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Progetto finanziato evolution

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24 partner provenienti da tutta Europa, a rappresentare le più innovative aziende operanti nel settore Automotive, fra le quali Pininfarina nella veste di coordinatore tecnico, oltre a molte prestigiose università, come il capofila Aalborg Universitet, hanno lavorato insieme per 48 mesi con l’obiettivo di vincere una sfida ambiziosa: dimostrare la sostenibilità della fattibilità di una city car elettrica di soli 600kg di peso, strutturalmente prestazionale e ad alto grado di riciclabilità, per medi volumi di produzione (30,000 unità/anno).
Obiettivo raggiunto e sfida vinta: il punto di partenza per il progetto Evolution è stato il concept Pininfarina Nido, prevalentemente realizzato in profili commerciali e pezzi stampati in alluminio, del peso di circa 850 kg; il punto di arrivo è stato un archetipo innovativo di veicolo, fortemente ottimizzato in termini di peso vs performance pienamente in linea con il target di peso ed estremamente interessante dal punto di vista della fattibilità tecnico-economica, focalizzata su cinque sottosistemi innovativi, i dimostratori (pianale, puntone anteriore, traversa paraurti anteriore, porta, traversa sospensione anteriore).
L’approccio progettuale seguito ha considerato come variabili di progetto i materiali, le scelte ingegneristiche e le tecnologie di processo: il risultato è stato una nuova struttura, rinforzata solo dove necessario, nella quale i materiali sono stati studiati ad hoc per la specifica applicazione e per le tecnologie di produzione proposte/sviluppate contestualmente.
L’intero sviluppo è stato guidato dalle analisi numeriche (CAE) e verificato sperimentalmente.
Oltre ai dimostratori, importanti risultati sono stati ottenuti anche nell’ambito delle tecnologie di giunzione multi-materiale (adesivi strutturali) e per quanto riguarda gli aspetti di smontaggio/riuso/riciclo dei nuovi materiali.
Il progetto si è concluso con successo lo scorso ottobre con la presentazione del dimostratore tecnologico alla Commissione Europea.

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Progetto finanziato evolution

  1. 1. 09-05-2017 1 Innovative advanced lightweight materials for the next generation of environmentally-friendly electric vehicles EVolution FP7 funded project - body structure design strategies using new composite and Al materials and enabled technologies Progetto finanziato Evolution – una soluzione multimateriale per scocche di autoveicoli utilizzando tecnologie e materiali innovativi Ing. Elena Cischino Engineering Manager Funded Projects Pininfarina SpA, Italy
  2. 2. 09-05-2017 2 Innovative advanced lightweight materials for the next generation of environmentally-friendly electric vehicles EVolution project context EVolution at a glance Project approach, challenges and constraints CONTENTS: Focus on Evolution demonstrators Significant results
  3. 3. 09-05-2017 3 Innovative advanced lightweight materials for the next generation of environmentally-friendly electric vehicles 2020 Target: attractive cars with CO2 emission < 95 g/km EVolution project context: Why LIGHTENING? LIGHTWEIGHTING is a key factor ✓ Secondary or spiral effects (powertrain and brakes downsizing, lower rolling resistence) ✓ Improved vehicle performances (vehicle dynamics, gradeability, EV range…) ✓ CO2 reduction and improved fuel economy ✓ For E-powertrain, battery size and cost reduction (with the same car authonomy) The energy required for moving a vehicle is, except for aerodynamic resistance, directly proportional to its mass. Reducing the mass implies a series of benefits: Considering the same authonomy)
  4. 4. 09-05-2017 4 Innovative advanced lightweight materials for the next generation of environmentally-friendly electric vehicles EVolution project context: Where LIGHTENING? The Body in White is a prime target for lightweighting The OEMs are moving towards a greater differentiation in materials, as can be seen in the different multi-materials vehicle bodies recently introduced. But while mixing materials may contribute to a good compromise between weight reduction and vehicle cost, it also propose a number of challenges.
  5. 5. 09-05-2017 5 Innovative advanced lightweight materials for the next generation of environmentally-friendly electric vehicles The challenge: introduction of high performance composites on structural parts to consistently reduce the weight IT IS A MATTER OF ADAPTATION • THE NUMERICAL SIMULATIONS ARE READY TO GO • FORMING/FORGING STANDARDS AVAILABLE • INDUSTRIAL TOOLS IS PRESERVED (INVESTMENTS COSTS) IT IS A REVOLUTION • CREATION OF CONCEPTION/VALIDATION STANDARDS AND THE DEDICATED TECHNIQUES • CONCEPTION IS A CO-CONCEPTION PRODUCT PRODUCT-PROCESS ON THE PERIMETER OF THE VEHICLE STRUCTURE • COMPATIBILITY OF THE INDUSTRIAL TOOLING (FABRICATION, CONTROL, ASSEMBLING, PAINTING) STEEL ALUMINIUM STEEL ADVANCED COMPOSITES Weight reduction strategies: Moderate or Extreme?
  6. 6. 09-05-2017 6 Innovative advanced lightweight materials for the next generation of environmentally-friendly electric vehicles Materials specifications: the 4 chapters PROCESSABILITY FUNCTIONAL PERFORMANCES END OF LIFE RECYCLING REPAIRABILITY INDUSTRIAL FORMING CAPABILITY POSSIBILITY TO RE-USE, TO RECYCLE OR TO VALORISE POSSIBILITY TO REPAIR AND TO MAKE THE MAINTENANCE IN THE DEALER NETWORK DURABILITY PERFORMANCE ON THE VEHICLE, SAFETY
  7. 7. 09-05-2017 7 Innovative advanced lightweight materials for the next generation of environmentally-friendly electric vehicles LIGHTWEIGHT highlights ✓ Lightweighting is important, but it is not the resolutive solution for achieving CO2 targets: it complements other technologies, especially powertrain electrification ✓ Affordability is a key: OEMs currently targeting 3 €/kg-saved for high volume production (~100,000 units/year) and 6 €/kg-saved for medium volume production (~50,000 units/year), according to the most recent H2020 topics ✓ Pace of vehicle weight reduction expected to increase as lightweight material costs become more competitive to powertrain technologies ✓ Advanced composite materials will impact mass production cars in next 10 years. ✓ It is important to consider both mass drivers and enablers
  8. 8. 09-05-2017 8 Innovative advanced lightweight materials for the next generation of environmentally-friendly electric vehicles How to lighten car weight? Trade-off between mass driver and mass reduction
  9. 9. 09-05-2017 9 Innovative advanced lightweight materials for the next generation of environmentally-friendly electric vehicles EVolution project context EVolution at a glance Project approach, challenges and constraints Focus on Evolution materials and demonstrators Significant results
  10. 10. 09-05-2017 10 Innovative advanced lightweight materials for the next generation of environmentally-friendly electric vehicles ‘EVolution’ stands for “The Electric Vehicle revOLUTION enabled by advanced materials highly hybridized into lightweight components for easy integration and dismantling providing a reduced life cycle cost logic”. EVolution project targets urban electric vehicles; their specific peculiarities in several areas make necessary to study new solutions specifically designed for them. Pininfarina Nido concept, fully in Aluminium, has been taken as baseline for the activities. The EVolution project started in November 2012 with a duration of 4 years. The research leading to these results received funding from the European Union Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under grant agreement no. 314744. It involves 24 partners from 11 different EU countries; eight partners are European SMEs operating in different fields of the automotive sectors: materials, equipment, part production. The case study: EVolution project
  11. 11. 09-05-2017 11 Innovative advanced lightweight materials for the next generation of environmentally-friendly electric vehicles EVolution CONSORTIUM Project Coordinator: AALBORG UNIVERSITET (DK); Technical Coordinator: PININFARINA SpA (IT)
  12. 12. 09-05-2017 12 Innovative advanced lightweight materials for the next generation of environmentally-friendly electric vehicles EVolution is focused on some specific body areas, named demonstrators, to be redesigned and lightweighted (50% weight reduction with respect to the equivalent steel solution) through an innovative mix of design strategies, materials and processing technologies, to achieve the project goals in terms of weight reduction. Selected demonstrators have been: • the underbody • the side door • the front crossbeam • the structural node (shotgun system) • the front mechanical subframe EVolution focus Selection of materials and enabled technologies has been done in terms of use, potential for further development, cost effectiveness and environmental impact. The followed approach has been: to lighten everywhere reinforcing only where it is necessary. With this perspective the BiW too has been redesigned to be a media to integrate the demonstrators, assuring the compliance of structural performances and crashworthiness. The overall EVolution target is a Full Vehicle, battery included, with a weight of 600 kg.
  13. 13. 09-05-2017 13 Innovative advanced lightweight materials for the next generation of environmentally-friendly electric vehicles • Pininfarina NIDO concept: Body in White fully in Aluminium • Full vehicle weight: 850 kg • Body in White weight: 160 kg • NO CRASH ANALISYS PERFORMED!!!! EVolution • EVolution: multimaterial BiW • Full vehicle weight: 600 kg • Demonstrators weight: 50% respect to equivalent steel solution • Compliance to EU crash std EVolution at a glance UNDERBODY STRUCTURAL NODE SIDE DOOR SUBFRAME FRONT CROSSMEMBER BiW
  14. 14. 09-05-2017 14 Innovative advanced lightweight materials for the next generation of environmentally-friendly electric vehicles EVolution project context EVolution at a glance Project approach, challenges and constraints Focus on Evolution materials and demonstrators Significant results
  15. 15. 09-05-2017 15 Innovative advanced lightweight materials for the next generation of environmentally-friendly electric vehicles Pininfarina NIDO style, ergonomy and PWT/vehicle suspensions architectures Limited Budget (funded research project) Carry-over of some solutions from other funded projects Pre-defined groups of materials/technologies in some demonstrators EVolution constraints and challenges Lightening starting from a fully Aluminium structure BiW target weight identification Reliable CAE prediction representing brand new materials CHALLENGES CONSTRAINTS New materials upscaling and potential industrial viability Structure compliant with European crash stds
  16. 16. 09-05-2017 16 Innovative advanced lightweight materials for the next generation of environmentally-friendly electric vehicles All specifically developed in EVolution Cost evaluation (remark: no target cost has been requested) EVolution approach
  17. 17. 09-05-2017 17 Innovative advanced lightweight materials for the next generation of environmentally-friendly electric vehicles EVolution project context EVolution at a glance Project approach, challenges and constraints Focus on Evolution materials and demonstrators Significant results
  18. 18. 09-05-2017 18 Innovative advanced lightweight materials for the next generation of environmentally-friendly electric vehicles • Materials generation and characterization @ LAB level • CAE modeling • Material upscaling to produce demonstrators • Material upscaled characterization • CAE model updating EVolution materials development
  19. 19. 09-05-2017 19 Innovative advanced lightweight materials for the next generation of environmentally-friendly electric vehicles The 5 Demonstrators FRONT CROSSMEMBER ORGANOSHEET BASED ON PP OVERMOULDED WITH A NANOREINFORCED PP (PNC); BIO- BASED POLYURETHANE FOAMS (BIO-PUR FOAMS) TO REINFORCE SELECTED AREAS MECHANICAL SUBFRAME POLYAMIDE COMPOSITES (PA) BASED ON CARBON FIBRE FABRICS DOOR SKINS ADVANCED PP-BIOBASED MATERIAL WITH HIGH STRENGHT CAPABILITIES REAR FLOR REINFORCEMENT POLYAMIDE COMPOSITES (PA) BASED ON GLASS FIBRE FABRICS UNDERBODY ONE-STEP-FORMING ALUMINIUM TECHNOLOGIES WITH AL-5XXX ALLOYS STRUCTURAL NODE “GREEN SAND MOULD” TECHNIQUE ALLOWING CO-CASTED JOINTS AMONG ELEMENTS PRODUCED WITH DIFFERENT ALUMINIUM MANUFACTURING PROCESSES.
  20. 20. 09-05-2017 20 Innovative advanced lightweight materials for the next generation of environmentally-friendly electric vehicles Front Crossmember demonstrator (1/2) 7.5 kg (steel) 2.81 kg (fully composite) Weight red. > 50% Energy absorbed during ECE R94 Front Crash 56 kph 40%ODB (Europe homologation front crash): ~ 4600 Joule, as the equivalent NIDO fully Aluminum system Further room to reduce weight removing the design constraints (this demonstrator is lied to an existing mould
  21. 21. 09-05-2017 21 Innovative advanced lightweight materials for the next generation of environmentally-friendly electric vehicles A hybrid technology that combines in one step press moulding, employing continuous fibre reinforced thermoplastic (based on PP), and injection moulding, using long fibre reinforced thermoplastic (PPGF50). The IMC (Injection Moulding Compounder) technology is a combination of the continuous process of extrusion with the discontinuous operation of injection moulding Specific materials developed: ✓ New polymer composed by a nanosilicate embedded into a thermoplastic elastomer matrix  +300% impact resistance respect to std PP with same stiffness and strenght ✓ Rigid PUR foams based on recycled resources Injected rigid PUR foam cores Front Crossmember demonstrator (2/2)
  22. 22. 09-05-2017 22 Innovative advanced lightweight materials for the next generation of environmentally-friendly electric vehicles Mechanical Subframe demonstrator (1/3) A solid component without hollows with variable thickness, characterized by a lower tooling cost, has been selected as concept solution. A high-performance raw material has been specifically developed. Fatigue and strength have been the main performance driver: APA6 has been selected as matrix due to its toughness and low cost, and CF has been considered as reinforcement because it is superior to GF in fatigue as well as specific strength. 6.8 kg (steel, 5 elements) 3.48 kg (APA6/CF, 1 element) Weight red. 50% The Wohler curve of the APA6/CF material has been defined through a set of test on specimens, still ongoing. A durability test on component has been successfully performed.
  23. 23. 09-05-2017 23 Innovative advanced lightweight materials for the next generation of environmentally-friendly electric vehicles Mechanical Subframe demonstrator (1/2) In order to achieve a high percentage of CF with a good fibre/ matrix adhesion, an innovative patented process has been selected. CAPROlactam CASTing (CAPROCAST) is a reactive process of in-situ polymerization consisting of Polyamide 6 (APA6) casting from its monomer, - caprolactam. It is an advanced Thermoplastic-Resin Transfer Moulding (TP-RTM) technology, enabling the obtaining of structural and complex 3D geometries, reinforced with fibres, having these advantages respect to competitor technologies: Technology Raw material Design Process consumption Tool cost Recyclability Weldability Thermo- forming Organosheet laminate semiproduct (commercial materials) Multi-thickness, depth shapes and complex angles not feasible. 3 times more 30% higher Yes HP-RTM Epoxi + CF fabrics Similar 4 times more 20% higher No Current cost/kg-saved in line with current reference values for medium production volumes
  24. 24. 09-05-2017 24 Innovative advanced lightweight materials for the next generation of environmentally-friendly electric vehicles The underbody was conceived and processed through Al technologies enabling complex geometries with reduced thickness and a consistent part count reduction using Al 5xxx alloys: • Gas forming, a plastic deformation process taking advantage from the higher elongation capabilities of the Al at high temperature; • Hot forming applied to multithickness raw Al sheet to obtain high strength and complex shapes parts with reduced springback effects, thanks to the hot working temperature range; • CAPROCAST technology, applied to an underbody component selecting a specifically developed thermoplastic composite APA6-based reinforced with GF. Central Floor Firewall Front Reinforcement Rear Reinforcement (composite) Rear Suspension Crossmember Rear Crossmember Underbody demonstrator (1/2)
  25. 25. 09-05-2017 25 Innovative advanced lightweight materials for the next generation of environmentally-friendly electric vehicles Underbody demonstrator (2/2) As final result, EVolution underbody weight is about 20 kg lightened respect to Nido underbody, fully in aluminium, and it is composed by six parts only (17 referring to Nido). Weight reduction 50% from Al to Al About 30% of tooling cost saving due to parts merging (referring to traditional stamping process) Consistent cost saving of assembly plant due to part count reduction
  26. 26. 09-05-2017 26 Innovative advanced lightweight materials for the next generation of environmentally-friendly electric vehicles Structural node demonstrator (1/2) The structural node demonstrator is the assembly of the front shotgun system (shotgun + front rail + reinforcement); it has the relevant function to absorb the energy in the case of a frontal collision. The shot gun has been manufactured through Aluminium sand casting process, allowing to perform complex and hollow sections when a core is placed into the sand mould before the aluminium flows inside. This particularity has been used to include solid parts of aluminium as inserts to form a multicomponent part after casting. Shot gun and front rail are joined together during the casting process: extruded profiles are placed as inserts in sand moulds and then the filling of the mould with molten aluminium covers them, and solidification shrinkage produces a constraint that fixed extruded profiles with casting component. A specific Al alloys have been optimized for the process and for this demonstrator.
  27. 27. 09-05-2017 27 Innovative advanced lightweight materials for the next generation of environmentally-friendly electric vehicles Structural node demonstrator (2/2) About 3 times cheaper respect to LPDC technology (used for Nido), obtaining a lightweighted part, even with technological constraints of part thickness (5.5 mm min) and feasible overall dimensions 7.96 kg (Al) 6.10 kg (Al) Weight red. 23%
  28. 28. 09-05-2017 28 Innovative advanced lightweight materials for the next generation of environmentally-friendly electric vehicles Side Door demonstrator (1/2) The door concept consists of two semistructural composite skins (inner and outer) including a structural Al frame. The main idea has been to propose an unconventional concept, assuring the main structural and functional performances, cheaper and light weighted respect to baseline Aluminium NIDO door (about 30% estimated). The door skins have been conceived using a commercial PP/bio-based material, a thermoplastic commingled balanced 2x2 twill textile made from natural flax fibre and PP, suitable for rapid processing and reduced weight. Both panels are characterized by low values of thickness (≤ 2 mm). One challenge is to assure the A-class surface quality on the exterior panel. The selected manufacturing process is the compression moulding: the advanced composite material sheet is preheated and then formed through a hydraulic moulding press, featured with matched metal dies.
  29. 29. 09-05-2017 29 Innovative advanced lightweight materials for the next generation of environmentally-friendly electric vehicles DOOR SAG DOOR FLEXURAL STIFFNESS CAE forecast confirmed by test Target satisfied CAE forecast confirmed by test Target satisfied DOOR DURABILITY IN CLIMATIC CHAMBER (35000 cycles) Target satisfied Side Door demonstrator (2/2) QUASI STATIC CYLINDER INTRUSION BASED ON FMVSS214 std Target satisfied
  30. 30. 09-05-2017 30 Innovative advanced lightweight materials for the next generation of environmentally-friendly electric vehicles Technological Mock-Up The demonstrators have been integrated into a technological mock-up, representing the EVolution full vehicle environment.
  31. 31. 09-05-2017 31 Innovative advanced lightweight materials for the next generation of environmentally-friendly electric vehicles EVolution project context EVolution at a glance Project approach, challenges and constraints Focus on Evolution materials and demonstrators Significant results
  32. 32. 09-05-2017 32 Innovative advanced lightweight materials for the next generation of environmentally-friendly electric vehicles Significant results ✓ Front Crossmember: more than 50% of weight reduction respect to steel solution, with further potential of reduction removing design and mould constraints derived from a previous FP7 project  potential viability of a full-composite front safety module for high production volumes (costs under finalization) ✓ Mechanical Subframe: 50% of weight reduction respect to steel solution; new process to obtain high-performance components with complex geometries and customized fibre layers/orientation, cost/kg-saved in line with new trends  viable solution of a full-composite vehicle suspension module for high production volumes ✓ Underbody: 50% of weight reduction respect to equivalent Aluminium solution, capability to obtain complex geometries with reduced thickness consistently reducing the part count  viable solution for high production volumes, to be explored for other body areas (eg the body side assembly) ✓ Structural Node: 23% of weight reduction respect to equivalent Aluminium solution, consistent process cost reduction respect to traditional LPDC process  viable solution for casted parts having dimensions in line with proposed technology constraints ✓ Side Door: 30% of weight reduction respect to equivalent Aluminium solution, usage of a technology to manufacture the skins directly derived from aerospace but with a process time suitable for automotive, to obtain parts with reduced thickness respect to standard process. Opportunity to integrate into inner panel the function of the inner trim, too, saving further cost. Cost analysis under definition. ✓ Full vehicle weight target achieved
  33. 33. 09-05-2017 33 Innovative advanced lightweight materials for the next generation of environmentally-friendly electric vehicles EVolution CONTACT INFORMATION Project Coordinator: Prof. Jesper de Claville Christiansen Aalborg University – Dept. of Production Fibigerstræde 16 9220 Aalborg E Denmark Phone: +45 9940 8970 E-mail: jc@m-tech.aau.dk Technical Coordinator: Ing. Elena Cischino Pininfarina S.P.A Via Nazionale 30 10020 Torino Italy Phone: +39 011 9438175 E-mail: e.cischino@pininfarina.it Website: http://evolutionproject.eu/
  34. 34. 09-05-2017 34 Innovative advanced lightweight materials for the next generation of environmentally-friendly electric vehicles Thank you

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