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Taller "Políticas Públicas para la transición hacia una Economía Circular"

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Taller de Economía Circular organizado por el Compromiso Empresarial para el Reciclaje (CEMPRE), junto a la Fundación Ellen MacArthur y en colaboración con el Ministerio de Ambiente y Desarrollo Sustentable.

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Taller "Políticas Públicas para la transición hacia una Economía Circular"

  1. 1. COMPROMISO EMPRESARIAL PARA EL RECICLAJE
  2. 2. PROPOSITO Incrementar los niveles de reciclaje en Argentina
  3. 3. Como entendemos el reciclaje ?
  4. 4. Queremos, y necesitamos, pasar de una economía lineal en donde consumimos y disponemos los residuos, hacia una economía circular en donde los residuos son reincorporados en el sistema productivo. Para ello es necesario fortalecer los sistemas de Gestión Integral de Residuos Sólidos Urbanos (GIRSU) Desde una economía lineal Extracción Producción Distribución Consumo Disposición inicial sin separación en origen. • Recolección domiciliaria sin clasificación previa. • Recolección grandes generadores sin clasificación previa. Residuos Rellenos sanitarios Vertederos a cielo abierto Situación Actual
  5. 5. Hacia una economía circular
  6. 6. Generacion de residuos 42.000 millones tn/año Post Industrial 14.000 millones tn/año Post Consumo
  7. 7. La tasa de reciclaje en Argentina • Plásticos: 15-25% (Ecoplas) • Vidrio: 35%-50% (Rigolleau) • Tetra Brik: 17%-20% (Tetra Pak) • Papel/Cartón: 25% (UNLU) • Metales: Postindustrial ?? Postconsumo ???
  8. 8. + 2000 Territorios de oportunidad
  9. 9. Para transformar residuos en recursos crear nueva empresa para el reciclaje e incluir recuperadores urbanos al empleo formal
  10. 10. Materiales constructivos a partir de MRPC Aislantes térmicos y acústicos Placa de polialuminio Lana de vidrio Placa OSB Placa de celulosa Ladrillos y pisos Plásticos reciclado Plásticos reciclado Vidrio reciclado Techos, interior Tejas polialuminio Chapa acanalada polialuminio Aberturas Aluminio reciclado Vidrio Celular Herramientas Caucho reciclado
  11. 11. PA CEMPRE Plan de acción Cempre 2016-2017
  12. 12. ¿Qué es? Herramienta que coordina inversiones empresariales para mejorar la tasa de reciclaje. Fondo empresario para el reciclaje inclusivo FERI HERRAMIENTA DE GESTION Y FINANCIAMIENTO
  13. 13. ¿Qué es? Herramienta que coordina inversiones empresariales para mejorar la tasa de reciclaje. ¿Cómo funciona? Conecta recursos empresariales con las políticas públicas para la gestión de residuos. Fondo empresario para el reciclaje inclusivo FERI HERRAMIENTA DE GESTION Y FINANCIAMIENTO
  14. 14. Municipio “XX” Recursos escasos Recuperación de costos Planificación incipiente Capacidades locales Marcos institucionales Compra publica Separación en Origen Comercios Productores Plantas de Tratamiento Empresas Recicladoras Recolección y Transporte Economía Circular en Residuos Reciclables Post-Consumo ResiduosProductos Productos Materias Primas Residuos Fracciones Valorizables de los Residuos Pago por servicios ambientales Gestión comercial y productiva Infraestructuras y equipamiento Ecodiseño % de MRPC en productos Etiquetado Información para reciclar (QCDC?) Adhesión de grandes generadores Sistema único de clasificación Recolección diferenciada Tasas de gestión y recolección Incentivos al reciclaje Cadenas de abastec. Rechazo Recuperación Energía Relleno Sanitario Desafíos para aumentar la tasa de reciclaje LINEA DE BASE DEL SISTEMA GIRSU
  15. 15. DESARROLLO DE CAPACIDADES - Normativa GIRSU - Normativa (GG) - Capacitación técnicos y funcionarios Separación en Origen Comercios Productores Plantas de Tratamiento Empresas Recicladoras Recolección y Transporte Economía Circular en Residuos Reciclables Post-Consumo ResiduosProductos Productos Materias Primas Residuos Fracciones Valorizables de los Residuos MEJORA PRODUCTIVIDAD - Homologación de proveedores - Asistencia Técnica y Capacitación - Equipamiento - Herramientas TICs CADENAS DE VALOR Fomento a la Industrialización de MRPC sin demanda INSTITUCIONES SUSTENTABLES - Buenas practicas - Certificación - Capacitación - PEVs Oportunidades para acelerar el proceso LINEAS DE ACCION CEMPRE
  16. 16. Mejorar la productividad en plantas de clasificación Entregar 35 equipamiento en comodato Asistencia técnica a150 recuperadores urbanos
  17. 17. Certificar la separación en origen de grandes generadores Fomentar la separación en origen en GG Divulgar información útil para el reciclaje Apoyamos
  18. 18. Desarrollar capacidades locales Capacitar a técnicos y especialistas Capacitar a funcionarios municipales 1500 participantes 5 municipios
  19. 19. Fomento a la Industrialización de MRPC sin demanda comercial Promover la industria del reciclaje Promover el ecodiseño en las empresas socias “Reciclando envases Equipamos Escuelas” Apoyamos
  20. 20. 10 Universidades 10 ONGs Ciudadanía 10 Empresas socias 10 Cooperativas de Recicladores 10 Ciudades Empresa, Gobierno, Recicladores Buenos Aires Mar del Plata La Plata Rafaela Santa Fe San Miguel Esquel San Juan La Rioja Pilar Vicente Lopez CABA Tigre Pilar San Isidro Bolivar La Plata Rafaela Guamini L. Zamora Moron UNLP UBA UNGS UNLa UNA UNS UTN UNLi UNLR UDER ARS- ISWA Fundación Avina Fundación H&D Cippec UIA IAE CEADS CPA Como aumentar el impacto? PLAN DE ARTICULACION INSTITUCIONAL
  21. 21. Iconos creados por Thibault Geffroy,James Christopher,Mister Pixel,Antonio Vicién Faure,Wilson Joseph,Marta San Martin,Arthur Shlain,Lemon Liu yMichael Wohlwend para The NounProject. www.cemprearg.org director@cemprearg.org
  22. 22. Global Partners of the Ellen MacArthur Foundation: Circular Economy October 19th, 2016 Buenos Aires Cowes
  23. 23. AGENDA 2 • Introductions • Programa Basural Cero - Luis Lehmann • Circular economy - Luisa Santiago • Break - exercise • Overview of the Toolkit for policymakers and sample results from Denmark case study - Łukasz Holec • Introduction to Toolkit Plug-and-play tools - Łukasz Holec • Q&A
  24. 24. AGENDA 3 • Introductions • Programa Basural Cero - Luis Lehmann • Circular economy - Luisa Santiago • Break - exercise • Overview of the Toolkit for policymakers and sample results from Denmark case study - Łukasz Holec • Introduction to Toolkit Plug-and-play tools - Łukasz Holec • Q&A
  25. 25. INTRODUCTIONS 4
  26. 26. AGENDA 5 • Introductions • Programa Basural Cero - Luis Lehmann • Circular economy - Luisa Santiago • Break - exercise • Overview of the Toolkit for policymakers and sample results from Denmark case study - Łukasz Holec • Introduction to Toolkit Plug-and-play tools - Łukasz Holec • Q&A
  27. 27. 6 Luis Lehmann Director Nacional de Gestión Integral de Residuos Ministerio de Ambiente y Desarrollo Sustentable
  28. 28. Dirección Nacional de Gestión Integral de Residuos Programa Basural Cero Taller Economía Circular 19 de octubre de 2016
  29. 29. Ministerio de Ambiente y Desarrollo Sustentable LINEAMIENTOS ESTRATÉGICOS 1. Ser sustentables es un derecho humano para un desarrollo integral 2. Unir a los argentinos en la biodiversidad federal 3. Atenuar el cambio climático es cuidar la casa común 4. Los residuos no son basura, son recursos para gestionar 5. No contaminar es un compromiso de todos
  30. 30. Antes: el modelo lineal Futuro: modelo circular Desafío: Pasar de una Gestión integral de residuos Gestión Integral de Recursos
  31. 31. El Estado Nacional asume su rol de promotor de políticas públicas de alcance nacional Objetivos de la política de residuos -Definir una JERARQUÍA NORMATIVA en materia de gestión de residuos. -Promover la RESPONSABILIDAD DEL PRODUCTOR (REP) como criterio ordenador. -Diseñar e implementar un plan de BASURAL CERO de alcance nacional. -Impulsar la creación de una AGENCIA FEDERAL DE RESIDUOS. -Promover la REGIONALIZACIÓN como herramienta de desarrollo y equilibrio. -Fomentar la recolección diferenciada, reducción y la VALORIZACIÓN de los residuos, incluida la energética WTE. -Ejecutar PROGRAMAS ESPECÍFICOS de gestión de residuos especiales de generación universal REGU. -Dotar de CRITERIOS OBJETIVOS la asignación de recursos económicos. Los Residuos NO SON BASURA SON RECURSOS PARA GESTIONAR
  32. 32. Economía circular, cambio climático y empleo La prevención de residuos, el diseño ecológico, la reutilización y medidas similares podrían suponer un ahorro neto de 600 mil millones euros para el 2030, mientras que habrá una reducción total de emisiones anuales de gases de efecto invernadero de entre un 2% a un 4%. (Empleo Verde. Hacía una Economía Circular) La Comisión Europea considera que el estímulo de la economía circular puede ser vital para combatir el cambio climático, avanzar hacia un mundo más sostenible y crear al mismo tiempo nuevas posibilidades de empleo (Comunicado UE “Cerrar el círculo”, 2 de dic de 2015)
  33. 33. Este plan debe proponer reducir la cantidad de residuos que se generan y descartan, promoviendo un nuevo modelo de gestión que considere a los residuos como recursos, prestando especial atención al cuidado de la naturaleza. Hacia un Plan Nacional de Economía Circular Prevención Minimización Reutilización Reciclaje Recuperación de energía En esa dirección, muchas empresas líderes de Argentina ya están revisando sus propios sistemas productivos, para hacer más eficientes sus procesos y reducir el impacto ambiental, evitando la generación de residuos. Esto ya está sucediendo: por ello es importante que las políticas públicas acompañen en la misma dirección. Con esta perspectiva, la Dirección Nacional está ejecutando dos programas de gestión integral de residuos con un enfoque hacia la Economía Circular. -Basural Cero y PROBiogás Disposición final
  34. 34. RecolecciónPlanificación La intensidad en el color indica la cobertura El color azul indica si tiene plan ESTADO ACTUAL DE SITUACIÓN MAPAS CRÍTICOS
  35. 35. Patagonia 2,5% Cuyo 3,1% NOA 4%NEA; 2,8% Resto Centro 21% CABA + GBA 28% Basural 39% Consecuencias de una mala disposición • Degradación de acuíferos y napas • Contaminación atmosférica (cambio climático) Situación DISPOSICIÓN FINAL • Deterioro de la calidad de vida de asentamientos humanos • Vectores y enfermedades: peligro para la salud humana. • Disminución del valor económico de las propiedades
  36. 36. Acompañar el desarrollo de la obra pública nacional: agua, cloaca, hábitat, vivienda. Objetivos y METAS DEL GOBIERNO Programa BASURAL CERO (Obras de Saneamiento Ambiental) COBERTURA 2015 META 2019 META 2023 100% 80%61%
  37. 37. Disposición Final en Basural a Cielo Abierto Situación Actual2015 2016 Proyecto Modelo: Chanchillos (Jujuy)
  38. 38. ü Municipios: San Salvador de Jujuy, Palpalá, Yala, El Carmen, Monterrico, Perico, San Antonio, San Pedro de Jujuy. ü Beneficia a más de 500.000 personas (mas del 70% de la población provincial). ü Inclusión social de 200 recuperadores informales. Plan de comunicación. ü Impacto turístico y mejora en los sitios declarados Patrimonio de la Humanidad. § Etapa 1: Construcción de Planta de Separación Chanchillos (Finalizada). § Etapa 2: Construcción de Relleno Sanitario Chanchillos, Clausura y Saneamiento de 2 Basurales a Cielo Abierto (El Pongo y Palpalá), Planta de Separación y Transferencia en San Pedro. Proyecto Chanchillos
  39. 39. Yala 2,8 tn/día 35 km San Salvador de Jujuy 207,4 tn/día 23 km Palpalá 33,3 tn/día 7 km San Antonio 2,9 tn/día 36 km El Carmen 10,5 tn/día 35 km Monterrico 12,9 tn/día 30 km Perico 31,7 tn/día 20 km Estación de Transferencia San Pedro 37,7 tn/día 48 km San Pedro 39,1 tn/día 5 kmFlujos de residuos
  40. 40. Beneficios de los programas de la DNGIR Hacia un plan Nacional de Economía Circular -Cambio de enfoque, los residuos son recursos. -Erradicación de basurales. -Economías de Escala, para una mayor eficiencia en los costos de gestión. -Mejoras en la logística, reduciendo cantidad de viajes. -Lucha contra el cambio climático. -Obligación de impulsar separación en origen y recolección diferencia. -Plan de Inclusión Social y nuevos empleos en la construcción y la operación. -Impulso a la valorización de residuos, incluida la energética. -Plantas de clasificación para la recuperación de materiales. -Nodos de la industria de reciclado. -Nuevas estructuras de gestión y normativa. -Planes provinciales hacia la economía circular. -Capacitación sobre economía circular. -Hacia la responsabilidad extendida del productor.
  41. 41. “PROBIOGAS: MODELOS DE NEGOCIOS SOSTENIBLES PARA LA PRODUCCIÓN DE BIOGÁS A PARTIR DE RESIDUOS SÓLIDOS URBANOS ÓRGANICOS” Objetivo Introducir tecnologías de biogás para la producción de energía como parte de los planes de gestión integral de los residuos sólidos urbanos El proyecto se propone demostrar que los biodigestores y los sistemas de aprovechamiento de biogás de los rellenos sanitarios son sostenibles desde el punto de vista: lTécnico lAmbiental lInstitucional lEconómico Financiero Se busca que estos sistemas puedan ser operadas adecuadamente por los municipios Disminuir el impacto ambiental de la disposición final de residuos
  42. 42. … el funcionamiento de los ecosistemas naturales es ejemplar: las plantas sintetizan nutrientes que alimentan a los herbívoros; estos a su vez alimentan a los carnívoros, que proporcionan residuos orgánicos, los que dan lugar a una nueva generación de vegetales. En cambio, el sistema industrial, al final del ciclo de producción y de consumo, no ha desarrollado la capacidad de absorber y reutilizar residuos y desechos. Todavía no se ha logrado adoptar un modelo circular de producción que asegure recursos para todos y para las generaciones futuras, y que supone limitar al máximo el uso de los recursos no renovables, moderar el consumo, maximizar la eficiencia del aprovechamiento, reutilizar y reciclar. Abordar esta cuestión sería un modo de contrarrestar la cultura del descarte, que termina afectando al planeta entero… CUIDAR LA CASA COMÚN Encíclica Laudato Sí – Papa Francisco
  43. 43. Muchas Gracias! Dirección Nacional de Gestión de Residuos www.ambiente.gob.ar gestionrsu@ambiente.gob.ar
  44. 44. AGENDA 24 • Introductions • Programa Basural Cero - Luis Lehmann • Circular economy - Luisa Santiago • Break - exercise • Overview of the Toolkit for policymakers and sample results from Denmark case study - Łukasz Holec • Introduction to Toolkit Plug-and-play tools - Łukasz Holec • Q&A
  45. 45. 25 Luisa Santiago CE100 Brazil Programme Lead Ellen MacArthur Foundation
  46. 46. 26 Nuevos productos = nuevas matérias primas Reciclaje en fín de vida (“end-of-pipe”) Grandes volúmenes crónicos de pérdidas LA ATUAL ECONOMÍA LINEAR “EXTRAER-TRANSFORMAR-DESECHAR”
  47. 47. 27 UNA COMBINACIÓN DE RIESGOS Y OPORTUNIDADES Desarrollo socioeconómico
  48. 48. 28 Impacto en sistemas vivos UNA COMBINACIÓN DE RIESGOS Y OPORTUNIDADES
  49. 49. UN MODELO INCULCADO DE PÉRDIDAS ESTRUCTURALES Fallas del modelo linear resultan en grandes pérdidas económicas y externalidades negativas 29 • Carros quedan parados un 92% del tiempo • En movimento, normalmente llevan 1,5 personas por viaje • 30.000 vidas son perdidas en accidentes y 4 veces eso resultan en lesiones irreversibles MOVILIDAD • 30% del resíduo llevado a relleno en Europa viene de la construcción (en Brasil, llega a 50%) • Oficinas son ocupadas sólo un 40-50% del tiempo en un día de trabajo • 11 millones de casas vacias en Europa AMBIENTE CONSTRUÍDO • >100Mi de toneladas de alimentos perdidas anualmente en Europa • 50% perdidos a lo largo de la cadena productiva • 97% de resíduos globales de alimentos tirados a relleno o ~USD 300 bn • Degradación del suelo de 30-80% en Europa ALIMENTOS FONTE: “Growth Within: A Circular Economy Vision for a Competitive Europe”, Ellen MacArthur Foundation, SUN (Stiftungsfonds für Umweltökonomie und Nachhaltigkeit) and McKinsey Center for Business and Environment, 2015
  50. 50. 30 VOLATILIDAD DE PRECIOS PÉRDIDAS ECONÓMICAS Y ESTRUCTURALES PRESSIONES DEMOGRÁFICAS FACTORES DE CAMBIO Diversos factores indicam que el sucesso del modelo linear está desafiado
  51. 51. 31 URBANIZACIÓN ACEPTACIÓN DE NUEVOS MODELOS DE NEGÓCIOS AVANCES TECNOLÓGICOS FACTORES DE CAMBIO Diversos factores indicam que el éxito del modelo linear está desafiado
  52. 52. ECONOMIA CIRCULAR: REGENERATIVA Y RESTAURATIVA POR PRINCÍPIO
  53. 53. REGENERATIVA Y RESTAURATIVA POR PRINCÍPIO Mantiene productos, componentes y materiales en su más alto nivel de utilidad y valor todo el tiempo. ...es un ciclo contínuo de desarrollo positivo que elimina la noción de resíduo desde el princípio. ...funciona de manera efectiva en cualqiuer escala y busca disociar el desarrollo económico global del consumo de recursos finitos y de la generación de externalidades negativas.
  54. 54. 34 CONSTRUÍDA DESDE ESCUELAS DE PENSAMIENTO E PENSADORES VISIONARIOS
  55. 55. REPENSANDO LA GENERACIÓN DE VALOR Trés princípios básicos rigen la economia circular 35 Preservar e mejorar el capital natural, controlando stocks finitos e equilibrando los flujos de recursos renovables. Optimizar el rendimiento de los recursos mediante la circulación de los productos,componentes y materiales en el más alto nivel de utilidad en todo momento, tanto en el ciclo técnico como en el biológico. Estimular la efectividad del sistema revelando e excluyendo las externalidades negativas desde el princípio.
  56. 56. Circular Economy: An Industrial System that is Restorative by Design In a circular economy, value is retained by cycling 36 Manter/ prolongar Matérias primas bioquímicas Renovar/ Remanufaturar Reciclar Reusar/Redistribuir Cascateamento Extração de matérias primas bioquímicas Regeneração Biogás Agricultura/ coleta1 Manufatura de Produtos Prestação de Serviço Minimizar perdas sistêmcias e externalidades negativas Coleta Coleta Manufatura de Partes Compartilhar Gestão de estoques RestaurarVirtualizarSubstituir materiaisRegenerar Ciclos Técnicos Ciclos Biológicos Gestão de fluxos renováveis Materiais finitosRenováveis 1 Hunting and fishing 2 Can take both post-harvest and post-consumer waste as an input SOURCE: Ellen MacArthur Foundation – Adapted from the Cradle to Cradle Design Protocol by Braungart & McDonough ECONOMIA CIRCULAR Regenerativa y Restaurativa por Princípio
  57. 57. EL ATRAENTE RACIONAL ECONÓMICO En Europa, €1.8 tri de benefícios anuales hasta 2030 em movilidad, alimentos e ambiente construído en un escenário de desarrollo en la economia circular 37 Trayectória de desarrollo actual OPORTUNIDAD AUMENTO DE INGRESOS PIB RECURSOS Y EXTERNALIDADES EUR 0.9 trillion1 EUR 1.8 tri1 Trayectória de desarrollo circular 7% 18% 4% 11% 31% emisiones 22% consumo de matérias primas 48% emisiones 32% consumo de matérias primas 1 Reduction in resource, non-resource and externality cost SOURCE: “Growth Within: A Circular Economy Vision for a Competitive Europe”, Ellen MacArthur Foundation, SUN (Stiftungsfonds für Umweltökonomie und Nachhaltigkeit) and McKinsey Center for Business and Environment, 2015
  58. 58. EL ATRAENTE RACIONAL ECONÓMICO Oportunidades significativas en los sectores de bienes de consumo durables y no durables 38 1 Net material cost savings SOURCE: “Towards the Circular Economy – vol. 1 and 2, Ellen MacArthur Foundation and McKinsey Center for Business and Environment, 2011, 2013 Ahorro de costes netos materiales en mil millones de USD por ano1 Bienes de Consumo Durables Bienes de Consumo No Durables $ 630 $ 706 $145 Veículos a Motor $ 98 Equip. e Máquinas $ 67 Maquinário Elétrico $ 39 Outros Transportes $ 29 Móveis $ 82 Outros $194 Comida Embalada $ 111 Vestuário $ 87 Bebidas $ 70 Alimentos Frescos $ 45 Outros
  59. 59. VALOR EN LOS CÍRCULOS El poder de los círculos menores El poder de los círculos más prolongados El poder del uso en cascatas El poder de los insumos puros
  60. 60. 40 BLOQUES DE CONSTRUCCIÓN DE LA ECONOMIA CIRCULAR Re-disenho radical Modelos de negócios innovadores Capacidades de ciclo reverso Condiciones sistémicas habilitadoras
  61. 61. Estudio de Caso – Splosh Design e Modelo de Negócio circulares en los Químicos 41
  62. 62. Estudio de Caso – Ecovative Matérias primas regenerativas por design 42
  63. 63. Estudio de Caso – Braiform Expandiendo el re-uso en escala en el sector de bienes de consumo no durables 43
  64. 64. Estudio de Caso – Desso Cradle2Cradle design en alfombras 44
  65. 65. Estudo de Caso – Floow2 Plataforma de compartir activos B2B 45
  66. 66. 46 INSIGHT & ANÁLISIS EDUCACIÓN & ENTRENAMIENTO catalizar la innovación circular y crear las condiciones para prosperar EMPRESAS & GOBIERNOS COMUNICACiÓN & PUBLICACIONES revelar la economía circular a una audiencia global inspirar a los estudiantes a replantear el futuro por medio de la estructura de la economía circular proporcionar evidencia robusta de los beneficios de transición LA ELLEN MACARTHUR FOUNDATION La Ellen MacArthur Foundation trabaja en cuatro áreas con el objectivo de accelerar la transición para una economia circular. KEN WEBSTER THE CIRCULAR ECONOMY A WEALTH OF FLOWS
  67. 67. AGENDA 47 • Introductions • Programa Basural Cero - Luis Lehmann • Circular economy - Luisa Santiago • Break - exercise • Overview of the Toolkit for policymakers and sample results from Denmark case study - Łukasz Holec • Introduction to Toolkit Plug-and-play tools - Łukasz Holec • Q&A
  68. 68. 48 Łukasz Holec Project Manager, Insight and Analysis Ellen MacArthur Foundation
  69. 69. 49
  70. 70. 100 Million of phones 50 100 Million of phones per year end up in a drawer 2.4 tones of GOLD 25 tones of SILVER 1 tone of palladium 900 tones of copper
  71. 71. AGENDA 51 • Introductions • Programa Basural Cero - Luis Lehmann • Circular economy - Luisa Santiago • Break - exercise • Overview of the Toolkit for policymakers and sample results from Denmark case study - Łukasz Holec • Introduction to Toolkit Plug-and-play tools - Łukasz Holec • Q&A
  72. 72. THE TRANSITION TO A CIRCULAR ECONOMY IS PICKING UP SPEED
  73. 73. THE TOOLKIT FOR POLICYMAKERS An ambitious project taking a significant step in understanding the role of policymakers in the transition to a circular economy We have developed a circular economy toolkit for policymakers, with Denmark as a case study, giving policymakers who wish to embark on a circular economy transformation access to the tools and methods they need. 53
  74. 74. 54 A MULTI-STAKEHOLDER APPROACH PROJECT MEMBERS Sponsor Key contributors Core project team International public bodies and academics EXTERNAL STAKEHOLDERS Danish ministries Danish stakeholders incl. industry associations, unions Individual businesses
  75. 75. 55 A STEP-BY-STEP METHODOLOGY 11 tools helping policymakers enable the circular economy transition Align on starting point, ambition and focus Analyse economy-wide implications Assess sector opportunities Engage businesses and other stakeholders Baseline circularity level and policy landscape +8% -42% +55% +14% +84% -34% +36% 2.1 1.9 40 69 747 481 60% 53% 26% 14% 225 343 136 100 44•DELIVERINGTHECIRCULARECONOMY–ATOOLKITFORPOLICYMAKERS Figure 6: Circularity baselining in the Denmark pilot SCOPE INDICATOR RESOURCE PRODUCTIVITY CIRCULAR ACTIVITIES WASTE GENERATION ENERGY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS Resource productivity GDP EUR / kg domestic material consumption Recycling rate, excluding major mineral waste & adjusted for trade2 tonnes recycled/tonnes treated (percent) Eco-innovation index Index with 16 indicators (e.g. green investments, employment, patents) Waste generated per GDP output, excluding major mineral waste tonnes recycled / ton treated (percent) Municipal waste generated per capita3 kWh/kWh (percent) GHG emissions per GDP output tonnes CO2e/EUR million Share of renewable energy Percent of gross final energy consumption 1 2012 values if not stated otherwise 2 Recycling of domestically generated waste (incl. exported waste, excl. imported waste) 3 2013 data SOURCE: Resource Efficiency Scoreboard 2014 Highlights, European commission (2014); Eurostat; Statistics Denmark, Danish EPA DENMARK1 EU-281 PT_new_19.indd4418/06/201511:19 Select focus sectors 52 • DELIVERING THE CIRCULAR ECONOMY – A TOOLKIT FOR POLICYMAKERS Figure 11: Results of sector prioritisation in Denmark pilot NOTE: Only producing sectors (24% of national GVA) and hospitals (3.5% of national GVA) considered SOURCE: Statistics Denmark (2011 data); Danish Business Authority; Danish Environmental Protection Agency; Ellen MacArthur Foundation circular economy team Producing sectors Non-producing sector Prioritised sectors Size = Gross value added Food and beverages Construction Machinery Hospitals Basic metals and fabricated products Electronic products Water supply, sewerage Rubber and plastic products Electricity, gas Agriculture, forestry and fishing Pharmaceuticals Mining and quarrying ROLE IN NATIONAL ECONOMY CIRCULARITYPOTENTIAL Packaging (not sized) PT_new_19.indd 52 18/06/2015 11:19 Set ambition level Identify barriers 100 • DELIVERING THE CIRCULAR ECONOMY – A TOOLKIT FOR POLICYMAKERS BARRIERS Value capture in cascading bio-refineries Reduction of avoidable food waste Industrialised production and 3D printing of building modules Reuse and high value recycling of components and materials Sharing and multi- purposing of buildings Remanufac- turing and new business models Increased recycling of plastic packaging Bio-based packaging where beneficial Performance models in procurement Waste reduction and recycling in hospitals Not profitable for businesses1 even if other barriers are overcome Capital intensive and/or uncertain payback times Technology not yet fully available at scale Externalities (true costs) not fully refletcted in market prices Insufficient public goods / infrastructure2 provided by the market or the state Insufficient competition / markets leading to lower quantity and higher prices than is socially desirable Imperfect information that negatively affects market decisions, such as asymmetric information Split incentives (agency problem) when two parties to a transaction have different goals Transaction costs such as the costs of finding and bargaining with customers or suppliers Inadequately defined legal frameworks that govern areas such as the use of new technologies Poorly defined targets and objectives which provide either insufficient or skewed direction to industry Implementation and enforcement failures leading to the effects of regulations being diluted or altered Unintended consequences of existing regulations that hamper circular practices Capabilities and skills lacking either in-house or in the market at reasonable cost Custom and habit: ingrained patterns of behaviour by consumers and businesses 1 At market prices excluding the full pricing of externalities such as greenhouse gas emissions, ecosystem degradation and resource depletion 2 Infrastructure defined as fundamental physical and organisational structures and facilities, such as transportation, communication, water and energy supplies and waste treatment Figure 28: Barrier matrix for the ten prioritised opportunities in Denmark Critical barrier (‘make or break’) Very important barrier (to scale-up / acceleration of lever) Important barrier (to scale-up / acceleration of lever) Limited or no barrier CIRCULAR ECONOMY OPPORTUNITIES ECONOMICSMARKETFAILURESREGULATORY FAILURES SOCIAL FACTORS PT_new_19.indd 100 18/06/2015 11:19 Map sector-specific policy options 62 • DELIVERING THE CIRCULAR ECONOMY – A TOOLKIT FOR POLICYMAKERS BARRIERS Public communication campaigns Public-private partnerships Industrycollabo- rationplatforms R&Dprogr- ammes Financialsupport tobusiness Technical supportto business Publicprocure- mentrules Publicinvest- mentin infrastructure Govern-ment strategyand targets Product regulations Wasteregu- lations Industry, consumer, competitionand traderegulations Accounting, reporting financial regulations VATorexcise dutyreductions Not profitable1 Capital Technology Externalities Insufficient public goods / infrastructure2 Insufficient competition / markets Imperfect information Split incentives (agency problem) Transaction costs Inadequately defined legal frameworks Poorly defined targets and objectives Implementation and enforcement failures Unintended consequences Capabilities and skills Custom and habit 1 At market prices excluding the full pricing of externalities such as greenhouse gas emissions, ecosystem degradation and resource depletion 2 Infrastructure defined as fundamental physical and organizational structures and facilities, such as transportation, communication, water and energy supplies and waste treatment Figure 16: Mapping policy interventions to barriers High relevance Medium relevance Low relevance Informa- tion & aware- ness Collaboration platforms ECONOMICSMARKETFAILURESREGULATORYFAILURESSOCIAL FACTORS PT_new_19.indd 62 18/06/2015 11:19 Map circular economy opportunities in each focus sector ReSOLVE Quantify sector Impact 60 • DELIVERING THE CIRCULAR ECONOMY – A TOOLKIT FOR POLICYMAKERS Figure 14: Schematic overview of sector-specific impact quantification Circular scenario adoption rate, % Business as usual scenario adoption rate, % Net value created in sector EUR million Net value created in deep-dive sub-sector EUR million Scale up factor to full sector % Size of sector vs. deep-dive sub-sector % Scalability factor (between 0 and 1) Additional costs per activity EUR per unit Additional revenues and cost savings per activity EUR per unit Adoption rate % Number of units in deep-dive sub-sector Net value created per unit in deep- dive sub- sector EUR per unit SOURCE: Ellen MacArthur Foundation circular economy team Additional sales Price / value increase Material / labour savings Labour Services Materials / components Energy CapitalSector size Deep-dive sub-sector size A B 2.2.4 Identify barriers Objective: Understand the barriers standing in the way of the identified circular economy opportunities, in order to render policy options (Section 2.2.5) more targeted. End product: Importance and description of barriers for each opportunity, structured by 15 types of barriers in four categories (economic, market failures, regulatory failures, social factors). Once the circular economy opportunities have been prioritised, it is time to look at the barriers that stand in their way. The toolkit provides a framework to categorise these barriers and analyse their severity. Careful analysis of barriers forms the basis for the next step of arriving at targeted policy options. The approach in this toolkit is to combine a standard analysis of market failures and regulatory failures with social factors and the economic concerns of business. The methodology refers to 15 types of barrier in four categories. It starts with the economic concerns of businesses that are assessing these opportunities: profitability, capital and technology. It includes the two ‘classic’ barrier categories from economic theory, market failures and regulatory failures, split into ten types, drawing heavily on the EU Impact PT_new_19.indd 60 18/06/2015 11:19 Prioritise and detail circular economy opportunities 58•DELIVERINGTHECIRCULARECONOMY–ATOOLKITFORPOLICYMAKERS • Use of biological elements in architecture (e.g. ‘living roofs’ that purify water) • Return of organic construction material to biosphere • Sharing of floor space reducing demand for new buildings • Shared residential floor space (e.g. Airbnb, Couchsurfing, Hoffice) • Shared office space (e.g. Liquidspace) and increase of desk sharing policies • Increased use of under-utilised buildings • Multi-purposing of offices and public buildings for better utilisation • Re-purposing of building interiors to increase lifetime of existing buildings • Coordination of all stakeholders along value chain to reduce structural waste • Energy use optimisation through low-energy houses and smart homes • Increased reuse and high-value recycling of building components and materials, enabled by • Designing buildings for disassembly • New business models (e.g. other owner of materials than property owner) • Building passports/signatures and reverse logistics ecosystems Increased teleworking to reduce need for office floor space Modular production off-site for rapid assembly on-site 3D printing of building components Figure 13: Qualitative assessment of potential of opportunities for the Construction & Real Estate sector in the Denmark pilot SOURCE: Ellen MacArthur Foundation circular economy team QUALITATIVE ASSESSMENT OF POTENTIAL Low potential High potential Prioritised for further assessment Indirectly included as enabler of key sector opportunities XCHANGE PT_new_19.indd5818/06/201511:19 Quantify economy-wide impact Prioritise, package and sequence policy options 80•DELIVERINGTHECIRCULARECONOMY–ATOOLKITFORPOLICYMAKERS Form public private partnerships to finance the deployment of mature bio- refining technologies Reduce VAT on high value chemicals derived from waste feedstock Stimulate the development of advanced, high-value bio-refining technologies by funding cross-institutional R&D clusters Require municipalities to collect organic waste separately Propose a minimum proportion of 2nd generation biofuels in the EU biofuel target Provide a business advice service Identify and communicate necessary changes to EU policy (or its national implementation) to address unintended consequence Incorporate bio-refining into the government’s long-term strategic plans Provide low-cost loans or loan guarantees for the deployment of mature bio- refining technologies IMPACTLOWHIGH HIGH COST LOW Require municipalities to send organic waste for one round of processing to extract high value compounds before it could be incinerated / used as fertiliser Figure 22: Prioritisation of opportunities SOURCE: Ellen MacArthur Foundation circular economy team; NERA Economic Consulting PT_new_19.indd8018/06/201511:19 Map economy- wide policy options SOURCE: Ellen MacArthur Foundation, Delivering the circular economy – a toolkit for policymakers (2015) 55
  76. 76. 56 POCKETS OF OPPORTUNITY EVEN IN A COUNTRY AS ADVANCED AS DENMARK SOURCE: Ellen MacArthur Foundation, Delivering the circular economy – a toolkit for policymakers (2015)
  77. 77. Prioritised sectorsProducing sectors Non-producing sector Size = Gross value added RESULTS OF SECTOR PRIORITISATION IN DENMARK NOTE: Only producing sectors (24% of national GVA) and hospitals (3.5% of national GVA) considered SOURCE: Statistics Denmark (2011 data); Danish Business Authority; Danish Environmental Protection Agency; Ellen MacArthur Foundation Role in national economy Circularity potential Packaging (not sized) Water supply, sewerage Machinery Pharmaceuticals Agriculture, forestry and fishing Mining and quarrying Hospitals Construction Rubber and plastic products Electronic products Basic metals and fabricated products Food and Beverages Electricity, gas 1st Plug- and play tool!
  78. 78. 58 SOURCE: Ellen MacArthur Foundation; drawing from Braungart & McDonough Cradle to Cradle (C2C) OPPORTUNITY ASSESSMENT – WHERE IN THE ‘BUTTERFLY FRAMEWORK’ SHOULD WE LOOK?
  79. 79. SOURCE: Adopted from: ‘Growth Within: a circular economy vision for a competitive Europe’, Ellen MacArthur Foundation, SUN, McKinsey Center for Business and Environment REGENERATE OPTIMISE LOOP VIRTUALISE EXCHANGE SHARE Optimising system performance Displacing resource use and delivering utility virtually Keeping products and materials and components in cycles Selecting resources and technology wisely Regenerating and restoring natural capital Maximising asset utilisation The ReSOLVE framework offers organisations a tool for identifying circular strategies and growth initiatives. Each ReSOLVE lever presents an opportunity to create value with circular approaches. OPPORTUNITY ASSESSMENT – SCREENING WITH THE RESOLVE FRAMEWORK
  80. 80. REGENERATE Returning valuable biological nutrients safely to the biosphere § Produce plates and cutlery from wheat brans § Considers the whole system at each step of the value chain § All products are compostable and biological nutrients can safely be returned to the biosphere
  81. 81. SHARE Pooling the usage of assets § City car sharing system using electric cars § 3,400 cars designed for sharing and 5,500 terminals in Paris § One car serves 25 users
  82. 82. OPTIMISE Prolonging products’ use period § Produces built-to-last smartphones that are easily repairable and updatable and have a modular design § Has an ethical production process using fairly extracted raw materials in this case meaning conflict free precious metals
  83. 83. LOOP Recycling materials § Clothes collection scheme in every shop in the US § Use of advanced recycling process for polyester and cotton to manufacture new clothes § First closed-loop recycling in the apparel industry (late 90s)
  84. 84. VIRTUALISE Replacing physical products with virtual services § Download books directly on the electronic device § No more paper, the screen is very similar to a book’s page § Possibility to store thousands of books on one light and transportable device
  85. 85. EXCHANGE Using alternative material inputs § Uses by-products of pineapple production as a raw material to make leather § Alternative material input that is animal friendly § Upcycling from by-product to high-quality material
  86. 86. Loop Optimise Regenerate Virtualise Exchange Share SOURCE: Ellen MacArthur Foundation, SUN, McKinsey Center for Business and Environment - Growth Within: a circular economy vision for Europe; company websites UNLOCKING CIRCULAR ECONOMY BUSINESS POTENTIAL - EXAMPLES
  87. 87. Prioritised for further assessmentLow potential High potential Construction and real estate – qualitative assessment of potential Loop ▪ Increased reuse and high-value recycling of building components and materials, enabled by – Designing buildings for disassembly – New business models (e.g. other owner of materials than property owner) – Building passports/signatures and reverse logistics ecosystems ▪ Sharing of floor space reducing demand for new buildings – Shared residential floor space (e.g. Airbnb, Couchsurfing, Hoffice) – Shared office space (e.g. Liquidspace) and increase of desk sharing policies ▪ Increased use of under-utilised buildings – Multi-purposing of offices and public buildings for better utilisation – Re-purposing of building interiors to increase lifetime of existing buildings Share Virtualize ▪ Increased teleworking to reduce need for office floor space Exchange ▪ Modular production off-site for rapid assembly on-site ▪ 3D printing of building components REgenerate ▪ Use of biological elements in architecture (e.g. 'living roofs' that purify water) ▪ Return of organic construction material to biosphere Optimize ▪ Coordination of all stakeholders along value chain to reduce structural waste ▪ Energy use optimisation through low-energy houses and smart homes SOURCE: Ellen MacArthur Foundation; expert interviews Indirectly included as enabler of key sector opportunities
  88. 88. TEN OPPORTUNITIES IN FIVE SECTORS WERE IDENTIFIED IN DENMARK 9 Performance models in procurement 1 Value capture in cascading bio-refineries 2 Reduction of avoidable food waste 6 Remanufacturing and new business models 8 Bio-based packaging where beneficial 7 Increased recycling of plastic packaging 10 Waste reduction and recycling 4 Reuse and high-value recycling of components and materials 3 Industrialised production and 3D printing of building modules 5 Sharing and multi-purposing of buildings Sector Opportunity Hospitals Food & Beverage Construction & Real estate Plastic packaging Machinery SOURCE: Ellen MacArthur Foundation, Delivering the circular economy – a toolkit for policymakers (2015) 56% Share of impact 2nd Plug- and play tool!
  89. 89. OPPORTUNITIES IN CONSTRUCTION AND REAL ESTATE SOURCE: Ellen MacArthur Foundation, Delivering the circular economy – a toolkit for policymakers (2015)
  90. 90. OPPORTUNITIES IN FOOD & BEVERAGE SOURCE: Ellen MacArthur Foundation, Delivering the circular economy – a toolkit for policymakers (2015)
  91. 91. OPPORTUNITIES IN MACHINERY SOURCE: Ellen MacArthur Foundation, Delivering the circular economy – a toolkit for policymakers (2015)
  92. 92. 72 OPPORTUNITIES HINDERED MAINLY BY NON-FINANCIAL BARRIERS Very important barrier (to scale-up/acceleration) Limited or no barrier Critical barrier (‘make or break’) Important barrier (to scale-up/acceleration) Market failures Regulatory failures Social factors Barriers 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Split incentives (agency problem) Capital Inadequately defined legal frameworks Unintended consequences Poorly defined targets and objectives Imperfect information Transaction costs Externalities Capabilities and skills Custom and habit Technology Not profitable Econo- mics 9 10 3rd Plug- and play tool!
  93. 93. Economy-wide instruments • Clear direction • Realigned incentives • Education and knowledge building SOURCE: “Delivering the circular economy – a toolkit for policymakers”: Ellen MacArthur Foundation; McKinsey Center for Business and Environment; NERA Economic Consulting Fiscal frameworks Information & awareness Business support systems Collaboration platforms Public procurement & infrastructure Regulatory frameworks Sector-specificinstruments Economy-wide instruments • Clear direction • Realigned incentives • Education and knowledge building POLICYMAKERS CAN COMBINE A VARIETY OF INSTRUMENTS TO HELP OVERCOME BARRIERS
  94. 94. 74 NO SILVER BULLET Very important barrier (to scale-up/acceleration) Limited or no barrier Critical barrier (‘make or break’) Important barrier (to scale-up/acceleration) Barriers Industrialised production and 3D printing Market failures Regula- tory failures Social factors Econo- mics Capital Imperfect information Split incentives (agency problem) Externalities Transaction costs Poorly defined targets and objectives Inadequately defined legal frameworks Unintended consequences Capabilities and skills Custom and habit Technology Not profitable Reduction of avoidable food waste 3rd Plug- and play tool!
  95. 95. 75 THE PILOT CONFIRMED POSITIVE IMPACT ON GROWTH, EMPLOYMENT AND ENVIRONMENT Economy-wide impact by 2035. Absolute and percentage change relative to the ‘business as usual’ scenario. € 3.6 – 6.2 billion Annual GDP contribution, or 0.8–1.4% vs. baseline 7,300 – 13,300 Job equivalents, or 0.4–0.6% vs. baseline 0.8 – 2.3 million Tonnes of CO2 footprint reduction, or 2.5–6.9% vs. baseline CO2 5 – 50% Resource savings for selected resources (iron/steel, plastics) SOURCE: Ellen MacArthur Foundation, Delivering the circular economy – a toolkit for policymakers (2015)
  96. 96. 76 A MULTI-STAKEHOLDER COLLABORATION IS CRUCIAL TO ENABLE THE TRANSITION
  97. 97. IN SUMMARY: THE TRANSITION TO A CIRCULAR ECONOMY… • …has positive effects on the economy, the society, and the environment • …can help societies become more effective and resilient… • …is inevitable in the long term – and has started already… • …but the transition can be accelerated through a collaborative, multi-stakeholder approach where policymakers have an important role to play
  98. 98. AGENDA 78 • Introductions • Programa Basural Cero - Luis Lehmann • Circular economy - Luisa Santiago • Break - exercise • Overview of the Toolkit for policymakers and sample results from Denmark case study - Łukasz Holec • Introduction to Toolkit Plug-and-play tools - Łukasz Holec • Q&A
  99. 99. 79 TO COMPLEMENT THE REPORT, WE OFFER THREE PLUG-AND-PLAY TOOLS FOR KEY ANALYTICAL STEPS Align on starting point, ambition and focus Analyse economy-wide implications Assess sector opportunities Engage businesses and other stakeholders Baseline circularity level and policy landscape +8% -42% +55% +14% +84% -34% +36% 2.1 1.9 40 69 747 481 60% 53% 26% 14% 225 343 136 100 44•DELIVERINGTHECIRCULARECONOMY–ATOOLKITFORPOLICYMAKERS Figure 6: Circularity baselining in the Denmark pilot SCOPE INDICATOR RESOURCE PRODUCTIVITY CIRCULAR ACTIVITIES WASTE GENERATION ENERGY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS Resource productivity GDP EUR / kg domestic material consumption Recycling rate, excluding major mineral waste & adjusted for trade2 tonnes recycled/tonnes treated (percent) Eco-innovation index Index with 16 indicators (e.g. green investments, employment, patents) Waste generated per GDP output, excluding major mineral waste tonnes recycled / ton treated (percent) Municipal waste generated per capita3 kWh/kWh (percent) GHG emissions per GDP output tonnes CO2e/EUR million Share of renewable energy Percent of gross final energy consumption 1 2012 values if not stated otherwise 2 Recycling of domestically generated waste (incl. exported waste, excl. imported waste) 3 2013 data SOURCE: Resource Efficiency Scoreboard 2014 Highlights, European commission (2014); Eurostat; Statistics Denmark, Danish EPA DENMARK1 EU-281 PT_new_19.indd4418/06/201511:19 Select focus sectors 52 • DELIVERING THE CIRCULAR ECONOMY – A TOOLKIT FOR POLICYMAKERS Figure 11: Results of sector prioritisation in Denmark pilot NOTE: Only producing sectors (24% of national GVA) and hospitals (3.5% of national GVA) considered SOURCE: Statistics Denmark (2011 data); Danish Business Authority; Danish Environmental Protection Agency; Ellen MacArthur Foundation circular economy team Producing sectors Non-producing sector Prioritised sectors Size = Gross value added Food and beverages Construction Machinery Hospitals Basic metals and fabricated products Electronic products Water supply, sewerage Rubber and plastic products Electricity, gas Agriculture, forestry and fishing Pharmaceuticals Mining and quarrying ROLE IN NATIONAL ECONOMY CIRCULARITYPOTENTIAL Packaging (not sized) PT_new_19.indd 52 18/06/2015 11:19 Set ambition level Identify barriers 100 • DELIVERING THE CIRCULAR ECONOMY – A TOOLKIT FOR POLICYMAKERS BARRIERS Value capture in cascading bio-refineries Reduction of avoidable food waste Industrialised production and 3D printing of building modules Reuse and high value recycling of components and materials Sharing and multi- purposing of buildings Remanufac- turing and new business models Increased recycling of plastic packaging Bio-based packaging where beneficial Performance models in procurement Waste reduction and recycling in hospitals Not profitable for businesses1 even if other barriers are overcome Capital intensive and/or uncertain payback times Technology not yet fully available at scale Externalities (true costs) not fully refletcted in market prices Insufficient public goods / infrastructure2 provided by the market or the state Insufficient competition / markets leading to lower quantity and higher prices than is socially desirable Imperfect information that negatively affects market decisions, such as asymmetric information Split incentives (agency problem) when two parties to a transaction have different goals Transaction costs such as the costs of finding and bargaining with customers or suppliers Inadequately defined legal frameworks that govern areas such as the use of new technologies Poorly defined targets and objectives which provide either insufficient or skewed direction to industry Implementation and enforcement failures leading to the effects of regulations being diluted or altered Unintended consequences of existing regulations that hamper circular practices Capabilities and skills lacking either in-house or in the market at reasonable cost Custom and habit: ingrained patterns of behaviour by consumers and businesses 1 At market prices excluding the full pricing of externalities such as greenhouse gas emissions, ecosystem degradation and resource depletion 2 Infrastructure defined as fundamental physical and organisational structures and facilities, such as transportation, communication, water and energy supplies and waste treatment Figure 28: Barrier matrix for the ten prioritised opportunities in Denmark Critical barrier (‘make or break’) Very important barrier (to scale-up / acceleration of lever) Important barrier (to scale-up / acceleration of lever) Limited or no barrier CIRCULAR ECONOMY OPPORTUNITIES ECONOMICSMARKETFAILURESREGULATORY FAILURES SOCIAL FACTORS PT_new_19.indd 100 18/06/2015 11:19 Map sector-specific policy options 62 • DELIVERING THE CIRCULAR ECONOMY – A TOOLKIT FOR POLICYMAKERS BARRIERS Public communication campaigns Public-private partnerships Industrycollabo- rationplatforms R&Dprogr- ammes Financialsupport tobusiness Technical supportto business Publicprocure- mentrules Publicinvest- mentin infrastructure Govern-ment strategyand targets Product regulations Wasteregu- lations Industry, consumer, competitionand traderegulations Accounting, reporting financial regulations VATorexcise dutyreductions Not profitable1 Capital Technology Externalities Insufficient public goods / infrastructure2 Insufficient competition / markets Imperfect information Split incentives (agency problem) Transaction costs Inadequately defined legal frameworks Poorly defined targets and objectives Implementation and enforcement failures Unintended consequences Capabilities and skills Custom and habit 1 At market prices excluding the full pricing of externalities such as greenhouse gas emissions, ecosystem degradation and resource depletion 2 Infrastructure defined as fundamental physical and organizational structures and facilities, such as transportation, communication, water and energy supplies and waste treatment Figure 16: Mapping policy interventions to barriers High relevance Medium relevance Low relevance Informa- tion & aware- ness Collaboration platforms ECONOMICSMARKETFAILURESREGULATORYFAILURESSOCIAL FACTORS PT_new_19.indd 62 18/06/2015 11:19 Map circular economy opportunities in each focus sector ReSOLVE Quantify sector Impact 60 • DELIVERING THE CIRCULAR ECONOMY – A TOOLKIT FOR POLICYMAKERS Figure 14: Schematic overview of sector-specific impact quantification Circular scenario adoption rate, % Business as usual scenario adoption rate, % Net value created in sector EUR million Net value created in deep-dive sub-sector EUR million Scale up factor to full sector % Size of sector vs. deep-dive sub-sector % Scalability factor (between 0 and 1) Additional costs per activity EUR per unit Additional revenues and cost savings per activity EUR per unit Adoption rate % Number of units in deep-dive sub-sector Net value created per unit in deep- dive sub- sector EUR per unit SOURCE: Ellen MacArthur Foundation circular economy team Additional sales Price / value increase Material / labour savings Labour Services Materials / components Energy CapitalSector size Deep-dive sub-sector size A B 2.2.4 Identify barriers Objective: Understand the barriers standing in the way of the identified circular economy opportunities, in order to render policy options (Section 2.2.5) more targeted. End product: Importance and description of barriers for each opportunity, structured by 15 types of barriers in four categories (economic, market failures, regulatory failures, social factors). Once the circular economy opportunities have been prioritised, it is time to look at the barriers that stand in their way. The toolkit provides a framework to categorise these barriers and analyse their severity. Careful analysis of barriers forms the basis for the next step of arriving at targeted policy options. The approach in this toolkit is to combine a standard analysis of market failures and regulatory failures with social factors and the economic concerns of business. The methodology refers to 15 types of barrier in four categories. It starts with the economic concerns of businesses that are assessing these opportunities: profitability, capital and technology. It includes the two ‘classic’ barrier categories from economic theory, market failures and regulatory failures, split into ten types, drawing heavily on the EU Impact PT_new_19.indd 60 18/06/2015 11:19 Prioritise and detail circular economy opportunities 58•DELIVERINGTHECIRCULARECONOMY–ATOOLKITFORPOLICYMAKERS • Use of biological elements in architecture (e.g. ‘living roofs’ that purify water) • Return of organic construction material to biosphere • Sharing of floor space reducing demand for new buildings • Shared residential floor space (e.g. Airbnb, Couchsurfing, Hoffice) • Shared office space (e.g. Liquidspace) and increase of desk sharing policies • Increased use of under-utilised buildings • Multi-purposing of offices and public buildings for better utilisation • Re-purposing of building interiors to increase lifetime of existing buildings • Coordination of all stakeholders along value chain to reduce structural waste • Energy use optimisation through low-energy houses and smart homes • Increased reuse and high-value recycling of building components and materials, enabled by • Designing buildings for disassembly • New business models (e.g. other owner of materials than property owner) • Building passports/signatures and reverse logistics ecosystems Increased teleworking to reduce need for office floor space Modular production off-site for rapid assembly on-site 3D printing of building components Figure 13: Qualitative assessment of potential of opportunities for the Construction & Real Estate sector in the Denmark pilot SOURCE: Ellen MacArthur Foundation circular economy team QUALITATIVE ASSESSMENT OF POTENTIAL Low potential High potential Prioritised for further assessment Indirectly included as enabler of key sector opportunities XCHANGE PT_new_19.indd5818/06/201511:19 Quantify economy-wide impact Prioritise, package and sequence policy options 80•DELIVERINGTHECIRCULARECONOMY–ATOOLKITFORPOLICYMAKERS Form public private partnerships to finance the deployment of mature bio- refining technologies Reduce VAT on high value chemicals derived from waste feedstock Stimulate the development of advanced, high-value bio-refining technologies by funding cross-institutional R&D clusters Require municipalities to collect organic waste separately Propose a minimum proportion of 2nd generation biofuels in the EU biofuel target Provide a business advice service Identify and communicate necessary changes to EU policy (or its national implementation) to address unintended consequence Incorporate bio-refining into the government’s long-term strategic plans Provide low-cost loans or loan guarantees for the deployment of mature bio- refining technologies IMPACTLOWHIGH HIGH COST LOW Require municipalities to send organic waste for one round of processing to extract high value compounds before it could be incinerated / used as fertiliser Figure 22: Prioritisation of opportunities SOURCE: Ellen MacArthur Foundation circular economy team; NERA Economic Consulting PT_new_19.indd8018/06/201511:19 Map economy- wide policy options SOURCE: Ellen MacArthur Foundation, Delivering the circular economy – a toolkit for policymakers (2015) I II III 79
  100. 100. 80 SECTOR SELECTION TOOL Food and beverages Basic metals and fabricated products Rubber and plastic products Pharmaceuticals Electronic equipment Other manufacturing Electricity and gas Water supply, sewage and waste management Wholesale Retail Transportation services Other services Agriculture, forestry and fishing Mining and quarrying Machinery and vehicles Circularitypotential Role in economy Sector prioritisation Input and expertise required: Economic, environmental and other strategic data at sector level, ideally with historical series. Expert input from economic and environmental specialists to qualitatively assess scope for circularity. Target outcome • Visibility on which sectors in the economy would be most relevant to screen for circular economy opportunities Methodology • Sectors are assessed on two dimensions: Role in the economy and Circularity potential • Each dimension is an aggregate of a number of metrics chosen by the user • Metrics are either purely quantitative (e.g., employment, contribution to GVA, resource consumption) or semi-quantitative (synthesised by a series of qualitative considerations) Prerequisites • The project team should have an idea of how many sectors to prioritize, based on an alignment on starting point and ambition level I
  101. 101. 81 IMPACT QUANTIFICATION TOOL Input and expertise required: Sub- sector or product category level data for the sector assessed (varied dependent on type of opportunity assessed). Company interviews are required to assess and validate potential cost savings and adoption rates Target outcome • To quantify the potential impact of a given circular economy opportunity at sector level, based on a detailed, bottom-up estimate Methodology • A bottom-up estimate is made of the value of a circular economy opportunity in one sub-sector • Different ‘modules’ are employed to assess different types of opportunities • The sub-sector impact is then scaled up to sector level using a top-down estimate of the ‘scalability’ Prerequisites • A definition of short- and long term scenarios and overall scenario description of ‘circular’ and ‘business as usual’ for these scenarios • Identification and description of individual opportunities in each sector • Selection of a sub-sector and product categories to base the analysis on II
  102. 102. 82 BARRIER IDENTIFICATION & POLICY PRIORITISATION TOOL III Input and expertise required: Interviews with companies, relevant authorities, policymakers to assess and grade barriers and policy options. Target outcome • Mapping of key barriers to implementation for a given opportunity • Identification and scoring of potential policy options to address the barriers Methodology • A framework with 15 barrier types is used to identify key barriers according to a 3-grade scale • For each barrier, the user then identifies potential ways to address them using policy instruments of 6 different types • The policy options are then scored based on the possible impact (short- and long-term) and the cost of implementation Prerequisites • Opportunities need to be identified (not necessarily quantified)
  103. 103. AGENDA 83 • Introductions • Programa Basural Cero - Luis Lehmann • Circular economy - Luisa Santiago • Break - exercise • Overview of the Toolkit for policymakers and sample results from Denmark case study - Łukasz Holec • Introduction to Toolkit Plug-and-play tools - Łukasz Holec • Q&A
  104. 104. Q&A 84
  105. 105. 85 IS STRUCTURAL WASTE A GOOD BUSINESS CASE? The average European car is parked 92% of the time Mobility 31% of food is wasted along the value chain Food SOURCE: Ellen MacArthur Foundation, SUN, McKinsey Center for Business and Environment - Growth Within: a circular economy vision for Europe The average office is unused 50-65% of the time, even during working hours Built environment
  106. 106. STRUCTURAL WASTE IN THE MOBILITY SYSTEM SOURCE: EU Commission mobility and transport, accident statistics; www.fueleconomy.gov; EEA car occupancy rates data; S. Heck and M. Rogers, Resource revolution: How to capture the biggest business opportunity in a century, 2014; Centre d’études sur les réseaux, les transports, l’urbanisme et les constructions publiques. Land utilisation Road reaches peak throughput only 5% of time and only 10% covered with cars then 50% of most city land dedicated to streets and roads, parking, service stations, driveways, signals, and traffic signs 30,000 deaths in accidents and 4x as many disabling injuries2 More than 95% of accidents from human error 5% driving 1% sitting in congestion § Parked 92% of time § Average car carries 1.5 people/trip 1.6% looking for parking Energy used to move people Idling Engine losses 86% of fuel never reaches wheels 12:1 dead-weight ratio3 Tank-to-wheel energy flow - gasolineCar utilisation1 Deaths and injuries/year on road Productive use 5% 50%
  107. 107. Global Partners of the Ellen MacArthur Foundation: 87 @LuisaSPSantiago @economia_circ @circulareconomy @circulatenews Ellen MacArthur Foundation Ellen MacArthur Foundation Brasil luisa.santiago@ellenmacarthurfoundation.org

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