CM10 Reshaping Development Patterns Jim Holway

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CM10 Reshaping Development Patterns Jim Holway

  1. 1. Reshaping Development Patterns Addressing Development Entitlements & Zombie Subdivisions in the Intermountain West Peter Pollock – Moderator Jim Holway – Project Overview What are Entitlements – Legal & Planning Framework Anna Trentadue – Teton County Case Study Local Situation – Efforts to Address Entitlements – State Enabling Authority Bruce Burger – Rural Real Estate Markets Evolution of Markets – A New Normal ? – Conservation Approaches --------Discussion --------
  2. 2. Reshaping Development Patterns -------------------------------------------------- Project Sponsors ( so far …) Lincoln Institute of Land Policy Orton Family Foundation George B. Storer Foundation Sonoran Institute 1 % For The Tetons Huntsman Springs
  3. 3. Reshaping Development Patterns -------------------------------------------------- Partners ( so far …) •  Sonoran Institute •  Lincoln Institute of Land Policy •  Valley Advocates for Responsible Development •  University of Utah Metropolitan Policy Center •  Orton Family Foundation •  Teton County, Idaho •  Teton Regional Land Trust •  Friends of the Teton River •  Land Equity Partners •  Trout Unlimited
  4. 4. Reshaping Development Patterns Addressing Development Entitlements & Zombie Subdivisions in the Intermountain West Development Entitlements …. What are they ? Are they a Problem .. an Issue in your Community ? Legal & Planning Frameworks Objectives & Future Directions
  5. 5. Premature Obsolete   Entitlement Issues   Cumulative Impacts   Market Distortions – Reduce Property Values   Tie up Resources (assured water supply)   Reduce Ability to Plan & Adjust   Premature Subdivision Issues   Land Use Commitments   Servicing Costs – Fiscal Impact   Blight   Changing Standards   Obsolete Subdivision Issues   Public Safety   Community Quality   Environmental Damage adapted from Don Elliott – Clarion & Associates Zombie

  6. 6. Paper Plats and Partial Performance Plats Development

 Agreement
Only
 (no
plat
filed) Preliminary
 Plat
Approved Final
Plat
 Approved One
or
 Few
 Owners Many
 Owners No
 Improvements
 (True
“Paper
 Plats”) Some
 Improvements No
 Improvements Some
 Improvements No
or
Few
 Homes
Built Many
 Homes
Built Not
very
easy
 to
address Much
harder
 to
address Don Elliott – Clarion & Associates
  7. 7.  Constraints on Efforts to Address Entitlements   Lot Owner Rights & Vesting   Preserving Lot Access   “Equal Treatment”   Due Process & Takings   Major legal Powers Involved   Subdivision powers   Zoning powers   PUD powers   Development agreements   Others (unique to each state) Sub Zone PUDs Devt Agts adapted from Don Elliott – Clarion & Associates
  8. 8. Unresolved Legal Issues   Interpreting statutory silence on how these powers work together   Police power principles for zoning and subdivision   Contract principles for PUDs and agreements   Principles of “reliance”, “estoppel, and “vesting”  The contract question   It is not exactly clear when a local government can alter a negotiated contract to which it is a party   Elected officials have less authority to bind successors   PUDs cannot be forever, but when can they be changed
  9. 9. Four Potential Legal Claims that may arise from attempts to “Reshape Development”   Lack of Authority   Statutes assume but do not say that plats are forever   Vested Rights in the Plat   Common law and statutory vesting   “Taking” Property Rights   Physical vs. regulatory takings   Violations of Procedural Due Process   Legislative vs. quasi-judicial actions
  10. 10. Is
this
a
problem
in
your
 community???

  11. 11. Source: John Burns Real Estate Consulting, March 2010 MacroMarket Layoffs
and
OpKon
ARM
resets
will
keep
foreclosure
starts
at
or
 above
2
million
through
2012.
 13
  12. 12. Recovery Predictions Kelsey & Norden 2009
  13. 13. Anna Trentadue, Valley Advocates for Responsible Development
  14. 14. TETON VALLEY MARKET STATISTICS Residential Lot Sales (2001-2010*) * Data for 2010 as of 02/26/10 16 171
 122
 166
 256
 628
 618
 545
 85
 50
 2
 
$69,950

 0
 100
 200
 300
 400
 500
 600
 700
 
$25,000

 
$45,000

 
$65,000

 
$85,000

 
$105,000

 
$125,000

 
$145,000

 
$165,000

 
$185,000

 
$205,000

 
$225,000

 2001
 2002
 2003
 2004
 2005
 2006
 2007
 2008
 2009
 2010*
 #
of
Sales
 Purchase
Price
 #
of
Sales
 Average
Price
 Median
Price
 Land Equity Partners
  15. 15. • Active 140,828 (39,848 acres) • Under Construction 8,195 (2,380 acres) • Entitled 623,010 (184,763 acres) • Tentative Plat 28,667 (8,396 acres) Existing Housing & Population (2007): • Total Dwelling Units 142,677 • Occupied Dwelling Units 105,316 • Population 326,398 Pinal County - Total Units and acres (2009): CAAG 2007, 2009
  16. 16. • Total Dwelling Units = 142,677 • Occupied Dwelling Units = 105,316 • Population = 326,398 Existing Housing & Population CAAG 2007
  17. 17. Sonoran
&
Lincoln
 We
think
development
 enKtlements
far
in
excess
of
 demand
are
a
key
issue
 throughout
west
…
and
the
 current
economy
provides
 opportunity
to
address
them

  18. 18. Types of tools to reshape development   Economic incentives   Purchasing land or property rights   Regulating the land   Replatting   Rezoning   Growth management  Rationing permits   Service areas & infrastructure phasing Zoning
 Ordinance
 Text Zoning
Base
 Map Zoning
 Overlay
Map Adapted from Don Elliott – Clarion & Associates
  19. 19. No
Magic
Bullet
 But
Frameworks
&
Best
PracKces
 We
….
No
set
answers
or
agendas
 facilitate
local
process
&
we
 publish
lessons
learned

  20. 20. Choosing tools to reshape development   Be clear about WHY you are doing this   Preserving land values & economy?   Land & habitat conservation?   Improving quality of layout/lots?   Reducing lots?   Rationalizing growth patterns?  avoiding early commitment of resources   equity among property owners   Knowing WHY you are doing this will help determine WHICH TOOLS you should use adapted from Don Elliott – Clarion & Associates
  21. 21. Reshaping Development Patterns Our Next Steps •  Background Research •  Experts Convening •  RFP for Targeted Applications / Case Studies -- 2 more •  Case Studies •  New Working Papers State Enabling Authority, Westwide Survey of Entitlements, Future Markets & Economic Base Studies, Fiscal Impacts, Best Practices, Case Study Lessons, etc. •  Synthesis – Lessons Learned & Policy Options •  Funders & Partners ???? •  Publish & Disseminate Google “Western Lands and Communities” … click on Reshaping Development Patterns

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