David Alan Grier - Macotarefas, Microtarefas e Inovação

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David Alan Grier - Macotarefas, Microtarefas e Inovação

  1. 1. Macrotasking,Microtasking,&Innovation March 2012 David Alan Grier Center for International Science & Technology Policy George Washington University© Djaghe LLC 2012
  2. 2. Crowdfunding© Djaghe LLC 2012
  3. 3. Crowdfunding© Djaghe LLC 2012
  4. 4. Improve Crowdfunding Economy© Djaghe LLC 2012
  5. 5. Improve Crowdfunding Economy Crowd Innovation© Djaghe LLC 2012
  6. 6. Improve Crowdfunding Economy Crowd Innovation© Djaghe LLC 2012
  7. 7. Improve Crowdfunding Economy Crowd Innovation Innovation© Djaghe LLC 2012
  8. 8. WORK Means of producing Goods and Services Macrotasking Microtasking© Djaghe LLC 2012
  9. 9. Coordinating Human Activity Illustrates Benefits )© Djaghe LLC 2012
  10. 10. Coordinating Human Activity Illustrates Benefits Explains Innovative Power© Djaghe LLC 2012
  11. 11. Coordinating Human Activity Illustrates Benefits Explains Innovative Power Long Term Trend© Djaghe LLC 2012
  12. 12. Coordinating Human Activity Illustrates Benefits Explains Innovative Power Long Term Trend (1757)© Djaghe LLC 2012
  13. 13. Claims for #crowdsourcing Crowdsourcing will make us:© Djaghe LLC 2012
  14. 14. Claims for #crowdsourcing Crowdsourcing will make us:  Innovative© Djaghe LLC 2012
  15. 15. Claims for #crowdsourcing Crowdsourcing will make us:  Innovative  Wealthy© Djaghe LLC 2012
  16. 16. Claims for #crowdsourcing Crowdsourcing will make us:  Innovative  Wealthy  Smarter© Djaghe LLC 2012
  17. 17. Claims for #crowdsourcing Crowdsourcing will make us:  Innovative  Wealthy  Smarter  Healthy© Djaghe LLC 2012
  18. 18. Claims for #crowdsourcing Crowdsourcing will make us:  Innovative  Wealthy  Smarter  Healthy  Artistic© Djaghe LLC 2012
  19. 19. Claims for #crowdsourcing Crowdsourcing will make us:  Innovative  Wealthy  Smarter  Healthy  Artistic  More Attractive to Members of the Opposite Gender© Djaghe LLC 2012
  20. 20. Crowdsourcing will: Fulfill the Promise of the Information Economy© Djaghe LLC 2012
  21. 21. Crowdsourcing will: Overthrow the Bourgeoisie© Djaghe LLC 2012
  22. 22. Crowdsourcing will: Overthrow the Bourgeoisie Dictatorship of the Proletariat© Djaghe LLC 2012
  23. 23. Crowdsourcing will: Overthrow the Bourgeoisie Dictatorship of the Proletariat Dominance of Markets© Djaghe LLC 2012
  24. 24. And Finally:© Djaghe LLC 2012
  25. 25. One Thing: Reduce Costs of Transactions© Djaghe LLC 2012
  26. 26. One Thing: Reduce Costs of Transactions Use of Markets© Djaghe LLC 2012
  27. 27. One Thing: Reduce Costs of Transactions Use of Markets Digital Technology© Djaghe LLC 2012
  28. 28. Why Organizations? Benefits Collective Action© Djaghe LLC 2012
  29. 29. Why Organizations? Benefits Collective Action Coase Thesis (1936):  Hierarchies exist only because they minimize certain transactions costs© Djaghe LLC 2012
  30. 30. Crowdsourcing works: Only as it offers lower coordination costs  Costs of  Recruiting  Employing  Managing  etc© Djaghe LLC 2012
  31. 31. Replace Structure With  Market CEO  Programmatic COO CTO Exec VP VP VP Control© Djaghe LLC 2012
  32. 32. With Market© Djaghe LLC 2012
  33. 33. With Market & Programatic Control© Djaghe LLC 2012
  34. 34. Innovation: What Forces are at play?© Djaghe LLC 2012
  35. 35. Innovation: What Forces are at play? New Approach to Task© Djaghe LLC 2012
  36. 36. Macrotasking Workers for specific Tasks  Spot Task Market© Djaghe LLC 2012
  37. 37. Macrotasking Workers for specific Tasks  Spot Task Market Qualities:  Like Free Lancing  Workers see entire Task  May be Responsible for Fitting it into Project© Djaghe LLC 2012
  38. 38. Examples: Website development  Offer skills:  Graphic Designer  Copywriter  Web Programmer  App Developer  Etc oDesk/eLance/Utest© David Alan Grier 2011
  39. 39. Reduce Structure CEO COO CTO Exec VP VP VP© Djaghe LLC 2012
  40. 40. Reduce Structure CEO COO CTO Exec VP VP VP© Djaghe LLC 2012
  41. 41. Innovation Babbage’s Law (1831)© Djaghe LLC 2012
  42. 42. Innovation Babbage’s Law (1831) Hire exactly skills needed for each job© Djaghe LLC 2012
  43. 43. Innovation Babbage’s Law (1831) Hire exactly skills needed for each job Minimized Labor Costs© Djaghe LLC 2012
  44. 44. Limits of Heirarchy Can’t always hire on task basis© Djaghe LLC 2012
  45. 45. Limits of Heirarchy Can’t always hire on task basis Have to take combined skills© Djaghe LLC 2012
  46. 46. Limits of Heirarchy Can’t always hire on task basis Have to take combined skills© Djaghe LLC 2012
  47. 47. Limits of Heirarchy Can’t always hire on task basis Have to take combined skills© Djaghe LLC 2012
  48. 48. Limits of Heirarchy Can’t always hire on task basis Have to take combined skills© Djaghe LLC 2012
  49. 49. Limits of Heirarchy Can’t always hire on task basis Have to take combined skills Mediocre Skills at Expensive Price© Djaghe LLC 2012
  50. 50. Macrotasking Break Hires to Task basis© Djaghe LLC 2012
  51. 51. Macrotasking Break Hires to Task basis  More flexible organization© Djaghe LLC 2012
  52. 52. Macrotasking Break Hires to Task basis  More flexible organization  Respond quicker to demands© Djaghe LLC 2012
  53. 53. Macrotasking Break Hires to Task basis  More flexible organization  Respond quicker to demands  Capital not locked to hires© Djaghe LLC 2012
  54. 54. Drawbacks? History  Organizational knowledge concentrated  No one ready to move up© Djaghe LLC 2012
  55. 55. Drawbacks? History  Organizational knowledge concentrated© Djaghe LLC 2012
  56. 56. Microtasks Small Jobs Often Repetitious Isolated Controlled by Manager Amazon Mechanical Turk© Djaghe LLC 2012
  57. 57. Microtask: Example Metadata for photographs© David Alan Grier 2011
  58. 58. Microtask: Example Metadata for photographs  Photos on web  Crowd develops descriptions  Crowd checks© David Alan Grier 2011
  59. 59. Microtask: Example Metadata for photographs  Photos on web  Crowd develops descriptions  Crowd checks Translation© David Alan Grier 2011
  60. 60. Microtask: Example Metadata for photographs  Photos on web  Crowd develops descriptions  Crowd checks Translation Data cleaning© David Alan Grier 2011
  61. 61. Microtask: Example Metadata for photographs  Photos on web  Crowd develops descriptions  Crowd checks Translation Data cleaning Proofreading© David Alan Grier 2011
  62. 62. Distinguish from MacrotaskingMacrotasking Macrotasking Macrotask Microtask Repetition Low High Qualification Before Each Before All & During Control Light Comprehensive© Djaghe LLC 2012
  63. 63. Extension of Computation Add Market to Determinimistic machine Does Things hard for Computer© Djaghe LLC 2011
  64. 64. Human Judgment Results Better or Worse Evaluate with Market Task Received Task Performed© Djaghe LLC 2012
  65. 65. Program Computing InnovationControlData Processor Storage
  66. 66. Plan Adds non- determinism JudgmentControl MarketData Processor Storage
  67. 67. Advantage Do quickly work that is difficult to do by computer© Djaghe LLC 2012
  68. 68. Advantage Do quickly work that is difficult to do by computer New Capabilities© Djaghe LLC 2012
  69. 69. Advantage Do quickly work that is difficult to do by computer New Capabilities New Capacities© Djaghe LLC 2012
  70. 70. Certain Structures Re-order: Certain Services© Djaghe LLC 2012
  71. 71. Human Judgment: Human Error Two Results:© David Alan Grier 2011
  72. 72. Human Judgment: Human Error Two Results: Babbage (1827)  Two Workers© David Alan Grier 2011
  73. 73. Human Judgment: Human Error Two Results: Babbage (1827)  Two Workers  Doing the Same Computation© David Alan Grier 2011
  74. 74. Human Judgment: Human Error Two Results: Babbage (1827)  Two Workers  Doing the Same Computation  On the Same Data© David Alan Grier 2011
  75. 75. Human Judgment: Human Error Two Results: Babbage (1827)  Two Workers  Doing the Same Computation  On the Same Data  Using the Same Method© David Alan Grier 2011
  76. 76. Human Judgment: Human Error Two Results: Babbage (1827)  Two Workers  Doing the Same Computation  On the Same Data  Using the Same Method  Are susceptible to make the same errors (1827)© David Alan Grier 2011
  77. 77. Human Error (II) Penna & Reid (2012)  Agreement Cannot not Guarantee Correctness  Game Theoretic Argument© Djaghe LLC 2012
  78. 78. Strategy Variation of Shewhart Cycle  Quality Engineering Write Workflow Recruit Crowd Plan Quality Crowd Run Process Assess Results© Djaghe LLC 2012
  79. 79. Basic Strategy Parallel Task  Different work same data© Djaghe LLC 2012
  80. 80. Basic Strategy Serial Tasks  Different work Same data© Djaghe LLC 2012
  81. 81. Parallel Tasks Read Business Card  Transcribe  Name  Address  Email  Employer© Djaghe LLC 2012
  82. 82. Serial Tasks Business Card  Transcribe name, pass it on  Check name, transcribe address, pass it on  Check prior info, transcribe email, …© Djaghe LLC 2012
  83. 83. Crowdsourcing & Work Improve Crowdfunding Economy Crowd Innovation Innovation© Djaghe LLC 2012
  84. 84. Crowdsourcing© Djaghe LLC 2012
  85. 85. Crowdsourcing Reduce Transaction Costs© Djaghe LLC 2012
  86. 86. Crowdsourcing Reduce Transaction Costs Changes Nature of Collective Action© Djaghe LLC 2012
  87. 87. Crowdsourcing Reduce Transaction Costs Changes Nature of Collective Action Demands we see production in new ways© Djaghe LLC 2012
  88. 88. Innovation New ways of doing old things New Things are Important© Djaghe LLC 2011
  89. 89. Macrotasking,Microtasking,&Innovation March 2012 o Fim David Alan GrierCenter for International Science & Technology Policy George Washington University© Djaghe LLC 2012

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