by an organisation’s chosen BPML but are wanted to be Final state modeled
  9. 9. Web Survey • Modelling purpose • 15 Respondents (60% • Analyse & Improve 11 SMEs) • Communicate 11 BPML • Enactment 2“Since these types of tools are UML ADvery expensive, not all BPMNemployees have access to it RADand VISIO is most often used IDEF3as the tool to model business EPCprocesses.” (LargeCorporation Using UML)
  10. 10. Limitations Transition• Small Sample Action• Language constraints vs tool constraints Transition• We did not update the List-Korherr evaluation framework. Transition • Since their framework was published BPMN 2.0 was released <No op... with substantial changes. • UML AD has not undergone substantial recent revisions since v2 Transition was released in 2005. Final state
  11. 11. A Usage Gap exists Transition• The different BPMLs can model between 14 and 32 relevant Action constructs (elements).• Yet, on average the usage percentage of the sample was 49%. Transition• This suggests that almost half the elements that organisations’ Transition BPMLs can model aren’t being utilised.• Supports literature [16] <No op... Transition Final state
  12. 12. An Expectation Gap exists• We found a lack of understanding with regard to what elements Transition BPMLs can actually model. Action• The potential implication of this lack of understanding is the Transition implementation of the wrong or unsuitable BPML within an organisation. Transition• zur Muehlen & Recker [16] suggest that a lack of training in BPML <No op... tool utilisation is to blame for this “expectation gap” Transition Final state
  13. 13. A Needs Gap exists• Organisations still require the ability to model more elements Transition than what their BPMLs can model. Action• This could be either : Transition • a general inability of BPMLs to model certain elements, • the implementation of unsuitable BPMLs Transition • or a lack of understanding regarding what elements a given BPML <No op... can model• It has been suggested that a post BPML implementation “needs Transition gap” arises from a misunderstanding of the non-functional requirements of a BPML [23]. Final state
  14. 14. SMEs vs Large organisations Transition• SMEs utilise BPMLs in the same (or similar) way Action that larger organisations utilise BPMLs Transition• No association between company size and: • Unused elements Transition <No op... • Incorrect expectations Transition • Needs Final state
  15. 15. Conclusion Transition• Brings into question the general suitability of the use of Action BPMLs in particular, UML AD being employed in South African organisations to model processes Transition• South African organisations currently fail to utilise Transition Business Process Modelling Languages effectively. <No op...• A combination of lack of understanding and shortcomings of BPMLs appear to drive this Transition ineffectiveness. Final state
  16. 16. Moving Forward• This evaluation framework for examination of BPML Transition utilisation within organisations has the potential to be scaled Action up once updated. Transition• Why do the gaps exist? • Are the gaps as a result of misrepresentation by vendors of a Transition BPML’s modelling capability? <No op... • Are the gaps as a result of poor/incomplete understanding by the organisations implementing a BPML? Transition• Organisations need to realise the full potential of effective BPML utilisation Final state
  17. 17. TransitionThank you ! Action Transition Transition <No op...Discussion Transition Final state