HelloHere in Australia we’ve all seen the announcements about LTE from the major players. But is it possible that there is more than can be made from LTE? The aim of my presentation for the next half hour is to provide just a few examples of business support system (BSS) use that can have a marked effect on profitability, and help meet some of the challenges posed by LTE.I’ve noticed at conferences that the audience tends to be divided roughly in half – between the people that want all the detail, and the people that want the headline information. So I’ve attempted to cater to both types today, by providing the headline information AND some background detail and case studies. Use cases etc …. Which means I’ve got a lot of material to get through! So as I ruin through all the material, if I don’t provide enough detail for the detail-conscious among you, then please do come and see me afterwards for more information, or drop me a line, call etc – my details are at the end of the presentation.Inflexible BSS holding back service evolution and stifling competitivenessNeed to recoup revenue from investment in LTECompetitor-driven, shortened time to market across all servicesManaging traditional and emerging networks at the same time and consistentlyDynamic partner ecosystem
This is the agenda I’ll be following – focusing on the challenges and opportunities that LTE represents, and how BSS can help resolve the challenges and take advantage of the opportunities.Inflexible BSS holding back service evolution and stifling competitivenessNeed to recoup revenue from investment in LTECompetitor-driven, shortened time to market across all servicesManaging traditional and emerging networks at the same time and consistentlyDynamic partner ecosystem
There is no doubt that, globally, LTE has arrived – the number of subscribers is growing exponentially, and as you can see from the chart on the right, that growth is very much being fuelled by North America and our region, the Asia Pacific region.
But there tends to be a focus on the network in discussions around LTE – speeds, launch, etcAs you can see from these analysts’ quotes, there is a very strong role to be played by Business Support Systems in helping to recoup the large investments that service providers have made in their LTE networks – with a lot of focus on charging mechanisms and adding value.Infonetics emphasise tiered pricing, and enabling QoSGSMA looks at monetizing the increased volumes of traffic that come from LTEAnd finally, Stratecasttalk about end to end solutions being needed
So we need to look at the support systems underlying the delivery of LTE services to customers – from routing and mediation through to customer care – and there are some key challenges throughout, that need to be addresses – New revenue streams, Customer Intimacy, Complexity and Cost Efficiency
So I’m going to look at each of these challenges in turn and provide just a couple of examples of different areas where Business Support Systems can help address them.New Revenue Streams – this is all about recouping the investment made in networks and replacing declining voice and data revenue Customer intimacy – long-recognised as key to customer loyalty and retention, but even more important than ever these daysComplexity – massively increased with LTE, not just because LTE brings increased complexity in its own right, but because it has to interoperate with existing, legacy networksAnd finally cost efficiency – all about maximising the investment, dealing with increased traffic volumesShift from voice-centric to data-centric networks will create very high volumes of network transactions from network elements and IMS service platforms that will send real-time streamed events at up to 8 times traditional CDR volumes. Monetisation – you’ve put all that money into the network, now it has to pay for itselfCustomer experience – you’ve put all that money into the network – now you need to deliver for your customersWith a flexible solution supporting all customer typesThat provides true convergent chargingSpeed to market – you’ve put all that money into the network –you don’t want your competitors getting there firstVolumes - Shift from voice-centric to data-centric networks will create up to 8 times traditional CDR volumes[QoS – manageable, monetisable]Complexity – speed to market/TechnologyNew revenue streams/ monetisation/ speed to marketCustomer intimacyCost-efficiency inc MS
So let’s look at new revenue streams – all about needing to recoup investment in new networks.New revenue streams can come from taking advantage of some of the new features of LTE, like QoS – all the way through to new business models to support these new revenue streams. One thing is certain though – the days of a telco being able to go it alone and provide all the services that a customer demands are over – service providers are increasingly looking to partnerships to deliver them.__________________________________________________________Real-time needed to support prepaid gatewaysMore to control now eg QoSPolicy control of usage and access to proscribed contentAt the heart of an LTE BSS is a flexible OCSThat can support all services (LTE and other), but can also work seamlessly with legacy solutions and support billing and customer management needsExamplesGroup and shared plans (multi-device, Family, Enterprise)Application-specific plans (Facebook, Spotify, Netflix)B2B2C service plans: for VNO, M2M SP, OTT SPBundles, discounts, freemium offers etc. Device/ access method (content on many devices)High degree of configurability to broaden offerings and enable short time to market. Alternative forms of chargingMobile payments has taken off and CSPs have to decide what role they play in the banking ecosystemAdvertising based on location and customer preferencesSponsored “toll-free” services starting to appearApps proliferate and in-app charging with a direct-to-bill option mean that there are a huge number of potential partnerships in this areaResellers are needed to maximise the usage of expensive new networks; including MVNOs and content partners that want connectivity bundled inM2M service providers may want a purely wholesale relationship where they buy connectivity in bulkContent revenue share and partner management more complicatedMore demanding applications eg advanced gamingMore partners, even per transactionCSPs are partnering with OTT and non-communications providers in innovative waysNeed to settle and negotiate in innovative waysNeed flexible agreements to attract partnersApply to raw transaction search to massive volumes for actionable intelligence.
So here’s the first headline for the ‘headline’ people: you really need a sophisticated wholesale/ partner settlement system, because the numbers and types of partners you’re dealing with is likely going upconstantly, and the manual systems that many operators have will prove inadequate.
Here are some more details for the more details-conscious: partner settlement needs to be able to cater for existing, new and different partners – whether traditional wholesale/ interconnect, now having to cope with new LTE parameters like QoS, protocol used or data bandwidth, or new partners delivering everything from content to installation services for your enterprise customers.This demands new and complex rating abilities, and a closer eye on credit and fraud, as some of your new partners might not be QUITE as credit-worthy as you’re used to …_____________________________________[Problem]LTE and other NGN will enable new type of services and products from the usual or new partners causing:Complex revenue sharingMore partners, greater volatilityCredit and fraud sensitivityRevenue vulnerabilityOTT competitionNon-standard delivery platformsThe following are examples of this new services and productsVOIP - PSTN termination or origination IP Network - Records from Call Servers or Border Controllers/GatewaysRating follows normal interconnect rulesPossibility of introducing new metricsQoS, Protocol used, data volume/bandwidth usedInterconnect supports rating based on IP metrics if required via Enhanced Rating option. VoIP END to ENDIP Network - Records from Call Servers or Border Controllers/GatewaysVoIP Origin, Termination and Transit as for PSTN New service optionsProtocols - Skype, SIP, H323, H248, etcTranscoding servicesNew Business modelsPeering Additional new metricsQoS requested, bandwidth requested .vs. bandwidth achievedInterconnect supports rating based on E.164 numbers, URLs, or email address type identifiers VoLTE and VoLTE roamingVoLTE (Non Circuit switched fallback) can be regarded as a subset of generic VoIP 3GPP specify that SIP should be used.Roaming for VoLTE presents an opportunity for roaming traffic to be routed via the home network and full information to be available in real time to the home network. And those demanding new type of rating:Instant MessagingBulk Per Session initiation chargeFile TransferBulk data volume for successful file transfersImage ShareBulk data volume for images successfully sharedVideo ShareCharge based on duration of video share[Solution]CSG Interconnect fully supports expected VOIP and IP service types, and supports complex network event types:Refund eventsUn/Redo EventsInterconnect supports flexible business models:Credit limitsPre-PayPay when Paid
Here’s an example of one of our customers in the US. They’re essentially a content aggregator: they sit in between hundreds of operators who buy the content, and thousands of content providers who provide the content; so that makes for hundreds of thousands of partner agreements that they have to manage and administer – including the disputes that inevitably arise.The agreements need to be flexible and tailored to the both sides of their business model, and they needed to meet requirements like pay only when paid, to cover revenue assurance needs; thresholds, revenue sharing, multi-currency etc.And they needed to do it economically, as they found that their in-house systems was simply costing them too much – their partner administration was simply too costly. AND they needed to know that the system could cope with their growth volumes.
Second headline – if you want to entertain new business models, you need flexible charging and billing
Here’s a case study of a new business model: Qualcomm, again in the US, set up Qualcomm Enterprise Service – that they’ve recently sold, actually – to service the fleet management market via telematic services. SO there’s a device in a truck that sends all sorts of data, via a satellite, back to base, where it is used to provide information on all sorts of aspects of the truck, from the driver hours to the where the truck has been, to monitoring of ‘vital signs’.They needed a billing system that could cope with the various combinations of offerings, as well as enabling to introduce new services and products quickly, and reduce the cost of billing. _____________________________________________________________Qualcomm is an example of a Singleview customer serving a specific segment, that of in-vehicle telematics. This slide shows some examples of their services, which involve monitoring various aspects of truck fleets on behalf of their customers both large and small. Qualcomm pride themselves on their flexible pricing options which are delivered by Singleview. And the introduction of Singleview has significantly lowered costs while enabling them to support new business models.Qualcomm Enterprise Services (QES) is an end-to-end wireless business enabler, specialising in mobile technology solutions for mobile asset management, safety and compliance, operational efficiencyRequirements:Integrated billing and usage mediation system with all billing logic contained within one systemSupport a “wholesale-like” model with complex account and sub-account hierarchiesFlexibility to support various product lines, subscription services, customer-specific pricingSupport new business modelsReduced time to market for new products to 2 monthsLowered costsReduced bill cycle operations effort 50%Significantly reduced manual operations tasks, incl. month-end
And as you can see from this snapshot from their website, they actually call out their flexible pricing as a competitive advantage.
On to the next LTE challenge – customer intimacy. With LTE comes even more usage of smartphones in so many different ways, and customers are demanding more control and personalisation.Quality of Service management and changesReal-time needed to allow quick response to customer behavior Policy control customer, not just network-focusedManage load Provide customer choice and control – better customer experience Adjust quality/ priority parameters on network depending on policy rules, network status, customer actions etc.Immediate charging of roamer usage to customer’s balanceImprove the customer experience though billing informationClear billing for complex usage scenarios (e.g. multi-device)CSPs need to control, monitor and charge for wholesale connections with much of the same flexibility needed for their own consumersSome wholesale partners will not have the capability or the appetite to implement their own BSS and want to share resources with the CSPLTE Roaming necessitates more real-time interaction with customers and network partners in order to control spendRoaming packages (in-country and international)Mobile used for so much more – enabled by LTE – needs analysingProcess customer data for insight and actionable intelligence.Customer experienceUp-to-the-second account statusEnterprise customers tooApplications in the Cloud mean that employees can access their work from any device on any networkQoSPersonalized subscriber control (parental, employer)Loyalty and promotional programs: proactive based on real-time customer data and historical preferenceseCare – to provide self-care, including self-ordering
So customer experience is key – and here, real-time charging and policy management – integrated – have a critical role. Let’s not ignore enterprise customers – and that point about control is very important. If customers feel they’re in control, they’ll spend more.CustomersWant simple pricing and not have to count megabytesBut at the same time be kept informed and in control of their spendServicesIf the service is not simple and enjoyable to use, then consumers will churn to another operatorWide availability of cheap / free WiFi a good alternative for manyDisruptive wireless broadband offerings from fixed line providers (e.g. BT FON) gaining momentumICPSet spend controls and quotas that are automatically managedRich notification mechanisms to keep consumer informed at all timesShield the consumer from complex plans and counting megabytesEnterpriseReal-time information and charging is not just the province of consumersSpend controls and alerts directly impact enterprises’ bottom lineBYOD is currently top-of-mind, mandating split spend and eWallets
So here’s the headlines – you need to be able to respond quickly – ie in real-time – to customer behaviour – AND give them control.
Here’s an example demonstrating that – this time 3 UK. I think most people are aware now that many people, when go overseas, just turn their data roaming off because they’re frightened of billshock. This means that they’re not getting the customer experience they’d like, and the operator isn’t getting any revenue.So 3 UK introduced the Euro Internet Pass. It works like this: in response to the ‘customer behaviour’ of going to another European country, 3 sends their customer are text offering a roaming pass for 5 pounds – that lets them use as much data as they like for 24 hours. They can easily opt in or opt out at the click of a button, and then happily use data for 24 hours. Close to the end of the 24 hours, the customer gets another text, alerting them to the fact that their pass is about to run out, and they have the option of buying another one or just letting it lapse. Clear, transparent, easy to understand and use – and making more revenue for 3.____________________________________________________________________________________Spend limits have traditionally been seen by operators as a restrictive measure against revenue.More recently, limits have been imposed by regulators to protect consumers from bill shock.However, operators overlook the potential of spending limits to introduce customers to new products and services: Use spend limits to assure customers their spend will not be out of control when trying new services This will turn customers more adventurous In trying new servicesCSG Charging & Policy supports all types of spend limits and notifications
The third challenge with LTE is complexity. Not only does LTE itself inherently have new complexities, but even more so are the complexities of integrating LTE with existing networks and systems. Very often, telcos buy new, adjunct systems to cater to the immediate requirements dictated by LTE, and then end up with a very complex infrastructure. So new interfaces, gateways etc spring up, all requiring correlation and integration and management… Not to mention the complexities associated with new types of traffic routing and charging elementsNew network interfacesGateways (inc prepaid), integration and correlation required for records spanning legacy and new networksIntegrating multiple SDPs and correlation to build chargeable events per sessionSRVCC (3G/LTE Handoff)Complex correlation of records from new and legacy network elements to create chargeable records. Adapt to interpret traffic across LTE gateways and across LTE/ legacy network routes. Interfaces with many new service platforms and partners. Market for adjunct systems to handle only this aspect has grownThis has led to complex infrastructure with customer, account and balance data spread across multiple systems and no single point of controlQuality of Service management and changesReal-time needed to monitor and immediately respond to QoS changes Configure (policy) to variably/ dynamically improve/ degrade service quality/ adjust offload criteria (check properly)VolumesReal-time needed to avoid transaction backlogsWholesale charging more complicated – will need to consider originating subscriber profilestype of application/content usedquality delivered …. on top of the traditional charging elementsRevenue sharing complexity with many third parties involved in content production, promotion etc. Trading and routing more complicatedNeed for real-time commercial routing decisions to match network onesDestinations likely to be IP addresses not (geographic) B-numbersNeed for ENUM supportAdapt to direct LTE traffic across variable routes (T&R)Adapt to understand and respond to quality input from LTE network (T&R)Roaming more complicatedUsers will expect same service and qualityImplications for roaming records such as TAP ands TDIG – GSA working on new standards
So – the next headline: mediation – that oft-forgotten little sibling of BSS – can simplify charging and policy complexity.
LTE introduces a whole new level of complexity for charging and policy – with new interfaces as I’ve just mentioned, and new use cases, like “real-time post-pay” where postpaid usage has to be authorised in real time and then CDRs created for passing to the billing system. Or dynamic routing data, where there is a need to dynamically increase the granularity of real-time monitoring and charging for roaming data users (to avoid over-spend and bill shock)[Problem]Many operators have deployed PCRF for Policy 1.0 type applications, that is QoS management and bandwidth control for data services. As they look beyond basic data services, with network evolutions of 4G for data and IMS-based services like VoLTE and RCS, many operators are redefining their Policy and Charging Control (PCC) architecture. Often deploying new OCS systems, that must interact with existing policy systems – either using proprietary or standards-based interfaces[More interfaces]4G for data and VoLTE services adds increased interface complexity for Charging and Policy systems, including:Routing with Diameter and legacy charging protocols on Gy for 4G data and on Ro for VoLTE and IMS servicesRouting Diameter messages on Gx and Rx between network and policy servers, as well as enabling Sy between OCS and PCRFsMulti-vendor PCRF and OCS architectures (either in transition to target architectures, or the planned future end state)[New use cases]New use cases are exceeding the capabilities of even the most flexible OCS and PCRFs:Late Billing – “Tivo for the OCS”. When OCS failures detected on Gy interface, need to continue providing services to customers, but without losing revenue.Gy to Gz– Automatic authorisation of postpaid usage and creation of CDRs for offline processingDynamic Roaming Data – dynamically increasing the granularity of real-time monitoring and charging for roaming data users (to avoid over-spend and bill shock)First Use Redirect – when certain customers (like new tablet users) make a connection are re-directed to a URL, e.g. for first use registrations (mandatory in Australia)Intelligent Routing – of charging and policy requests based on subscribers and their usage (e.g. based on service being requested/APN or MSISDN
Mediation reduces 4G charging and policy complexity, by moving from a point-to-point solution to a cost effective hub-and-spoke approach – a layer for managing the various interactions, if you like, intelligently routing requests where they need to go. _________________________________________________Mediation enables streamlining of the architecture moving for a many-to-many, point-to-point deployment to a cost effective hub-and-spoke approach.In addition to Intelligent Routing of real-time requests mediation provides Resource Management & Congestion Control, controllingResource Usage and Capacity Overload, and allowing Self-Surveillance and Monitoring.New use cases enable operators to provide enhanced Customer Experience to retain existing subscribers and to Attract New Subscriberswith innovative services for next generation networks
Another business support system, optimised routing, also helps with the complexity challenge, enabling VoLTE.
Again, optimised routing can act as a centralised routing ‘hub’, making network-wide routing decisions that relieve the complexity of programming multiple SIP application servers and SBCs and interacts with ENUM and LNP servers for lookups.It also enables control and monitoring of the end-to-end QoS for real-time communications established.Optimized Routing enables 4G VoLTEEnables Real-time Centralized Routing in 4G VolTE / IMS networksOptimized Routing for 4G IMS handles the VoLTE traffic, provides a single point for making network wide routing decisions though relieves the complexity of programming multiple SIP Application Servers and SBCs and interacts with ENUM and LNP servers for lookups.Optimized Routing enables a move to all IP also for real time communications such as voice, sms, video calling by providing hybrid routing solutions for SIP and TDM nodes. Besides being a Commercial Routing platform it enables control and monitoring capabilities of the end to end QoS for the real-time communication services established.
[Problem]Robustness and cost of Online Charging System (or OCS) high availability is a growing issueAnd growing data volumes increase cost further[Solution approach]Some operators are deploying Offline Mediation to act as an OCS Failure Gateway. The network (GGSN for 3G or P-GW for 4G) is configured to send real-time charging requests to the OCS Failure GW when it detects that the prepaid or Online Charging System is down. The solution buffers real-time charging requests while OCS is down, re-streams with no change to OCSBenefits include no loss of revenue, and no change to the OCS system. It could also potentially lower CAPEX and OPEX of maintaining HA OCS, if operators opted away from HA.
The final LTE challenge is cost efficiency. Managing the costs of associated with LTE networks is as important as increasing revenue opportunities. Various areas here include managing traffic volumes efficiently, partner management again, and assuring revenue.__________________________________________________________________Real-time (mediation) needed to avoid transaction backlogs (Batch mediation retained as backup)All-IP allows adjustable charging to encourage/ discourage network and service use. VolTE, VoSMS, HD Video Calling etc. Respond to analytics, policy.There will be many more partners in the new digital environmentThey are likely to be less established and credit-worthyFraud and bad debt are real possibilities and CSPs will need to be geared up for credit and dispute managementTerms of payment are unlikely to be so long, and wholesale charging timescales are likely to get much shorterRequiring immediate charging or prepayment for some partnersNeed partner self-management to lower costs and increase partner satisfaction
Mediation has a very strong role to play in the cost efficiency area. One of our headlines here is the ability of mediation to catch revenue that otherwise might fall through the cracks.
A case study in this area is one of our customers in Indonesia, XL Axiata. They had a problem in that they were losing revenue when their online charging system went down – not CSG’s OCS, I’m at pains to add! Normally in this situation, the network detects the fact that charging system down and batches up the events for processing later. But this OCS couldn’t accept the files for charging prepaid customers, so every time the system was down, they were losing a lot of revenue – especially as 99% of their customers are prepaid.So they now use mediation to capture those files and, when the OCS is back online, it feeds the OCS with the events in a way – and at a speed – that it can process. XL call this ‘Billing Failure Treatment’, and it has saved them so much revenue that the return on investment was considerable.__________________________________[Context / Business issue]XL had a problem that they were losing revenue when their Amdocs real-time charging system was down. Typically in this situation the network detects this outage and will cut files to be processed as batch once the charging system is back online. However, the Amdocs Online Charging System (OCS) was unable to accept files inputs for charging prepaid customers, and so lead to the requirement for an OCS Failure Gateway, referred to by XL as “Billing Failure Treatment”. Amdocs outages were fairly frequent and there was significant revenue leakage, so the business drivers for the OCS Failure Gateway project were considerable.In addition, XL required a single mediation solution to give better operational management for current data process flow and better performance in business process area. They had a multiple mediation systems in their BSS architecture, which were mostly closely attached with each business function (e.g. legacy Amdocs Billdats for retail billing and Comptel for mediating other streams). As a result they had issues with duplication of usage data due to the lack of single consolidated mediation platform. [Solution]CSG’s solution for OCS Failure Gateway is based on Intermediate. For XL it uses the Intermediate real-time GTP’ plug-in, proven at customer production sites including Telia Denmark and Telenet Belgium. To support the BFT requirements for outbound streaming CSG enhanced Intermediate for the POC, adding the capability to read stored data and stream it in real-time using the GTP’ protocolIn Phase 1, the solution captures real-time events streamed from the Cisco CSG via GTP’ when the OCS is down, filters them and checks for duplicates. It is scaled to support over 46,000 inbound transactions per second. Intermediate then transforms events into the outbound format and buffers them, ready for re-streaming once the OCS is alive again. Re-streaming requires Intermediate to throttle the data sent to the OCS, as each port only supports a maximum of 600 transactions per second.Intermediate is deployed in a highly available N+1 architecture using the Intermediate Node Manager to ensure no loss of revenue data. Its superior processing performance means that in each of the two production environmentsThe Intermediate solution has also been deployed using a tiered storage architecture, allocating storage across high speed (online) and lower speed disk (near online) SAN storage to further reduce the platform costs.[Success factors]
Our final example in the cost efficiency area is again one using mediation – to take the strain off upstream systems.
This use case rests on the act that the massive growth in mobile data volumes is having a costly impact on legacy prepaid and online charging systems. In many architectures, every new data session can require real-time rating and an update to the subscriber’s balance. This means that the balance management databases need to be upgraded with more hardware, software and licences, all of which can be costly. But the real-time rating and balance management aren’t necessarily needed most of the time, because many subscribers are on contracts or packages that bundle up large volumes of data or give away social media for free for example. So, although the granularity is needed for revenue assurance and credit management – and to provide the consumer with information – the events don’t need to go to the rating engines or balance managers every time.In steps good old mediation: if you know the customer’s balance and services, then all mediation needs to do it to count the events and then only pass through the ones that actually generate revenue, or let the charging system know that credit limits have been exceeded.So you save money in online charging infrastructure, and the mediation system is left to handle massive volumes very economically, because it runs on low-cost hardware and software, reliably.__________________________________________[Problem]Enormous growth in mobile data volumes is having a costly impact on legacy prepaid and online charging systems. On the Gy reference interface in many architectures every new data session can require real-time rating and an update to a subscriber’s balance. This impacts the costs of running balance management and rating databases, as more hardware and expensive databases licenses are needed to scale the solution.And this increase in platform costs doesn’t have a corresponding increase in revenue, as many mobile data events are zero rated, or included in a big data bundle. However a high granularity of charging transactions is required for revenue assurance and credit management purposes. And to provide such information to subscribers.[Solution]One solution approach is to use Active Mediation for Gy Charging Offload, to act as a buffer to the rating and balance management systems. Here the solution manages counters for each subscriber and reduces the frequency with which credit requests are made to charging systems. It responds to low-level real-time responses from the network to ensure that granular information is kept on usage and that credit limits for subscribers are not exceeded. Outstanding real-time performance, robust continuous availability and reliable scalability mean the platform costs for growing data volumes can be controlled and the risk of revenue loss due to prepaid system outages reduced
So what does a business support system solution for LTE look like?
Well, it comprises the set of systems you might expect, anchored by routing and mediation to remove the complexity and cost of numerous network interfaces, as we saw with XL Axiata. Billing, policy and charging need to be flexible enough to cater for business models – new and currently unforeseen. Qualcomm was an example of flexible billing being an enabler for new business models.And analytics applies to everything, so I put it in a corner of its own, rather than draw lines everywhere!Partner settlement, as we’ve discussed, needs to cater for growing volumes of transactions, complexity of agreements and larger numbers of different types of partner, as the example of the content aggregator in the US showed; while customer self-care and management give the customer control – along with policy and charging, as we saw with 3 UK.
So in summary, service providers need to recoup the investment they’re making in LTE, by generating new revenue streams which demand systems that can cater for new business models and assure the revenue that is being generatedThey need to give customers control through policy and charging and need to know what customers want through analysing their behavious and responding accordinglyBSS needs to be sophisticated enough to handle the complexity of LTE, but most importantly they need to be able to simplify wherever possible to keep costs to a minimum and avoid revenue leakage – cost efficiency is needed to gain profitability._________________________________Shift from voice-centric to data-centric networks will create very high volumes of network transactions from network elements and IMS service platforms that will send real-time streamed events at up to 8 times traditional CDR volumes. Monetisation – you’ve put all that money into the network, now it has to pay for itselfCustomer experience – you’ve put all that money into the network – now you need to deliver for your customersWith a flexible solution supporting all customer typesThat provides true convergent chargingSpeed to market – you’ve put all that money into the network –you don’t want your competitors getting there firstVolumes - Shift from voice-centric to data-centric networks will create up to 8 times traditional CDR volumes[QoS – manageable, monetisable]Complexity – speed to market/TechnologyNew revenue streams/ monetisation/ speed to marketCustomer intimacyCost-efficiency inc MS