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5 materiali compositi per applicazioni spazio

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Le elevate prestazioni per materiali composite in ambito Spazio guidano fin dalla fase di progetto la scelta di fibre e sistemi di resina per soddisfare i requisiti di missione. In particolare, per la scelta del sistema di resina, i differenti scenari di missione prevedono applicazioni in temperatura e bassi assorbimenti di umidità durante le fasi realizzative e di assemblaggio dei manufatti in composito a terra per garantire alta stabilità in orbita. Essendo Thales Alenia Space – Italia una realtà operante nel settore Spazio, l’applicazione dei compositi si concentra su strutture satellitari e strutture secondarie per moduli abitativi per cui le caratteristiche di alta resistenza e rigidezza specifica danno notevoli vantaggi in termini di massa strutturale al lancio a favore del carico trasportato.

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5 materiali compositi per applicazioni spazio

  1. 1. 1 This document is not to be reproduced, modified, adapted, published, translated in any material form in whole or in part nor disclosed to any third party without the prior written permission of Thales Alenia Space. 02.05.17 Ref. = Delta quotation for add cyl Template Ref.= 83230347-DOC-TAS-EN-004 2017 Thales Alenia Space THALES ALENIA SPACE INTERNALOPEN Subtitle – Century Gothic 10 – RGB 0.171.199 Title in bold Century Gothic 27 – RGB 36.54.70 Level 1 – Century Gothic 11 – RGB 36.54.70 Level 2 - Century Gothic 10 – RGB 0.171.199 Level 3 - Century Gothic 9 – RGB 36.54.70 Level 4 – Century Gothic 8 – RGB 127.127.127 Level 5 – Century Gothic 7 – RGB 0.171.199 Compositi 4.0 - La nuova generazione Torino 3 Maggio 2017 Materiali compositi per applicazioni Spazio
  2. 2. 2 This document is not to be reproduced, modified, adapted, published, translated in any material form in whole or in part nor disclosed to any third party without the prior written permission of Thales Alenia Space. 02.05.17 Ref. = Delta quotation for add cyl Template Ref.= 83230347-DOC-TAS-EN-004 2017 Thales Alenia Space THALES ALENIA SPACE INTERNALOPEN Subtitle – Century Gothic 10 – RGB 0.171.199 Title in bold Century Gothic 27 – RGB 36.54.70 Level 1 – Century Gothic 11 – RGB 36.54.70 Level 2 - Century Gothic 10 – RGB 0.171.199 Level 3 - Century Gothic 9 – RGB 36.54.70 Level 4 – Century Gothic 8 – RGB 127.127.127 Level 5 – Century Gothic 7 – RGB 0.171.199 This document is not to be reproduced, modified, adapted, published, translated in any material form in whole or in part nor disclosed to any third party without the prior written permission of Thales Alenia Space -  2016, Thales Alenia Space OPEN TAS Space Applications 2 THALES ALENIA SPACE applies composite materials to its range of Space Products:
  3. 3. 3 This document is not to be reproduced, modified, adapted, published, translated in any material form in whole or in part nor disclosed to any third party without the prior written permission of Thales Alenia Space. 02.05.17 Ref. = Delta quotation for add cyl Template Ref.= 83230347-DOC-TAS-EN-004 2017 Thales Alenia Space THALES ALENIA SPACE INTERNALOPEN Subtitle – Century Gothic 10 – RGB 0.171.199 Title in bold Century Gothic 27 – RGB 36.54.70 Level 1 – Century Gothic 11 – RGB 36.54.70 Level 2 - Century Gothic 10 – RGB 0.171.199 Level 3 - Century Gothic 9 – RGB 36.54.70 Level 4 – Century Gothic 8 – RGB 127.127.127 Level 5 – Century Gothic 7 – RGB 0.171.199 This document is not to be reproduced, modified, adapted, published, translated in any material form in whole or in part nor disclosed to any third party without the prior written permission of Thales Alenia Space -  2016, Thales Alenia Space OPEN 02/05/2017 3 Ref.: Aerospace Composites Aerospace Main Design Drivers for Composites A rough distinction can be made as follows: Aeronautics: design primarily driven by strength & fatigue Space: design primarily driven by stiffness to avoid coupled resonant responses (e.g. between a satellite and its launcher) and long term on-orbit environment Common: mass optimization to maximize the embarked payload (aerospace), reduce fuel consumption (aircrafts) The different design needs address the choice of different composite materials (fibers & resin systems) for aircrafts and space structures Satellites: design driven by stiffness performance Composite in AeroSpace (images credit: Arianespace)
  4. 4. 4 This document is not to be reproduced, modified, adapted, published, translated in any material form in whole or in part nor disclosed to any third party without the prior written permission of Thales Alenia Space. 02.05.17 Ref. = Delta quotation for add cyl Template Ref.= 83230347-DOC-TAS-EN-004 2017 Thales Alenia Space THALES ALENIA SPACE INTERNALOPEN Subtitle – Century Gothic 10 – RGB 0.171.199 Title in bold Century Gothic 27 – RGB 36.54.70 Level 1 – Century Gothic 11 – RGB 36.54.70 Level 2 - Century Gothic 10 – RGB 0.171.199 Level 3 - Century Gothic 9 – RGB 36.54.70 Level 4 – Century Gothic 8 – RGB 127.127.127 Level 5 – Century Gothic 7 – RGB 0.171.199 This document is not to be reproduced, modified, adapted, published, translated in any material form in whole or in part nor disclosed to any third party without the prior written permission of Thales Alenia Space -  2016, Thales Alenia Space OPEN 02/05/2017 4 Ref.: Drawbacks for Space Applications Material cost (recurring & nonrecurring, storage and expiring) Low thermal & electrical conductivity (improvable with conductive fibers) Properties of structural laminates tend to deteriorate due to environmental conditions (transportation, prelaunch, launch) Strong concurrent design to manufacturing & tooling required NDI: more complex wrt metals, wide variety of defectology Repair: complex to recover structural integrity, impact damage visibility Advantages for Space Applications Specific Strength/Stiffness: Light Weight Low Coefficient of Thermal Expansion Tailorable Thermo-Mechanical properties in terms of: Fibers (type, diameter, UD, fabrics) Resin Systems Polymeric Matrix Mix Resin/Fiber Lay-up sequence & number of plies Reduced machining (mostly limited to cutting & holing) Composite in Space - Main Issues
  5. 5. 5 This document is not to be reproduced, modified, adapted, published, translated in any material form in whole or in part nor disclosed to any third party without the prior written permission of Thales Alenia Space. 02.05.17 Ref. = Delta quotation for add cyl Template Ref.= 83230347-DOC-TAS-EN-004 2017 Thales Alenia Space THALES ALENIA SPACE INTERNALOPEN Subtitle – Century Gothic 10 – RGB 0.171.199 Title in bold Century Gothic 27 – RGB 36.54.70 Level 1 – Century Gothic 11 – RGB 36.54.70 Level 2 - Century Gothic 10 – RGB 0.171.199 Level 3 - Century Gothic 9 – RGB 36.54.70 Level 4 – Century Gothic 8 – RGB 127.127.127 Level 5 – Century Gothic 7 – RGB 0.171.199 This document is not to be reproduced, modified, adapted, published, translated in any material form in whole or in part nor disclosed to any third party without the prior written permission of Thales Alenia Space -  2016, Thales Alenia Space OPEN Composite in Space – Main Issues for Application in Manned Modules 5 Use of Composite & Polymeric Materials in a Manned Environment (Space Modules) main concerns: Off-gassing ruled and limited by ECSS-Q-ST-70- 29C (from European Space Agency): gaseous products emission from on-board materials possibly resulting in toxic concentrations, odors, etc. Flammability ruled by ECSS-Q-ST-70-21C: flame propagation, melting & dripping, release of toxic fumes Bacterial & fungus growth ruled by ECSS‐Q‐ST‐70‐55C: proliferation and growth must not be favored by the material (on board health hazard) (images credit: NASA & ESA)
  6. 6. 6 This document is not to be reproduced, modified, adapted, published, translated in any material form in whole or in part nor disclosed to any third party without the prior written permission of Thales Alenia Space. 02.05.17 Ref. = Delta quotation for add cyl Template Ref.= 83230347-DOC-TAS-EN-004 2017 Thales Alenia Space THALES ALENIA SPACE INTERNALOPEN Subtitle – Century Gothic 10 – RGB 0.171.199 Title in bold Century Gothic 27 – RGB 36.54.70 Level 1 – Century Gothic 11 – RGB 36.54.70 Level 2 - Century Gothic 10 – RGB 0.171.199 Level 3 - Century Gothic 9 – RGB 36.54.70 Level 4 – Century Gothic 8 – RGB 127.127.127 Level 5 – Century Gothic 7 – RGB 0.171.199 This document is not to be reproduced, modified, adapted, published, translated in any material form in whole or in part nor disclosed to any third party without the prior written permission of Thales Alenia Space -  2016, Thales Alenia Space OPEN Composite in Space – Main Issues for Application to Unmanned Structures 6Use of Composite & Polymeric Materials in Unmanned Space Vehicles (e.g. Satellites) main concerns: Outgassing ruled by ESA ECSS-Q-70-02: molecular contaminants release in thermal-vacuum environment leading to payload contamination (e.g. optical instrumentation) Moisture desorption: contamination by condensation (e.g. of optical instrumentation) is a type of outgassing Thermal distortion: resulting from anisotropy in CTE of composite materials (controllable with lay-up of laminates) Low thermal & electrical conductivity: replacement with metal (Al alloy) where necessary, use of conductive fibers (images credit: TAS)
  7. 7. 7 This document is not to be reproduced, modified, adapted, published, translated in any material form in whole or in part nor disclosed to any third party without the prior written permission of Thales Alenia Space. 02.05.17 Ref. = Delta quotation for add cyl Template Ref.= 83230347-DOC-TAS-EN-004 2017 Thales Alenia Space THALES ALENIA SPACE INTERNALOPEN Subtitle – Century Gothic 10 – RGB 0.171.199 Title in bold Century Gothic 27 – RGB 36.54.70 Level 1 – Century Gothic 11 – RGB 36.54.70 Level 2 - Century Gothic 10 – RGB 0.171.199 Level 3 - Century Gothic 9 – RGB 36.54.70 Level 4 – Century Gothic 8 – RGB 127.127.127 Level 5 – Century Gothic 7 – RGB 0.171.199 This document is not to be reproduced, modified, adapted, published, translated in any material form in whole or in part nor disclosed to any third party without the prior written permission of Thales Alenia Space -  2016, Thales Alenia Space OPEN 02/05/2017 7 Ref.: Aerospace Main- F Fiber Typologies for CompositesThe composite materials fiber typologies for Space Applications: Fiber Typology Density Tensile Strength Tensile modulus [kg/m3] [MPa] [GPa] Carbon HT & SHT 1800 3100 - 4500 <100 – 200 Carbon IM 1800 4000 - 5600 200 – 350 Carbon HM 1800 2500 - 3500 350 – 450 Carbon UHM 2000 1700 - 2000 > 450 Aramid LM 1450 3600 60 Aramid HM 1450 3100 120 Aramid UHM 1470 3400 180 E-Glass 2500 2400 70 S-Glass 2500 3450 90 Glass – quartz 2500 3700 70 Aircrafts: Primary Structures Satellites: Primary Structures Space Modules: MDPS (Micro- Meteroids & Debris Protection Systems, Deployable Arms Space Modules: Thermal Decoupling Elements Composite in Space – Fibers Typologies
  8. 8. 8 This document is not to be reproduced, modified, adapted, published, translated in any material form in whole or in part nor disclosed to any third party without the prior written permission of Thales Alenia Space. 02.05.17 Ref. = Delta quotation for add cyl Template Ref.= 83230347-DOC-TAS-EN-004 2017 Thales Alenia Space THALES ALENIA SPACE INTERNALOPEN Subtitle – Century Gothic 10 – RGB 0.171.199 Title in bold Century Gothic 27 – RGB 36.54.70 Level 1 – Century Gothic 11 – RGB 36.54.70 Level 2 - Century Gothic 10 – RGB 0.171.199 Level 3 - Century Gothic 9 – RGB 36.54.70 Level 4 – Century Gothic 8 – RGB 127.127.127 Level 5 – Century Gothic 7 – RGB 0.171.199 This document is not to be reproduced, modified, adapted, published, translated in any material form in whole or in part nor disclosed to any third party without the prior written permission of Thales Alenia Space -  2016, Thales Alenia Space OPEN 02/05/2017 8 Ref.: Aerospace Main Resin Typologies for CompositesThe composite resin systems typologies: Epoxy for normal use where high stability and release of chemicals does not affect the performance, max working temperature of 150 °C - 180 °C curing systems Cyanate Esters working temperature of 150 °C - 180 °C superior thermal stability, low out-gassing, low moisture absorption, radiation resistance Bismaleimidic up to about 250 °C find application in re- entry and exploration vehicles (low –medium heat applications) Polyimide up to about 330 °C find application in re-entry and exploration vehicles (low –medium heat applications) Satellites Satellites Space Re-Entry Vehicles & Exploration Missions Composite in Space – Resin Matrix Typologies Space Re-Entry Vehicles & Exploration Missions
  9. 9. 9 This document is not to be reproduced, modified, adapted, published, translated in any material form in whole or in part nor disclosed to any third party without the prior written permission of Thales Alenia Space. 02.05.17 Ref. = Delta quotation for add cyl Template Ref.= 83230347-DOC-TAS-EN-004 2017 Thales Alenia Space THALES ALENIA SPACE INTERNALOPEN Subtitle – Century Gothic 10 – RGB 0.171.199 Title in bold Century Gothic 27 – RGB 36.54.70 Level 1 – Century Gothic 11 – RGB 36.54.70 Level 2 - Century Gothic 10 – RGB 0.171.199 Level 3 - Century Gothic 9 – RGB 36.54.70 Level 4 – Century Gothic 8 – RGB 127.127.127 Level 5 – Century Gothic 7 – RGB 0.171.199 This document is not to be reproduced, modified, adapted, published, translated in any material form in whole or in part nor disclosed to any third party without the prior written permission of Thales Alenia Space -  2016, Thales Alenia Space OPEN 02/05/2017 9 Ref.: Composite Application in Space Space Manned Applications - Internal Equipment Racks in Manned Structures (Epoxy CFRP) Composite in Space – Application Examples (images credit: NASA & ESA)
  10. 10. 10 This document is not to be reproduced, modified, adapted, published, translated in any material form in whole or in part nor disclosed to any third party without the prior written permission of Thales Alenia Space. 02.05.17 Ref. = Delta quotation for add cyl Template Ref.= 83230347-DOC-TAS-EN-004 2017 Thales Alenia Space THALES ALENIA SPACE INTERNALOPEN Subtitle – Century Gothic 10 – RGB 0.171.199 Title in bold Century Gothic 27 – RGB 36.54.70 Level 1 – Century Gothic 11 – RGB 36.54.70 Level 2 - Century Gothic 10 – RGB 0.171.199 Level 3 - Century Gothic 9 – RGB 36.54.70 Level 4 – Century Gothic 8 – RGB 127.127.127 Level 5 – Century Gothic 7 – RGB 0.171.199 This document is not to be reproduced, modified, adapted, published, translated in any material form in whole or in part nor disclosed to any third party without the prior written permission of Thales Alenia Space -  2016, Thales Alenia Space OPEN 02/05/2017 10 Ref.: Composite Application in Space Space Manned Applications - External Thermal Decoupling Washers (GFRP) for MDPS (Micro Meteoroids & Debris Protection System) panels attachment points GFRP Washer in MDPS panels attachment points Composite in Space – Application Examples (images credit: NASA & TAS-I)
  11. 11. 11 This document is not to be reproduced, modified, adapted, published, translated in any material form in whole or in part nor disclosed to any third party without the prior written permission of Thales Alenia Space. 02.05.17 Ref. = Delta quotation for add cyl Template Ref.= 83230347-DOC-TAS-EN-004 2017 Thales Alenia Space THALES ALENIA SPACE INTERNALOPEN Subtitle – Century Gothic 10 – RGB 0.171.199 Title in bold Century Gothic 27 – RGB 36.54.70 Level 1 – Century Gothic 11 – RGB 36.54.70 Level 2 - Century Gothic 10 – RGB 0.171.199 Level 3 - Century Gothic 9 – RGB 36.54.70 Level 4 – Century Gothic 8 – RGB 127.127.127 Level 5 – Century Gothic 7 – RGB 0.171.199 This document is not to be reproduced, modified, adapted, published, translated in any material form in whole or in part nor disclosed to any third party without the prior written permission of Thales Alenia Space -  2016, Thales Alenia Space OPEN 02/05/2017 11 Ref.: Composite Application in Space Experiments CPD – Coarse Pointing Device(Epoxy CFRP & Metal): solar emission measurement Composite in Space – Application Examples (images credit: NASA & ESA ) CFRP
  12. 12. 12 This document is not to be reproduced, modified, adapted, published, translated in any material form in whole or in part nor disclosed to any third party without the prior written permission of Thales Alenia Space. 02.05.17 Ref. = Delta quotation for add cyl Template Ref.= 83230347-DOC-TAS-EN-004 2017 Thales Alenia Space THALES ALENIA SPACE INTERNALOPEN Subtitle – Century Gothic 10 – RGB 0.171.199 Title in bold Century Gothic 27 – RGB 36.54.70 Level 1 – Century Gothic 11 – RGB 36.54.70 Level 2 - Century Gothic 10 – RGB 0.171.199 Level 3 - Century Gothic 9 – RGB 36.54.70 Level 4 – Century Gothic 8 – RGB 127.127.127 Level 5 – Century Gothic 7 – RGB 0.171.199 This document is not to be reproduced, modified, adapted, published, translated in any material form in whole or in part nor disclosed to any third party without the prior written permission of Thales Alenia Space -  2016, Thales Alenia Space OPEN 02/05/2017 12 Ref.: Aerospace Composite Configurations Satellite Structure Typical Structural Configuration Typical configurations given by: Sandwich (mostly for high stiffness applications e.g. satellite primary structures) Inserting & potting for equipment fixation Brackets & machined parts under skin embedding Connection of panels via angular shapes cleats Perspective of high multi-functional panels Partial Insert Composite in Space – Typical Structural Configuration Inserts in Composite Sandwich Full Insert
  13. 13. 13 This document is not to be reproduced, modified, adapted, published, translated in any material form in whole or in part nor disclosed to any third party without the prior written permission of Thales Alenia Space. 02.05.17 Ref. = Delta quotation for add cyl Template Ref.= 83230347-DOC-TAS-EN-004 2017 Thales Alenia Space THALES ALENIA SPACE INTERNALOPEN Subtitle – Century Gothic 10 – RGB 0.171.199 Title in bold Century Gothic 27 – RGB 36.54.70 Level 1 – Century Gothic 11 – RGB 36.54.70 Level 2 - Century Gothic 10 – RGB 0.171.199 Level 3 - Century Gothic 9 – RGB 36.54.70 Level 4 – Century Gothic 8 – RGB 127.127.127 Level 5 – Century Gothic 7 – RGB 0.171.199 This document is not to be reproduced, modified, adapted, published, translated in any material form in whole or in part nor disclosed to any third party without the prior written permission of Thales Alenia Space -  2016, Thales Alenia Space OPEN 02/05/2017 13 Ref.: Satellite Structure Typical Configuration The satellite structural is typically based on a sandwich panels’ assembly: Al honeycomb with CFRP skins : Satellite Primary Structure Satellite with Subsystems Satellite in Flight Composite Application in SpaceComposite in Space – Typical Structural Configuration (images credit: TAS)
  14. 14. 14 This document is not to be reproduced, modified, adapted, published, translated in any material form in whole or in part nor disclosed to any third party without the prior written permission of Thales Alenia Space. 02.05.17 Ref. = Delta quotation for add cyl Template Ref.= 83230347-DOC-TAS-EN-004 2017 Thales Alenia Space THALES ALENIA SPACE INTERNALOPEN Subtitle – Century Gothic 10 – RGB 0.171.199 Title in bold Century Gothic 27 – RGB 36.54.70 Level 1 – Century Gothic 11 – RGB 36.54.70 Level 2 - Century Gothic 10 – RGB 0.171.199 Level 3 - Century Gothic 9 – RGB 36.54.70 Level 4 – Century Gothic 8 – RGB 127.127.127 Level 5 – Century Gothic 7 – RGB 0.171.199 This document is not to be reproduced, modified, adapted, published, translated in any material form in whole or in part nor disclosed to any third party without the prior written permission of Thales Alenia Space -  2016, Thales Alenia Space OPEN 02/05/2017 14 Ref.: Composite Application in Space Composite in Space Unmanned Applications Solar Arrays (sandwich structure) Antenna Reflectors (sandwich structure) Truss Structures (tubular structure) Solar Arrays Antenna Reflectors Truss Structures Composite in Space – Typical Structural Configuration (images credit: TAS)
  15. 15. 15 This document is not to be reproduced, modified, adapted, published, translated in any material form in whole or in part nor disclosed to any third party without the prior written permission of Thales Alenia Space. 02.05.17 Ref. = Delta quotation for add cyl Template Ref.= 83230347-DOC-TAS-EN-004 2017 Thales Alenia Space THALES ALENIA SPACE INTERNALOPEN Subtitle – Century Gothic 10 – RGB 0.171.199 Title in bold Century Gothic 27 – RGB 36.54.70 Level 1 – Century Gothic 11 – RGB 36.54.70 Level 2 - Century Gothic 10 – RGB 0.171.199 Level 3 - Century Gothic 9 – RGB 36.54.70 Level 4 – Century Gothic 8 – RGB 127.127.127 Level 5 – Century Gothic 7 – RGB 0.171.199 This document is not to be reproduced, modified, adapted, published, translated in any material form in whole or in part nor disclosed to any third party without the prior written permission of Thales Alenia Space -  2016, Thales Alenia Space OPEN 02/05/2017 15 Ref.: TAS-I Composite Capabilities, FacCailities & EquipmentTAS-I Composite Capabilities Manufacturing of composite structures by hand lay-up or filament winding plus autoclave cure: Bonding of Aluminum/CFRP sandwich panels, insert potting, edge taping TAS-I Facilities & Equipment: Autoclave (dimensions diam. 4 m x 12 m length). Numerically-controlled 4-axis filament winding machine (FWA1 Bolenz & Schaefer) for the automatic manufacture of axis-symmetrical composite parts up to 1.8 m in diameter and 3 m in length Clean rooms (100000 class, according to FED-STD- 209) covering an area of 800 m2 Filament Winding Plant Autoclave Composite in Space – TAS-I Manufacturing Capabilities (images credit: TAS)

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