7th Annual E-GOV Africa
Kampala, Uganda
7th Annual E-GOV Africa
Kampala, Uganda
GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS FOR
FOOD SE...
OutlineOutline
• Introduction• Introduction
• GIS
GIS C St di• GIS Case Studies
• GPS
• Remote Sensing
• SLM
• A Panacea f...
About CERSGISAbout CERSGIS
• Established by EPA and University of Ghana
• Geographic Information Services and Research
Sup...
IntroductionIntroduction
• We live in an information age
• Geospatial information is one of the most critical
elements und...
Geographic Information System (GIS)Geographic Information System (GIS)
5
What is GIS ?What is GIS ? Reality
• Geographical Information System (GIS)
• Software and hardware that allows creation, v...
7
RasterRaster--Vector Data ModelVector Data Model
8
Applications of spatial dataApplications of spatial data::
• Modeling
f– Developing “where is” and “what if” scenarios
• D...
Applications of spatial dataApplications of spatial data::
Spatial data analysis
1. distances between geographic locations...
thanksthanks toto geospatialgeospatial technology!technology!
LandLand suitabilitysuitability analysisanalysis
Land suitability analysis involves the application of
criteria to the lan...
Site suitability analysisSite suitability analysis
Why do site suitability assessment?
– It greatly reduces the time and e...
suitability modelingsuitability modeling
R litReality Spatial data layers Suitable areas
Model criteria:
- Land use
- Elev...
LandLand suitabilitysuitability modelingmodeling processprocess
1. Determine the question to be studied
2. Define the crit...
ProcessProcess flowflow (Modeling)(Modeling)
Land use
Rainfall
16
Sample suitability and weighting
Criteria:
landscape restoration will be
necessary in certain areas
Weighting:
Open access...
Case Study:Case Study:Case Study:Case Study:
Suitability ModelingSuitability Modeling forfor LandscapeLandscape
Restoratio...
MethodologyMethodology
Landuse
Mapping
Terrain
Analysis
Climatic
Analysis
Landuse &
Accessibility
Rainfall
Suitable Slope
...
Inputs and CriteriaInputs and Criteria
1. Preliminary criteria categories were decided and weights assigned based on
the l...
Criteria ScoringCriteria Scoring
Input
Layer
Criteria
Potential Score
Low (0) High (1)
Terrain
Elevation <500m asl >500m a...
Elevation Criterion
2 Classes :
Altitude 0 - 500 msl = 0 (Low Suitability)
Altitude >500 msl = 1 (High Suitability)
22
Slope CriterionSlope Criterion
2 Classes:
Slope >10 degrees = 0 (Low Suitability)
Slope <10 degrees = 1 (High Suitability)...
Annual Rainfall Criterion
3 Classes:
1000 0 (L S it bilit )<1000mm = 0 (Low Suitability)
1001 – 1200mm = 2 (Moderate Suita...
Land Use CriterionLand Use Criterion
4 Classes:
Reserved Area = 0
Closed Forest = 1Closed Forest = 1
Long Fallow = 2
Short...
ResultsResultsResultsResults
26
Slope & Elevation
Elevation layer is overlaid with Slope layer:
Suitability score ranges from 0, for areas that
meet no cr...
Slope, Elevation & Rainfall
Slope layer is overlaid with the rainfall
and elevation layerand elevation layer
28
AreasAreas suitablesuitable forfor landscapelandscape restorationrestoration
Ranking Suitability Area % Area (ha) Class Total(ha)
0
Low
0.0 629
103,617
1 1.0 100,664
2 0.0 2,324
3
Medium
2 190,190
4 ...
Case Study:Case Study:Case Study:Case Study:
Desertification Hazard MappingDesertification Hazard Mapping
31
Desertification HazardDesertification Hazard
It is a process that can be as much man-caused as
natural and therefore is on...
Geospatial PortalGeospatial Portal
demand for geospatial data
access to quality geospatial data Metadata serviceMetadata s...
ONLINE GIS PLATFORMONLINE GIS PLATFORMONLINE GIS PLATFORM
FOR
AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT IN GHANA
ONLINE GIS PLATFORM
FOR
AG...
http://www.gis4ghagric.nethttp://www.gis4ghagric.net
Land coverLand cover MetadataMetadata
ElevationElevation
CropsCrops
SoilsSoils
ClimateClimate
MEAN ANNUAL RAINFALL
EVAPOTRANSPIRATION
Land SuitabilityLand Suitability
Cowpea
Millet
Sample MapSample Map
Global Positioning System (GPS)Global Positioning System (GPS)
GPS Requires 4 Satellites To
Obtain A “Position”
Longitude / LatitudeLongitude / Latitude
(North / West)(North / West) (North / East)(North / East)
9O9Ooo
OOoo
3O3Ooo
6O6O...
Getting your location/position on
the earth’s surfacethe earth s surface
+
FarmerFarmer--level GPS Mappinglevel GPS Mapping
1
2
5
1
2
5
2
3
4
3
4
HandHand--held GPS Receiverheld GPS Receiver
PT. NO...
GPSGPS DataData CollectionCollection
This is becoming extremely important collecting data on locations of
i t tinterest.
50
Remote SensingRemote Sensing
Why remote sensing?Why remote sensing?y gy g
• Access large areas
• Map inaccessible areas
• Timely repeats for monitoring...
Types of remote sensing dataTypes of remote sensing data
Optical Lidar
Radar
Optical dataOptical dataOptical dataOptical data
SpaceSpace--basedbased applicationsapplications
OpticalOptical –– high resolutionhigh resolution
e.g. Worldview, Aerial photographs
1961 2007 Change
OpticalOptical –– medium resolutionmedium resolution
e g Landsat ASTER SPOT DMC (incl NigeriaSAT) CBERSe.g. Landsat, ASTER...
OpticalOptical –– coarse resolutioncoarse resolution
e g MODIS SPOT-VGT AVHRR MERISe.g. MODIS, SPOT VGT, AVHRR, MERIS…
MOD...
Vegetation IndexVegetation Index –– ‘greenness’‘greenness’
• Reflection: leaves ≠ soil
• Normalised Difference
V t ti I d ...
Satellite Scenes – same season
0 k
ASTER
27th Nov
Landsat
ETM+ 12th
Landsat TM
30th Dec
10 km
27th Nov
2006
ETM+ 12th
Dec ...
> 4 S D
ChangeChange--detectiondetection
+1 to +2 S.D.s
+2 to +3 S.D.s
> +4 S.D.s
No Change (± 1 S.D)
Water / no data
< -3...
Example use of optical dataExample use of optical data
Land cover mapping
• Global Land cover Mapping Project 2000
• Class...
Dense forest
Mosaic forest
GLC 2000 Africa map
Mosaic forest
Woodlands
ShrublandsShrublands
Grasslands
AgricultureAgricult...
LandLand cover mapcover map -- GhanaGhana
Problem 1: Cloud
Problem 2: These look the same in optical
1. Pristine
2. Degraded
Budongo Forest, Uganda
RadarRadarRadarRadar
RadarRadarRadarRadar
• Side-looking
Active 
radar  Return 
signalpulse signal 
(backscatter)
Optical vs. Radar
Radar satellitesRadar satellites
Band Wavelength
Typical maximum
resolution Satellitesg
from orbit
X-band 2.5-3.75 cm ~1 m...
ConclusionsConclusions -- RadarRadar
• Sees through clouds• Sees through clouds
• Penetrates vegetation
• Data not free
LidarLidar –– light detection and ranginglight detection and ranging
L• Laser
• Vertical looking
• Detects returns with hi...
33--DD LidarLidar ImageryImagery
ConclusionsConclusions -- LiDARLiDARConclusionsConclusions LiDARLiDAR
Gi t i & t ti h i ht• Gives terrain & vegetation hei...
Risk and damage assessment
– with climate change it is likely that Earth observation and
weather monitoring satellites wil...
Disaster monitoringDisaster monitoring
When you are on the ground, it is hard to grasp the size of these
events.
Land cover mappingLand cover mapping
Rural development
– Earth observation satellites allow objective assessments of
remote rural areas to help design, plan an...
Change DetectionChange Detection
Useful websitesUseful websites
81
Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET)
http://www.fews.net
82
http://www.fews.net
83
84
85
http://www.foodsecurityportal.org/africa-food-security-vulnerability-indices
86
http://www.fao.org/docrep/008/J6398e/maps/afr.htm
Land Use Planning :Land Use Planning :SustainableSustainable Land ManagementLand Management
• An iterative process
• Based...
MAIN PRINCIPLES:MAIN PRINCIPLES:
• Active community participation
• Consistent with national/local planning schemes
• Envi...
VIDEOVIDEO
89
THANKTHANK YOUYOU !!
fmensah@ug.edu.gh
Geographic Information Systems for Food Security and Land Management in Africa - Foster Mensah
Geographic Information Systems for Food Security and Land Management in Africa - Foster Mensah
Geographic Information Systems for Food Security and Land Management in Africa - Foster Mensah
Geographic Information Systems for Food Security and Land Management in Africa - Foster Mensah
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A flagship CTO event, this has grown into a platform for knowledge-sharing among peer groups steering ICT projects in e-delivery of health care, education and governance. This Forum echoes the Commonwealth's 2013 theme: The Road Ahead for Africa.

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Geographic Information Systems for Food Security and Land Management in Africa - Foster Mensah

  1. 1. 7th Annual E-GOV Africa Kampala, Uganda 7th Annual E-GOV Africa Kampala, Uganda GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS FOR FOOD SECURITY AND LAND MANAGEMENT IN AFRICA GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS FOR FOOD SECURITY AND LAND MANAGEMENT IN AFRICAFOOD SECURITY AND LAND MANAGEMENT IN AFRICAFOOD SECURITY AND LAND MANAGEMENT IN AFRICA Foster Mensah Centre for Remote Sensing and Geographic Information Services University of Ghana Legon-Accra 1
  2. 2. OutlineOutline • Introduction• Introduction • GIS GIS C St di• GIS Case Studies • GPS • Remote Sensing • SLM • A Panacea for Drylands – 15min Video
  3. 3. About CERSGISAbout CERSGIS • Established by EPA and University of Ghana • Geographic Information Services and Research Support CentreSupport Centre • It is a non-profit, self sustaining organization • Provide Remote Sensing and Geographic Information Systems (GIS) services in the application of GIS and Remote Sensing. • Provides services to government agencies, non- governmental organizations, research institutions d th i t tand the private sector
  4. 4. IntroductionIntroduction • We live in an information age • Geospatial information is one of the most critical elements underpinning decision-making for manyp g g y disciplines • Geospatial information is an essential building blockp g for sustainable development. • Increasing the availability, access and interoperabilityIncreasing the availability, access and interoperability of Geospatial information will stimulate innovation, contribute to economic transformation and facilitate national developmentnational development
  5. 5. Geographic Information System (GIS)Geographic Information System (GIS) 5
  6. 6. What is GIS ?What is GIS ? Reality • Geographical Information System (GIS) • Software and hardware that allows creation, visualization, query and analysis of spatial data.q y y p • Spatial data refers to information about the geographic location of an entityy 6
  7. 7. 7
  8. 8. RasterRaster--Vector Data ModelVector Data Model 8
  9. 9. Applications of spatial dataApplications of spatial data:: • Modeling f– Developing “where is” and “what if” scenarios • Decision making support – communicating processes and information that help solve or avoid problems. • Monitoring relating to environmental management and support– relating to environmental management and support for programme management services. M P d ti• Map Production
  10. 10. Applications of spatial dataApplications of spatial data:: Spatial data analysis 1. distances between geographic locations 2. The amount of area within a certain geographic region 3. What geographic features overlap other features 4. The amount of overlap between features 5. The number of locations within a certain distance of another 10
  11. 11. thanksthanks toto geospatialgeospatial technology!technology!
  12. 12. LandLand suitabilitysuitability analysisanalysis Land suitability analysis involves the application of criteria to the landscape to assess where land is mostp and least suitable Land use Rainfall 12
  13. 13. Site suitability analysisSite suitability analysis Why do site suitability assessment? – It greatly reduces the time and effort which might otherwiseg y g be spent manually searching records – It is a key factor and critical initial step in the design of many projects – It produces a detailed display of the most-suitable to least- suitable areas for consideration, while filtering out unusable or less desirable sites.
  14. 14. suitability modelingsuitability modeling R litReality Spatial data layers Suitable areas Model criteria: - Land use - Elevation - Climate 14
  15. 15. LandLand suitabilitysuitability modelingmodeling processprocess 1. Determine the question to be studied 2. Define the criteria for the analysis 3. Determine the data needed to answer the question 4. Determine the GIS procedures needed 5. Create the model 6. Analyze the results and improve the model 7. Make a decision 15
  16. 16. ProcessProcess flowflow (Modeling)(Modeling) Land use Rainfall 16
  17. 17. Sample suitability and weighting Criteria: landscape restoration will be necessary in certain areas Weighting: Open access areas more important than reserved areas Bare areas more important than closeness to towns Annual rainfall greater than 1200mmAnnual rainfall greater than 1200mm is highly suitable Slopes less than 10% is highly suitable 17 suitable
  18. 18. Case Study:Case Study:Case Study:Case Study: Suitability ModelingSuitability Modeling forfor LandscapeLandscape RestorationRestoration 18
  19. 19. MethodologyMethodology Landuse Mapping Terrain Analysis Climatic Analysis Landuse & Accessibility Rainfall Suitable Slope and Elevation GIS Analysis to Generate Overall Suitability 19
  20. 20. Inputs and CriteriaInputs and Criteria 1. Preliminary criteria categories were decided and weights assigned based on the level of importance 2. Less suitable sites were given low values/weights (0 been the lowest) and the most suitable areas assigned a higher weight (4 been the highest) 3 Layers added to each other and values for each data layer carried through and3. Layers added to each other and values for each data layer carried through and applied to output 4. Rank as suitable the closer an area matches the optimum 5. The result is a suitability map which shows a range of values that reflect a area’s suitability based on the user define criteria 20
  21. 21. Criteria ScoringCriteria Scoring Input Layer Criteria Potential Score Low (0) High (1) Terrain Elevation <500m asl >500m asl Slope >10 degree <10 degreeSlope >10 degree <10 degree Low (0) Moderate (2) High (3) Climatic Rainfall Distribution <1000mm 1000-1200mm >1200mm Low (0) Moderate Low (1) Moderate (2) Moderate High (3) High (4)Low (0) Moderate Low (1) Moderate (2) Moderate High (3) High (4) Land Use Land Use Types Reserved Long Fallow Short Fallow Grassland 21
  22. 22. Elevation Criterion 2 Classes : Altitude 0 - 500 msl = 0 (Low Suitability) Altitude >500 msl = 1 (High Suitability) 22
  23. 23. Slope CriterionSlope Criterion 2 Classes: Slope >10 degrees = 0 (Low Suitability) Slope <10 degrees = 1 (High Suitability) 23
  24. 24. Annual Rainfall Criterion 3 Classes: 1000 0 (L S it bilit )<1000mm = 0 (Low Suitability) 1001 – 1200mm = 2 (Moderate Suitability) >1200mm = 3 (High Suitability) 24
  25. 25. Land Use CriterionLand Use Criterion 4 Classes: Reserved Area = 0 Closed Forest = 1Closed Forest = 1 Long Fallow = 2 Short Fallow = 3 Grassland = 4 25
  26. 26. ResultsResultsResultsResults 26
  27. 27. Slope & Elevation Elevation layer is overlaid with Slope layer: Suitability score ranges from 0, for areas that meet no criteria to 2, for areas that meet both criteria 27
  28. 28. Slope, Elevation & Rainfall Slope layer is overlaid with the rainfall and elevation layerand elevation layer 28
  29. 29. AreasAreas suitablesuitable forfor landscapelandscape restorationrestoration
  30. 30. Ranking Suitability Area % Area (ha) Class Total(ha) 0 Low 0.0 629 103,617 1 1.0 100,664 2 0.0 2,324 3 Medium 2 190,190 4 8 836,712 5 20 1,975,211 5,788,8896 28 2,786,776 7 High 30 3,030,098 4 050 585 8 8 762,548 9 3 257 939 4,050,5859 3 257,939 Total 100 9,943,091 9,943,091 30
  31. 31. Case Study:Case Study:Case Study:Case Study: Desertification Hazard MappingDesertification Hazard Mapping 31
  32. 32. Desertification HazardDesertification Hazard It is a process that can be as much man-caused as natural and therefore is one of the natural hazards best suited for mitigation by those who plan, implement, and manage national development efforts. Why create Hazard maps?Why create Hazard maps? – Visual information better than tables of numbers – Easier to convince peopleEasier to convince people – Can be updated and disseminated easily – Useful for mitigation planning
  33. 33. Geospatial PortalGeospatial Portal demand for geospatial data access to quality geospatial data Metadata serviceMetadata service minimize duplication efficient data maintenance Map serviceMap service platform for partnerships efficient data maintenance Map serviceMap service DD--support servicesupport service
  34. 34. ONLINE GIS PLATFORMONLINE GIS PLATFORMONLINE GIS PLATFORM FOR AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT IN GHANA ONLINE GIS PLATFORM FOR AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT IN GHANA
  35. 35. http://www.gis4ghagric.nethttp://www.gis4ghagric.net
  36. 36. Land coverLand cover MetadataMetadata ElevationElevation
  37. 37. CropsCrops
  38. 38. SoilsSoils
  39. 39. ClimateClimate MEAN ANNUAL RAINFALL EVAPOTRANSPIRATION
  40. 40. Land SuitabilityLand Suitability Cowpea Millet
  41. 41. Sample MapSample Map
  42. 42. Global Positioning System (GPS)Global Positioning System (GPS)
  43. 43. GPS Requires 4 Satellites To Obtain A “Position”
  44. 44. Longitude / LatitudeLongitude / Latitude (North / West)(North / West) (North / East)(North / East) 9O9Ooo OOoo 3O3Ooo 6O6Ooo Equator ( 0 NS) OOoo6O6Ooo18O18Ooo 120120oo Equator ( 0 NS) (South / West)(South / West) (South / East)(South / East) Prime Meridian (0 )(0 EW)
  45. 45. Getting your location/position on the earth’s surfacethe earth s surface +
  46. 46. FarmerFarmer--level GPS Mappinglevel GPS Mapping 1 2 5 1 2 5 2 3 4 3 4 HandHand--held GPS Receiverheld GPS Receiver PT. NO LATITUDE LONGITUDE 1 05.68771 001.62076 2 05.52341 001.60019 3 05.33322 001.59332 49 4 05.44572 001.59902 5 05.68331 001.62045 1 05.52341 001.60019
  47. 47. GPSGPS DataData CollectionCollection This is becoming extremely important collecting data on locations of i t tinterest. 50
  48. 48. Remote SensingRemote Sensing
  49. 49. Why remote sensing?Why remote sensing?y gy g • Access large areas • Map inaccessible areas • Timely repeats for monitoring• Timely repeats for monitoring
  50. 50. Types of remote sensing dataTypes of remote sensing data Optical Lidar Radar
  51. 51. Optical dataOptical dataOptical dataOptical data
  52. 52. SpaceSpace--basedbased applicationsapplications
  53. 53. OpticalOptical –– high resolutionhigh resolution e.g. Worldview, Aerial photographs 1961 2007 Change
  54. 54. OpticalOptical –– medium resolutionmedium resolution e g Landsat ASTER SPOT DMC (incl NigeriaSAT) CBERSe.g. Landsat, ASTER, SPOT, DMC (incl. NigeriaSAT), CBERS… 10 km
  55. 55. OpticalOptical –– coarse resolutioncoarse resolution e g MODIS SPOT-VGT AVHRR MERISe.g. MODIS, SPOT VGT, AVHRR, MERIS… MODIS (500 m) ASTER (15 m) QuickBir d (1 m) Landsat (30 m)(500 m) (15 m) d (1 m)(30 m) Daily ~40 days ~60 days on demandDaily ~40 days ~60 days on demand FreeFree FreeFree Low costLow cost ProhibitivelyProhibitively ExpensiveExpensiveExpensiveExpensive
  56. 56. Vegetation IndexVegetation Index –– ‘greenness’‘greenness’ • Reflection: leaves ≠ soil • Normalised Difference V t ti I d (NDVI) e (%) Vegetation Index (NDVI) lectanceRefl Wave Length (nm) High NDVIHigh NDVI
  57. 57. Satellite Scenes – same season 0 k ASTER 27th Nov Landsat ETM+ 12th Landsat TM 30th Dec 10 km 27th Nov 2006 ETM+ 12th Dec 2000 30th Dec 1986
  58. 58. > 4 S D ChangeChange--detectiondetection +1 to +2 S.D.s +2 to +3 S.D.s > +4 S.D.s No Change (± 1 S.D) Water / no data < -3 S.D.s -2 to -3 S.D.s -1 to -2 S.D.s ∆ NDVI 1986 ∆ NDVI 2000ETM+ ∆ NDVI 1986 2000 ∆ NDVI 2000 2006 ETM   2000
  59. 59. Example use of optical dataExample use of optical data Land cover mapping • Global Land cover Mapping Project 2000 • Classification based on SPOT VGT data and• Classification based on SPOT VGT data and expert opinion/fieldwork - 1 km resolution Mayaux, P., et al. 2004. A new land-cover map of Africa for the year 2000. Journal of Biogeography, 31, 861-877
  60. 60. Dense forest Mosaic forest GLC 2000 Africa map Mosaic forest Woodlands ShrublandsShrublands Grasslands AgricultureAgriculture Bare soil WaterbodiesWaterbodies
  61. 61. LandLand cover mapcover map -- GhanaGhana
  62. 62. Problem 1: Cloud
  63. 63. Problem 2: These look the same in optical 1. Pristine 2. Degraded Budongo Forest, Uganda
  64. 64. RadarRadarRadarRadar
  65. 65. RadarRadarRadarRadar • Side-looking Active  radar  Return  signalpulse signal  (backscatter)
  66. 66. Optical vs. Radar
  67. 67. Radar satellitesRadar satellites Band Wavelength Typical maximum resolution Satellitesg from orbit X-band 2.5-3.75 cm ~1 m TerraSAR-X (2007-) TanDEM-X (2010-) COSMO-SkyMed (2007-COSMO-SkyMed (2007- ) C-band 3 75 7 5 cm ~3 m ERS-1 (1991-2000) ERS-2 (1995-2011) ASAR (2002 2012)C-band 3.75-7.5 cm ~3 m ASAR (2002-2012) RADARSAT 1 (1995-) RADARSAT 2 (2007-) S b d 1 6 N SAR (201 )S-band 7.5-15 cm ~6 m NovaSAR (2015-) JERS-1 (1992-1998) ALOS PALSAR (2007- L-band 15-30 cm ~20 m ( 2011) ALOS-2 PALSAR-2 (2013-) SAOCOM (2015)( ) ?DESDynI (2019) P-band 70-130 cm ~50 m ?BIOMASS (2019)
  68. 68. ConclusionsConclusions -- RadarRadar • Sees through clouds• Sees through clouds • Penetrates vegetation • Data not free
  69. 69. LidarLidar –– light detection and ranginglight detection and ranging L• Laser • Vertical looking • Detects returns with high accuracy
  70. 70. 33--DD LidarLidar ImageryImagery
  71. 71. ConclusionsConclusions -- LiDARLiDARConclusionsConclusions LiDARLiDAR Gi t i & t ti h i ht• Gives terrain & vegetation height • Potential for very high resolution • Sampling tool • Cloud problems • 1 satellite ever (ICESat GLAS) • Mostly aircrafty
  72. 72. Risk and damage assessment – with climate change it is likely that Earth observation and weather monitoring satellites will become increasingly i t t t i i ti i k timportant to improve existing risk assessment processes, especially for damage evaluation. Land cover monitoringLand cover monitoring – given the effect agricultural expansion have on biodiversity and climate change assessing the condition of land coverand climate change, assessing the condition of land cover can be achieved by EO
  73. 73. Disaster monitoringDisaster monitoring When you are on the ground, it is hard to grasp the size of these events.
  74. 74. Land cover mappingLand cover mapping
  75. 75. Rural development – Earth observation satellites allow objective assessments of remote rural areas to help design, plan and monitor the i t f l d d i lt l j timpact of land use and agricultural projects Change DetectionChange Detection – An important concept in monitoring is change... B t llit j t k i d th l b th– Because satellites just keep on going round the globe, they take repeat images which can be very helpful in explaining change over timechange over time.
  76. 76. Change DetectionChange Detection
  77. 77. Useful websitesUseful websites 81
  78. 78. Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET) http://www.fews.net 82 http://www.fews.net
  79. 79. 83
  80. 80. 84
  81. 81. 85 http://www.foodsecurityportal.org/africa-food-security-vulnerability-indices
  82. 82. 86 http://www.fao.org/docrep/008/J6398e/maps/afr.htm
  83. 83. Land Use Planning :Land Use Planning :SustainableSustainable Land ManagementLand Management • An iterative process • Based on the dialogue amongst all stakeholders • Negotiation and decision for sustainable land use • Monitoring implementation. Provides the prerequisites for achieving a sustainable form of land use which is acceptable as far as the social and environmental contexts are concerned andsocial and environmental contexts are concerned and is desired by the society while making sound economic sense.
  84. 84. MAIN PRINCIPLES:MAIN PRINCIPLES: • Active community participation • Consistent with national/local planning schemes • Environmentally friendlyEnvironmentally friendly • Community validation and approval Approval by local authority• Approval by local authority • Implementation and monitoring 88
  85. 85. VIDEOVIDEO 89
  86. 86. THANKTHANK YOUYOU !! fmensah@ug.edu.gh

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