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Sensory Considerations in BIB Design

             Chris Findlay, PhD.
              Compusense Inc.
              Guelph. Canada
        cfindlay@compusense.com
Sensory Considerations in BIB Design
• All sensory and consumer testing is based upon the
  ability to perceive differences in products. It is obvious
  that discrimination testing is based upon measuring a
  population’s probability of determining a true
  difference amongst or between products. Descriptive
  analysis uses the ability to correctly judge intensity of
  attributes of products to effectively show reliable
  differences across products in a sensory space. Equally
  true is the requirement that, to state a true preference,
  or to rate or rank liking, the consumer must be able to
  distinguish between products, otherwise the results
  are pure guesswork.
Is there a Difference?
• All sensory measures are based upon a real
  difference.
• Considerations:
  – Does the threshold demonstrate a wide range
    across the population ?
  – Is the attribute intensity close to threshold?
  – Is the sample part of an homogenous product?
  – What role does context play on perception?
Can we rate the difference on a scale?
• Scales are comprised of meaningful units
• Zero is the absence of perceived stimulus
• Some Just Noticeable Difference will
  contribute to the scale measure
  – 4 JND’s versus 6 JND’s
Is there a Preference?
• To state a true preference a consumer must
  see a real difference.
• Otherwise it’s just a guess.
• Considerations:
  – Do all attributes influence liking equally?
  – For all consumers?
  – In all contexts?
• Let’s consider a sensory space

                                                                                    2.58
                                2.58




                                                                                       W3      W2

                                                W3
                                                                                   W10
                               Astringent
                                        W11                                 W9
                       W6 W7        W2 Bitter                                        Leather
               W12    Raisin                                                                      W1
                                                                                    Eucalyptus
                                                                                   Sweet
                      FruityWoody
                                Eucalyptus
                                      Leather                                     Asparagus
                     Vanilla          Sour                                                Coffee
                                          Pepper                       W6             Floral
                                                                                 Green Bitter
                                                                            Fruity
-2.58    W10         Floral           Tobacco W5          -2.58 2.58        W12 Pepper AstringentWoody        2.58
                                                                             Raisin Tobacco  Vanilla
                                W4   W8 Green                                          Smoke
                     Sweet              Asparagus
                                                                                    W5

                          Coffee Smoke                                                 Sour W11
                                                                                                         W7
                                                     W9
                                                                            W4
                                                                              W8




                          W1
                               -2.58
                                                                                    -2.58




        • Can we find logical contrasts to test
• Quadrangles and Triangles
                                2.58
                                                                                    2.58




                                                                                       W3      W2
                                                W3
                                                                                   W10
                               Astringent
                                        W11
                      W6 W7         W2 Bitter                               W9        Leather
               W12    Raisin                                                                      W1
                      FruityWoody                                                   Eucalyptus
                                                                                   Sweet
                                Eucalyptus
                                      Leather
                                      Sour                                        Asparagus
                     Vanilla              Pepper                       W6                 Coffee
                                                                                      Floral
                                                                                 Green Bitter
                                                                            Fruity
-2.58    W10         Floral           Tobacco W5          -2.58 2.58        W12 Pepper AstringentWoody        2.58
                                                                             Raisin Tobacco  Vanilla
                                W4   W8 Green                                          Smoke
                     Sweet              Asparagus
                                                                                    W5
                                                                                       Sour W11
                          Coffee Smoke                                                                   W7
                                                     W9
                                                                            W4
                                                                              W8




                          W1
                                                                                    -2.58
                               -2.58
W2
W4
                                                                                                                W10
W1                                                                                                                                  Cluster 2 Liking
                        Cluster 1 Liking                                                                                             (n=142 or 23%)
                                                                                                                W3
W6                       (n= 172 or 28%)
                                                                                                                W1
W7
                                                                                                                W11
W8
                                                                                                                W5
W9
                                                                                                                W8
W12
                                                                                                                W4
W11
                                                                                                                W12
W2
                                                                                                                W6
W10
                                                                                                                W9
W5
                                                                                                                W7
W3
                                                                                                                  3.5   4.0   4.5           5.0         5.5   6.0   6.5   7.0   7.5   8.0
      3.5   4.0   4.5          5.0          5.5     6.0         6.5         7.0         7.5         8.0




W9                                                                                                              W6

W6                                                                                                              W8
                        Cluster 3 Liking                                                                                            Cluster 4 Liking
W7                        (n= 195 or 32%)                                                                       W3                   (n = 105 or 17%)

W12                                                                                                             W5

W3                                                                                                              W1

W2                                                                                                              W11

W5                                                                                                              W4

W10                                                                                                             W9

W1                                                                                                              W12

W8                                                                                                              W10

W11                                                                                                             W7

W4                                                                                                              W2

  3.5       4.0   4.5           5.0           5.5         6.0         6.5         7.0         7.5         8.0     3.5   4.0   4.5           5.0         5.5   6.0   6.5   7.0   7.5   8.0
W4

W1
                    Cluster 1 Liking
W6                   (n= 172 or 28%)

W7

W8

W9

W12

W11

W2

W10

W5

W3

  3.5   4.0   4.5          5.0         5.5   6.0   6.5   7.0   7.5   8.0
2.58
                                2.58




                                                                                       W3      W2

                                                W3
                                                                                   W10
                               Astringent
                                        W11                                 W9
                       W6 W7        W2 Bitter                                        Leather
               W12    Raisin                                                                      W1
                                                                                    Eucalyptus
                                                                                   Sweet
                      FruityWoody
                                Eucalyptus
                                      Leather                                     Asparagus
                     Vanilla          Sour                                                Coffee
                                          Pepper                       W6             Floral
                                                                                 Green Bitter
                                                                            Fruity
-2.58    W10         Floral           Tobacco W5          -2.58 2.58        W12 Pepper AstringentWoody        2.58
                                                                             Raisin Tobacco  Vanilla
                                W4   W8 Green                                          Smoke
                     Sweet              Asparagus
                                                                                    W5

                          Coffee Smoke                                                 Sour W11
                                                                                                         W7
                                                     W9
                                                                            W4
                                                                              W8




                          W1
                               -2.58
                                                                                    -2.58




        • Cluster #1 ++ W4                                      -- W3
W2

W10
                    Cluster 2 Liking
W3                   (n=142 or 23%)

W1

W11

W5

W8

W4

W12

W6

W9

W7

  3.5   4.0   4.5          5.0         5.5   6.0   6.5   7.0   7.5   8.0
2.58
                                2.58




                                                                                         W3      W2

                                                W3
                                                                                     W10
                               Astringent
                                        W11                                   W9
                       W6 W7        W2 Bitter                                          Leather
               W12    Raisin                                                                        W1
                                                                                      Eucalyptus
                                                                                     Sweet
                      FruityWoody
                                Eucalyptus
                                      Leather                                       Asparagus
                     Vanilla          Sour                                                  Coffee
                                          Pepper                       W6               Floral
                                                                                   Green Bitter
                                                                              Fruity
-2.58    W10         Floral           Tobacco W5          -2.58 2.58          W12 Pepper AstringentWoody        2.58
                                                                               Raisin Tobacco  Vanilla
                                W4   W8 Green                                            Smoke
                     Sweet              Asparagus
                                                                                      W5

                          Coffee Smoke                                                   Sour W11
                                                                                                           W7
                                                     W9
                                                                              W4
                                                                                W8




                          W1
                               -2.58
                                                                                      -2.58




        • Cluster #2                            ++W7                   --W2
W9

W6
                    Cluster 3 Liking
W7                   (n= 195 or 32%)

W12

W3

W2

W5

W10

W1

W8

W11

W4

  3.5   4.0   4.5          5.0         5.5   6.0   6.5   7.0   7.5   8.0
2.58
                                2.58




                                                                                         W3      W2

                                                W3
                                                                                     W10
                               Astringent
                                        W11                                   W9
                       W6 W7        W2 Bitter                                          Leather
               W12    Raisin                                                                        W1
                                                                                      Eucalyptus
                                                                                     Sweet
                      FruityWoody
                                Eucalyptus
                                      Leather                                       Asparagus
                     Vanilla          Sour                                                  Coffee
                                          Pepper                       W6               Floral
                                                                                   Green Bitter
                                                                              Fruity
-2.58    W10         Floral           Tobacco W5          -2.58 2.58          W12 Pepper AstringentWoody        2.58
                                                                               Raisin Tobacco  Vanilla
                                W4   W8 Green                                            Smoke
                     Sweet              Asparagus
                                                                                      W5

                          Coffee Smoke                                                   Sour W11
                                                                                                           W7
                                                     W9
                                                                              W4
                                                                                W8




                          W1
                               -2.58
                                                                                      -2.58




        • Cluster #3                            ++W3                   --W4
W6

W8
                    Cluster 4 Liking
W3                   (n = 105 or 17%)

W5

W1

W11

W4

W9

W12

W10

W7

W2

  3.5   4.0   4.5           5.0         5.5   6.0   6.5   7.0   7.5   8.0
2.58
                                2.58




                                                                                         W3      W2

                                                W3
                                                                                     W10
                               Astringent
                                        W11                                   W9
                       W6 W7        W2 Bitter                                          Leather
               W12    Raisin                                                                        W1
                                                                                      Eucalyptus
                                                                                     Sweet
                      FruityWoody
                                Eucalyptus
                                      Leather                                       Asparagus
                     Vanilla          Sour                                                  Coffee
                                          Pepper                       W6               Floral
                                                                                   Green Bitter
                                                                              Fruity
-2.58    W10         Floral           Tobacco W5          -2.58 2.58          W12 Pepper AstringentWoody        2.58
                                                                               Raisin Tobacco  Vanilla
                                W4   W8 Green                                            Smoke
                     Sweet              Asparagus
                                                                                      W5

                          Coffee Smoke                                                   Sour W11
                                                                                                           W7
                                                     W9
                                                                              W4
                                                                                W8




                          W1
                               -2.58
                                                                                      -2.58




        • Cluster #4                            ++W5                   --W7
Conclusion
• The selection of sensory contrasts may be used to strengthen the
  design of BIB experiments. If random incomplete blocks are chosen
  it is possible that groupings of quite similar products may be
  received by some assessors and widely different products by others.
  Prior knowledge of the sensory properties is essential in assigning
  blocks that will emphasize the inherent differences in the products
  and improve the quality of data from the study.

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Sensory Considerations in BIB Design

  • 1. Sensory Considerations in BIB Design Chris Findlay, PhD. Compusense Inc. Guelph. Canada cfindlay@compusense.com
  • 2. Sensory Considerations in BIB Design • All sensory and consumer testing is based upon the ability to perceive differences in products. It is obvious that discrimination testing is based upon measuring a population’s probability of determining a true difference amongst or between products. Descriptive analysis uses the ability to correctly judge intensity of attributes of products to effectively show reliable differences across products in a sensory space. Equally true is the requirement that, to state a true preference, or to rate or rank liking, the consumer must be able to distinguish between products, otherwise the results are pure guesswork.
  • 3. Is there a Difference? • All sensory measures are based upon a real difference. • Considerations: – Does the threshold demonstrate a wide range across the population ? – Is the attribute intensity close to threshold? – Is the sample part of an homogenous product? – What role does context play on perception?
  • 4. Can we rate the difference on a scale? • Scales are comprised of meaningful units • Zero is the absence of perceived stimulus • Some Just Noticeable Difference will contribute to the scale measure – 4 JND’s versus 6 JND’s
  • 5. Is there a Preference? • To state a true preference a consumer must see a real difference. • Otherwise it’s just a guess. • Considerations: – Do all attributes influence liking equally? – For all consumers? – In all contexts?
  • 6. • Let’s consider a sensory space 2.58 2.58 W3 W2 W3 W10 Astringent W11 W9 W6 W7 W2 Bitter Leather W12 Raisin W1 Eucalyptus Sweet FruityWoody Eucalyptus Leather Asparagus Vanilla Sour Coffee Pepper W6 Floral Green Bitter Fruity -2.58 W10 Floral Tobacco W5 -2.58 2.58 W12 Pepper AstringentWoody 2.58 Raisin Tobacco Vanilla W4 W8 Green Smoke Sweet Asparagus W5 Coffee Smoke Sour W11 W7 W9 W4 W8 W1 -2.58 -2.58 • Can we find logical contrasts to test
  • 7. • Quadrangles and Triangles 2.58 2.58 W3 W2 W3 W10 Astringent W11 W6 W7 W2 Bitter W9 Leather W12 Raisin W1 FruityWoody Eucalyptus Sweet Eucalyptus Leather Sour Asparagus Vanilla Pepper W6 Coffee Floral Green Bitter Fruity -2.58 W10 Floral Tobacco W5 -2.58 2.58 W12 Pepper AstringentWoody 2.58 Raisin Tobacco Vanilla W4 W8 Green Smoke Sweet Asparagus W5 Sour W11 Coffee Smoke W7 W9 W4 W8 W1 -2.58 -2.58
  • 8. W2 W4 W10 W1 Cluster 2 Liking Cluster 1 Liking (n=142 or 23%) W3 W6 (n= 172 or 28%) W1 W7 W11 W8 W5 W9 W8 W12 W4 W11 W12 W2 W6 W10 W9 W5 W7 W3 3.5 4.0 4.5 5.0 5.5 6.0 6.5 7.0 7.5 8.0 3.5 4.0 4.5 5.0 5.5 6.0 6.5 7.0 7.5 8.0 W9 W6 W6 W8 Cluster 3 Liking Cluster 4 Liking W7 (n= 195 or 32%) W3 (n = 105 or 17%) W12 W5 W3 W1 W2 W11 W5 W4 W10 W9 W1 W12 W8 W10 W11 W7 W4 W2 3.5 4.0 4.5 5.0 5.5 6.0 6.5 7.0 7.5 8.0 3.5 4.0 4.5 5.0 5.5 6.0 6.5 7.0 7.5 8.0
  • 9. W4 W1 Cluster 1 Liking W6 (n= 172 or 28%) W7 W8 W9 W12 W11 W2 W10 W5 W3 3.5 4.0 4.5 5.0 5.5 6.0 6.5 7.0 7.5 8.0
  • 10. 2.58 2.58 W3 W2 W3 W10 Astringent W11 W9 W6 W7 W2 Bitter Leather W12 Raisin W1 Eucalyptus Sweet FruityWoody Eucalyptus Leather Asparagus Vanilla Sour Coffee Pepper W6 Floral Green Bitter Fruity -2.58 W10 Floral Tobacco W5 -2.58 2.58 W12 Pepper AstringentWoody 2.58 Raisin Tobacco Vanilla W4 W8 Green Smoke Sweet Asparagus W5 Coffee Smoke Sour W11 W7 W9 W4 W8 W1 -2.58 -2.58 • Cluster #1 ++ W4 -- W3
  • 11. W2 W10 Cluster 2 Liking W3 (n=142 or 23%) W1 W11 W5 W8 W4 W12 W6 W9 W7 3.5 4.0 4.5 5.0 5.5 6.0 6.5 7.0 7.5 8.0
  • 12. 2.58 2.58 W3 W2 W3 W10 Astringent W11 W9 W6 W7 W2 Bitter Leather W12 Raisin W1 Eucalyptus Sweet FruityWoody Eucalyptus Leather Asparagus Vanilla Sour Coffee Pepper W6 Floral Green Bitter Fruity -2.58 W10 Floral Tobacco W5 -2.58 2.58 W12 Pepper AstringentWoody 2.58 Raisin Tobacco Vanilla W4 W8 Green Smoke Sweet Asparagus W5 Coffee Smoke Sour W11 W7 W9 W4 W8 W1 -2.58 -2.58 • Cluster #2 ++W7 --W2
  • 13. W9 W6 Cluster 3 Liking W7 (n= 195 or 32%) W12 W3 W2 W5 W10 W1 W8 W11 W4 3.5 4.0 4.5 5.0 5.5 6.0 6.5 7.0 7.5 8.0
  • 14. 2.58 2.58 W3 W2 W3 W10 Astringent W11 W9 W6 W7 W2 Bitter Leather W12 Raisin W1 Eucalyptus Sweet FruityWoody Eucalyptus Leather Asparagus Vanilla Sour Coffee Pepper W6 Floral Green Bitter Fruity -2.58 W10 Floral Tobacco W5 -2.58 2.58 W12 Pepper AstringentWoody 2.58 Raisin Tobacco Vanilla W4 W8 Green Smoke Sweet Asparagus W5 Coffee Smoke Sour W11 W7 W9 W4 W8 W1 -2.58 -2.58 • Cluster #3 ++W3 --W4
  • 15. W6 W8 Cluster 4 Liking W3 (n = 105 or 17%) W5 W1 W11 W4 W9 W12 W10 W7 W2 3.5 4.0 4.5 5.0 5.5 6.0 6.5 7.0 7.5 8.0
  • 16. 2.58 2.58 W3 W2 W3 W10 Astringent W11 W9 W6 W7 W2 Bitter Leather W12 Raisin W1 Eucalyptus Sweet FruityWoody Eucalyptus Leather Asparagus Vanilla Sour Coffee Pepper W6 Floral Green Bitter Fruity -2.58 W10 Floral Tobacco W5 -2.58 2.58 W12 Pepper AstringentWoody 2.58 Raisin Tobacco Vanilla W4 W8 Green Smoke Sweet Asparagus W5 Coffee Smoke Sour W11 W7 W9 W4 W8 W1 -2.58 -2.58 • Cluster #4 ++W5 --W7
  • 17. Conclusion • The selection of sensory contrasts may be used to strengthen the design of BIB experiments. If random incomplete blocks are chosen it is possible that groupings of quite similar products may be received by some assessors and widely different products by others. Prior knowledge of the sensory properties is essential in assigning blocks that will emphasize the inherent differences in the products and improve the quality of data from the study.