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Jornada Técnica sobre Responsabilidad Extendida del Productor - Steve Claus - E-Waste

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Jornada Técnica sobre Responsabilidad Extendida del Productor - Steve Claus - E-Waste

  1. 1. Viability of EPR for e-waste in Argentina? The Belgian case + feasibility in Argentina Steve ClausSteve Claus Independent vigorous inspriring EPR consultant Business developer & Advisory manager at Green Crossroads Buenos Aires, Argentina November 27-28, 2017 (Nov 28, am)
  2. 2. What is EPR? “Extended producer responsibility (EPR) is a strategy designed to promote the integration of environmental costs associated with goods throughout their life cycles into the market price of the products” (OECD, 2001, EPR – A guidance manual for governments) The essence of EPR: - bridge between production and waste management phase and - includes recycling and support/information about design for environment 2/45
  3. 3. European policy evolution: From waste to sustainable materials management 1994 Packaging waste Directive 1999 Landfill Directive 2008 Waste Framework Directive: Waste hierachy Directives on WEEE, batteries, end-of-life vehicles, etc. 2011 Roadmap on Resource efficiency 2015: 7th EAP (Environmental Action Program) vision: Circular economy and low-carbon society 3/45
  4. 4. Europe’s municipal waste treatment - Less landfilling and more recycling Eurostat: kg/capita 4/45
  5. 5. Implementation of the Packaging Directive in Europe 3 countries without any compliance scheme => Taxes Denmark, Hungary, Croatia Tax versus EPR continuous discussion Ukraine ? 36 European countries Trading of certificates UK, (Poland) 30 with Producer Responsibility Austria, Belgium, France, Spain, Germany, Ireland, Cyprus, Luxembourg, Portugal, Sweden, Greece, Latvia, Malta, Lithuania, Czech Republic, Slovak Republic, Italy, Slovenia, Estonia, Romania, Bulgaria, Turkey, Norway, Finland, Serbia, Israel, Netherlands, Poland, Macedonia, Bosnia 1 country with Fund Scheme Iceland countries 5/45
  6. 6. Several ways of EPR-implementation and no silver bullet 6/45
  7. 7. E-waste flows 7/45
  8. 8. (1) Belgium – Where, what,…? 8/45
  9. 9. WEEE WEEE) is one the fastest growing waste streams in the EU +/- 9 million tonnes generated in 2005 Expected tonnage 2020: 12 million WEEE is complex mixture of materials and components WEEE contains hazardous content, and if not properly managed, can cause major environmental and health problemsenvironmental and health problems The production of modern electronics requires the use of scarce and expensive resources (e.g. around 10% of total gold worldwide is used for their production). Improve environmental mgmt of WEEE: - Contribute to a circular economy and enhance resource efficiency - Improve collection, treatment and recycling of electronics at the end of their life 9/45
  10. 10. Transposing EU’s PPWD into Belgian laws EU WEEE Directive 2002/96/EC and EU RoHS in EEE Directive 2002/95/EC Collection, Recycling & Recovery Targets for e- waste Collection, Recycling & Recovery Targets for e- waste Restriction of the use of certain hazardous substances in EEE Restriction of the use of certain hazardous substances in EEE First WEEE Dir into force in 2003 => create collection schemes for consumers => increase recycling and/or re-use) 10/45 waste Till 31.1218: 4kg/h/y From 2019: 65% of PoM waste Till 31.1218: 4kg/h/y From 2019: 65% of PoM •Regional competency substances in EEE Some heavy metals Some flame retardants substances in EEE Some heavy metals Some flame retardants •Federal competency (Basel convention on movementof hazardous waste between nations (1992)) First RoHS Dir into force in 2003 => substitute certain heavy metals and certain flame retardants by safer alternatives
  11. 11. Take into accountmanagement fields Actor Producersand ImportersofEEE Nationalauthorities Localauthorities (municipalities& Retailers/shops Citizens Wastecollectors Transporters Recyclers Otherstakeholders Scope of the 11/45 Managementfield Scope of the legislation X X X Mission → objectives → strategy X X X X X X X X X Operations X X X X X X Marketing & Communication X X X X Data management & ICT X X X X X X X Financing X X X X X X Management organization X
  12. 12. The Belgian case – Recupel - Life of appliances 12/45
  13. 13. Mission and objectives of Recupel 13/45
  14. 14. The financial flow 14/45
  15. 15. Recupel at home https://www.recupel.be/en/what-does-recupel-recycle/search-for-an- appliance/search-for-an-appliance-alphabetically/ 15/45
  16. 16. All-in fee for home appliances Finances all costs (collection, sorting, transport and treatment) Part of this contribution finances Recupel’s coordination and communication actions (administration, reporting, audits,…). Amount calculated per category, based on - the average weight of the product group, - the components of the various electrical and electronic appliances,- the components of the various electrical and electronic appliances, - the collection percentage, - the treatment technique, - the lifetime and - other parameters 16/45
  17. 17. Collection points for HH e-waste Droppoints receive a distribution fee (for covering space costs) + optimzation 17/45 optimzation fee (if full truck loads transport is possible)
  18. 18. Recupel at work 18/45
  19. 19. Administrative fee for professional appliances Administrative fee for professional equipment (covers reporting and administrative costs only The other costs (for collection, sorting, transport and treatment) areThe other costs (for collection, sorting, transport and treatment) are calculated seperately (when the products are discarted) Tailormade 19/45
  20. 20. Certification of WEEE treatment activities - WEEELABEX WEEELABEX: - 25 WEEE compliance schemes joined forces to set up a the organisation - Non-profit legal entity: (1) to train auditors in the WEEELABEX standards and (2) to promote the adoption of these standards by operators and member(2) to promote the adoption of these standards by operators and member states to improve WEEE management practices in Europe Design a set of standards with respect to the collection, sorting, storage, transportation, preparation for re-use, treatment, processing and disposal of all kinds of WEEE. Put in place a process of monitoring of companies through audits conducted by auditors trained by its office. 20/45
  21. 21. Key success factors Belgian case Realistic, feasible and flexible legislation Obliged industry (fillers) to act as onE Public Private Partnership (PPP) Optimized and standardized collection scenario, which was implemented progressively Competition on the right level 21/45 Competition on the right level Quality and control management Support for appropriate communication to meet the needs of all the target groups KEY SUCCESS FACTORS DESIGNATED ROLES FOR ALL PARTIES INVOLVED + PUBLIC PRIVATE PARTNERSHIP
  22. 22. 1. Legal framework a) Definition b) Take back obligation c) Roles & responsibilities 2. Priorities & objectives a) Product scope b) Collection & treatment model c) Targets for collection and recycling 3. Collection and treatment infrastructure Key elements of an e-waste strategy 3. Collection and treatment infrastructure a) Infrastructure design b) Economic modelling 4. Implement an advance recycling fee (ARF) a) Detailed fee calculation 5. Design & implement a PRO structure a) Legal b) Governance c) Organogram d) Roles & responsibilities e) Management contract 22/45
  23. 23. 47% 10% 5% 7% 12% 6% 9% 4%1% 0% Forecast per district 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021 2022 2023 2024 2025 Port Louis Pamplemousses Riviere du Rempart Flacq Grand Port Savanne Plaines Wilhems Moka Example: Forecast till 2025 E-waste inventory Moka 7% Black River 6% Island of Rodrigues 3% Total EEE put on the market 100% Total e-waste 69% Forecast per categorie Avg growth 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021 2022 2023 2024 2025 1. Large Household Appliances 4% 2. Small Household Appliances 3% 3. IT and Telecommunication Equipment 9% 4. Consumer Equipment -1% 5. Lighting Equipment 2% 6. Electrical and Electronic Tool 3% 7. Toys , Leisure and Sports Equipment 6% 8. Medical Devices 3% 9. Monitoring and Control Instruments 3% 10. Automatic Dispensers Total EEE put on the market Total e-waste 23/45
  24. 24. Designing a national strategy 24 23/45
  25. 25. • Targets (example) 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021 2022 Total EEE put on the market (kg) Total e-waste (kg) EEE put on the market (kg/inhabitant) E-waste (kg/inhabitant) Setting targets/objectives E-waste (kg/inhabitant) Target to collect per year (% of kg put on the market) 20% 30% 35% 40% 45% Target growth forecast for collection 10% 10% 5% 5% 5% Target annuel collection (kg/inhabitant) Target yearly collection (tonnes) 25/45
  26. 26. Designing collection infrastructure E-WASTE COLLECTION POINT RD Congo 26/45
  27. 27. E-WASTE RECYCLING FACILITY RD Congo Designing treatment infrastructure 27/45
  28. 28. Designing treatment infrastructure 28 27/45
  29. 29. Calculation method (example) Calculating the recycling fee 29/45
  30. 30. Proposed gouverance structure (example) Board E-waste Steering committee Association of importers Association of distributors Representative of steering comittee MCCI Representative of consumers Parnership agreement: Ministry of Environment Designing a PRO PRO Boardimporters Management services agreement: MCCI MCCI General Manager Collection service providers Transport service providers Recycling service providers Sector ad hoc input & advisory President 30/45
  31. 31. BoardBoard General manager General manager Assembling the team (example) Designing a PRO CommercialCommercial Operations, reporting, audit Operations, reporting, audit Communication & sensitization Communication & sensitization Dedicated communication Agency Dedicated communication Agency FinanceFinance LegalLegal Humain Resources Humain Resources Administration & IT Administration & IT 31/45
  32. 32. Who to involve when aiming for success? Legislator – with a key role to ensure balanced legislation Industry / EPR schemes – with a key role to take financial and coordination responsibility + optimize EEE Municipalities - with an obligation to cooperate with the EPR schemeMunicipalities - with an obligation to cooperate with the EPR scheme Retailers/shops – with an obligation to (physically) take-back the e-waste Operators (for collection, sorting or recycling) - with a key role to provide qualitative services and to come up with innovative ideas Citizens - with a key role to collect, separate and recycle 32/45 KEY SUCCESS FACTORS DESIGNATED ROLES/RESPONSIBILITIES + PUBLIC PRIVATE PARTNERSHIP
  33. 33. A real need to manage e-waste Warnings - No copy paste - No silver bullet - Take into account local circumstances (e.g. level of public waste mgmt, of formal waste recycling infrastructure, of informal collection and treatment, of popular economy workers, …)of popular economy workers, …) Design take-back system (EPR PRO) - Legal framework - Operational activities - Financing (costs, revenues => fees) - Enforcement, control, audit, monitoring - PRO Vision Mission Strategy (incl. public service & non-for-profit) - Awareness creation 33/45
  34. 34. E-waste recycling in action COLLECTION DEPOLLUTION AUTOMATED PRE-PROCESSING 34/45 COLLECTION DEPOLLUTION AUTOMATED PRE-PROCESSING SEPARATION OF HAZARDOUS FRACTIONS TRANSBOUNDARY MOVEMENT INTERNATIONAL TREATMENT BEST AVAILABLE TECHNOLOGIES
  35. 35. Country specific challenges 35/45 Proper pre- processing FACILITIES needed CAPACITY BUILDING share knowledge & expertise Quid recycling of HAZARDOUS MATERIALS, esp. non-valuables REGULATORY FRAMEWORK development of EPR in LATAM
  36. 36. Lessons learnt: Solid legal framework is prerequisite Purpose - Get government involved - Scalability : moving beyond a pilot - Financing the recycling of non valuable materials - Licensing of recyclers, enforcement of standards & regulations 36/45 Approach - Multi-stakeholder approach needed: Local government Advising governments International organizations OEMs (original equipement manufacturers)
  37. 37. Lessons learnt: For project selection Bottom-up initiative needed, govmt endorsement & strong local network Favourable legal framework is important (EPR, waste management, recycler requirements) Clear perspective towards self-sufficiency needed: - track record, network, other sponsors & partners- track record, network, other sponsors & partners Solid business plan needed: - collection strategy, scalable approach, sound financial plan Transparency & openness to think & work together A motivated entrepreneur makes a big difference Set-up: projects can be public, private, NGO: all have pros & cons 37/45
  38. 38. Lessons learnt: For collection Collection is the main challenge to ensure self-sufficiency Reuse & recycling go hand in hand: - Reuse adds more value, however - high standards & additional services needed: maintenance, repair, guarantee, etc. Sources of collectionSources of collection - B2B:private, government, NGOs, international organizations Pro: high quality equipment (reuse) Con: time intensive - B2C: Pro: high volume Con: lots of awareness raising, low quality (except mobiles) - Informal: Pro: huge volume potential, environmental focus area Con: requires network and specific, flexible strategies 38/45
  39. 39. (2) Argentina: A window of opportunities, however there is no silver bullet No copy paste of other existing models in the world No one size fits all Always take into account the local circumstances and particularities of the country What already exists? What already works?What already works? What are authorities’ ambitions? What is obliged industry’s willingness to take up its responsibility? What are waste operators doing and how? What’s the current recycling market and how is it maturing? Status of incorporation of informal sector? Quid with regard to other recovery/re-use possibilities ? 39/45
  40. 40. Waste pickers, collectors, sorters and recyclers are doing a good job, however… A lack of e-waste data What are the e-waste products, volumes, … put on the market? What are the tendancies? What is collected today and by whom? What is happening with the collected e-waste?What is happening with the collected e-waste? What is the financial model? Are the waste pickers, popular economy workers, collectors and sorters receiving correct amounts of money for their services? What about the risks waste pickers, popular economy workers, collectors, sorters are taking (health, insurance, work conditions,…)? 40/45
  41. 41. Argentina today Waste pickers: some of them belong to associations; others work stand-alone: mainly in HH and small shops Private companies: mainly collect from malls, industry (high volumes, clean material, higher prices) NGO’s collecting: what type of materials + from whom? Utility companies: do they exist, what do they collect and how?Utility companies: do they exist, what do they collect and how? Where to take to material to? - specialized shops? - sorters - repair shops? - recyclers - landfill? 41/45
  42. 42. Problems today Waste pickers/popular economy workers: informal/formalized? (quid health, security, …?) Losing material because of no seperation at source No education to sort at source Collection of materials is price driven (depending on demand at the end of the chain)the chain) Transparency with regards to costs and tariffs 42/45
  43. 43. What are real potential scenarios? EPR should include waste pickers/ popular economy workers Not exclude store houses Should obliged industry work or not work with excisting scheme or create new parallel collection/sorting system? Role of municipalities? How manage the financial flows? (cf. tariffs, …): Obliged industry to play anHow manage the financial flows? (cf. tariffs, …): Obliged industry to play an intermediate role or leave it like it is today, being waste pickers, popular economy workers, private companies,… receiving the money from the stores/industry? 43/45
  44. 44. 8. Lessons learnt - General No one-size-fits-all, no silver bullet Take into account the local circumstances, incl. informal sector Legal framework & enforce it Designated responsabilities CollaborationCollaboration Quality assurence Awareness raising campains Step-by-step, learn by doing START! 44/45 KEY SUCCESS FACTORS DESIGNATED ROLES FOR ALL PARTIES INVOLVED + PUBLIC PRIVATE PARTNERSHIP
  45. 45. Any questions? Thank you for your attention! 45/45 Steve Claus Vigorous inspriring EPR consultant steve.claus247@gmail.com steve@green-crossroads.com

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