This situation of increasing costs can be observed across most OECD nations, as illustrated by Figure 10.6 which displays the rise in total per student costs in constant prices between 1995 and 2004. Developing countries have also experienced a similar trend of rising costs, especially as the non-salary inputs (laboratory equipment, textbooks, journals, etc.) must usually be bought at international prices.
Demand for tertiary education has increased dramatically in recent decades. Greater proportions of a given age cohort are accessing tertiary education as secondary school completion rates rise and more adult students, formerly by-passed by the system, are gaining access. This means that HE systems will have to cope with a drastic increase in demand. True especially for countries with currently lower levels of enrolment, and a growing population.
2 oecd mihaylo bogota final
Forum: Reforms in Higher Education Bogota, 5-6 April 2011 Mihaylo Milovanovitch OECD Directorate for Education Programme for Co-operation with Non-Member Economies
34 OECD Members Australia (1971) Hungary (1996) Poland (1996) Austria (1961) Iceland (1961) Portugal (1961) Belgium (1961) Ireland (1961) Slovak Republic (2000) Canada (1961) Israel (2010) Slovenia (2010) Chile (2010) Italy (1961) Spain (1961) Czech Republic (1995) Japan (1964) Sweden (1961) Denmark (1961) Korea (1996) Switzerland (1961) Estonia (2010) Luxemburg (1961) Turkey (1961) Finland (1969) Mexico (1994) United Kingdom (1961) France (1961) Netherlands (1961) United States of America (1961) Germany (1961) New Zealand (1973) Greece (1961) Norway (1961)
Annual public expenditure per student in higher education relative to that in pre-tertiary education, 1995 and 2004 Source: OECD
Change in number of students and total per student expenditures from 1995 to 2004 (Index of change 1995 = 100) Source: OECD
Projected Tertiary Enrolments in 2025 under Recent Trends (2005=100) OECD (2008): Higher Education 2030, Vol. 1 Demography
Impact <ul><li>Growth of private higher education </li></ul><ul><li>Diversification of sources of funding </li></ul>
Evolution of share of private HE enrollments 1970-2006 Source: OECD (2009)
Diversification of funding Salmi and Hauptman (2006) in OECD: Higher Education 2030, Vol. 2 Globalisation
Funding and quality <ul><li>Link between budget and performance </li></ul><ul><li>Quality assurance systems </li></ul>
Funding and quality No performance criteria Performance-based criteria Negotiated allocations Competition for funding Mostly developing countries; Vouchers England Denmark Netherlands South Africa Norway Austria Chile Research funding ( e.g. innovation funds in Indonesia and Chile); Voucher grant system in Central Asia Need-based grants
Typology of quality assurance approaches in the OECD area
Elements of success? <ul><li>Transparency </li></ul><ul><li>Ownership and autonomy </li></ul><ul><li>Institutional and course level assessment </li></ul><ul><li>Combination of accreditation with assessment/audit </li></ul><ul><li>Consensus on quality standards </li></ul><ul><li>Follow-up mechanisms </li></ul>