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Ig2 task 1 work sheet (1)


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Ig2 task 1 work sheet (1)

  1. 1. Salford City College Eccles Sixth Form Centre BTEC Extended Diploma in GAMES DESIGN Unit 73: Sound For Computer Games IG2 Task 1 1 Produce a glossary of terms specific to the methods and principles of sound design and production. Using a provided template, you must research and gather definitions specific to provided glossary terms. Any definitions must be referenced with the URL link of the website you have obtained the definition. You must also, where possible, provide specific details of how researched definitions relate to your own production practice. Name: Brandon McNamara RESEARCHED DEFINITION (provide short internet researched definition and URL link) DESCRIBE THE RELEVANCE OF THE RESEARCHED TERM TO YOUR OWN PRODUCTION PRACTICE? SOUND DESIGN METHODOLOGY Foley Artistry Foley effects are sound effects added to the film during post production (after the shooting stops). They include sounds such as footsteps, clothes rustling, crockery clinking, paper folding, doors opening and slamming, punches hitting, glass breaking, etc. etc. In other words, many of the sounds that the sound recordists on set did their best to avoid recording during the shoot. Foley artistry is the practice I will be using to add most of my sounds to my game. It is useful as it allows me to have finer control as to when sounds occur. Sound Libraries A sample library is a collection of digital sound recordings, known as samples, for use by composers, arrangers, performers, and producers of music. The sound files are loaded into a sampler - either hardware or computer-based - which is then used to create music. Sample libraries appear in a variety of forms. My sample library will be used to create most of my sounds. It is full of sounds I have captured with audio equipment. SOUND FILE FORMATS Uncompressed Uncompressed audio files are the most accurate digital representation of a soundwave, but can also be the most resource-intensive method of recording and storing digital audio, both in terms of storage and management. Their accuracy makes them suitable for archiving and delivering audio at high resolution, and working with audio at a professional level, and they are the 'master' audio format of choice. Some of the sounds I will use are uncompressed allowing the sounds to be heard crisper and clearer than compressed.
  2. 2. Salford City College Eccles Sixth Form Centre BTEC Extended Diploma in GAMES DESIGN Unit 73: Sound For Computer Games IG2 Task 1 2 file-formats .wav Waveform Audio File Format (WAVE, or more commonly known as WAV due to its filename extension; rarely, Audio for Windows) is a Microsoft and IBM audio file format standard for storing an audio bitstream on PCs. It is an application of the Resource Interchange File Format bitstream format method for storing data in "chunks", and thus is also close to the 8SVX and the AIFF format used on Amiga and Macintosh computers, respectively. It is the main format used on Windows systems for raw and typically uncompressed audio. The usual bitstream encoding is the linear pulse-code modulation (LPCM) format. A lot of my sounds within my sound library are saved as .wav files. .aiff In terms of file size and quality, AIFF and WAV formats are fairly interchangeable. For you techno-junkies, the AIFF format results in an uncompressed PCM (pulse-code modulation) file meaning it still has relatively large file sizes, but maintains a higher quality of sound. Again, AIFF files offer a lot of flexibility in editing, copying, changing file formats, and other post- production activities. They are the Apple/Macintosh equivalent of WAV files, though both Windows PCs and Apple Macs will recognize either format. Some of my sounds are saved as .aiff as it allows them to be used clearer than .wav. .au The Au file format is a simple audio file format introduced by Sun Microsystems. The format was common on NeXT systems and on early Web pages. Originally it was headerless, being simply 8-bit µ-law-encoded data at an 8000 Hz sample rate. Hardware from other vendors often used sample rates as high as 8192 Hz, often integer factors of video clock signals. Newer files have a header that consists of six unsigned 32-bit words, an optional information chunk and then the data (in big endian format). I have not used .au sound files however they would be useful for compressed sounds where quality is not an issue.
  3. 3. Salford City College Eccles Sixth Form Centre BTEC Extended Diploma in GAMES DESIGN Unit 73: Sound For Computer Games IG2 Task 1 3 .smp A ".smp" file may be one of several different types of audio file. For example, it could be a SampleVision audio sample file. This 16-bit audio file was originally used by Turtle Beach SampleVision; you can open it with Adobe Auction, Sound Forge Pro or Awave Studio. It could also be a sample file for AdLib Gold, a PC sound card released in 1992; Scream Tracker, a mid- 1990s music editing program; or Swell. Reason, a music recording and production program, uses the ".smp" extension for sampler instrument patches. smp.html#ixzz31UO0RMGr I have also used no .smp files however I can see how they would be useful when working with specialized software. Lossy Compression In information technology, "lossy" compression is the class of data encoding methods that uses inexact approximations (or partial data discarding) for representing the content that has been encoded. Such compression techniques are used to reduce the amount of data that would otherwise be needed to store, handle, and/or transmit the represented content. The different versions of the photo of the dog at the right demonstrate how the approximation of an image becomes progressively coarser as more details of the data that made up the original image are removed. The amount of data reduction possible using lossy compression can often be much more substantial than what is possible with lossless data compression techniques. Lossy compression allows for relatively good quality sounds with relatively small files. .mp3 MPEG-1 or MPEG-2 Audio Layer III, more commonly referred to as MP3, is an encoding format for digital audio which uses a form of lossy data compression. It is a common audio format for consumer audio streaming or storage, as well as a de facto standard of digital audio compression for the transfer and playback of music on most digital audio players. .mp3 files are useful to me as several of my files are.mp3. This allows for high quality and low size sound files.
  4. 4. Salford City College Eccles Sixth Form Centre BTEC Extended Diploma in GAMES DESIGN Unit 73: Sound For Computer Games IG2 Task 1 4 AUDIO LIMITATIONS Sound Processor Unit (SPU) The SPU is the unit responsible for all aural capabilities of the psx. It handles 24 voices, has a 512kb sound buffer, has ADSR envelope filters for Each voice and lots of other features. The sup is important as it allows me to hear sounds on my computer. Digital Sound Processor (DSP) A digital signal processor (DSP) is a specialized microprocessor with an architecture optimized for the operational needs of digital signal processing. A high quality dsp allows for more clear and good sounds. Random Access Memory (RAM) Random-access memory (RAM) is a form of computer data storage. A random-access memory device allows data items to be read and written in roughly the same amount of time regardless of the order in which data items are accessed. In contrast, with other direct-access data storage media such as hard disks, CD-RWs, DVD-RWs and the older drum memory, the time required to read and write data items varies significantly depending on their physical locations on the recording medium. Without ram the computer wouldn’t work therefore it is fairly important to my work. Mono Audio Commonly called mono sound, mono, or non-stereo sound, this early sound system used a single channel of audio for sound output. In monophonic sound systems, the signal sent to the sound system encodes one single stream of sound and it usually uses just one speaker. Monophonic sound is the most basic format of sound output. Mono audio is useful for ambient sound as the same sound would be heard all around. Stereo Audio Stereo produces its spatial magic by creating the illusion that you are in the middle of a three-dimensional sound source. Stereo audio sounds clearer than mono and your brain can detect distance and depth better. These effects are more Stereo sound is useful for when sounds are more prominently on one side than another.
  5. 5. Salford City College Eccles Sixth Form Centre BTEC Extended Diploma in GAMES DESIGN Unit 73: Sound For Computer Games IG2 Task 1 5 pronounced in TVs or stereos that have speakers spaced widely apart. You can create quality stereo sound recordings by connecting two microphones to a recorder and placing them at different locations around your audio source. Increase the distance between the microphones to enhance the stereo effect. stereo-audio-38235.html Surround Sound Surround sound is a technique for enriching the sound reproduction quality of an audio source with additional audio channels from speakers that surround the listener (surround channels), providing sound from a 360° radius in the horizontal plane (2D) as opposed to "screen channels" (centre, [front] left, and [front] right) originating only from the listener's forward arc. Surround sound allows for a more immersive experience within sound design. Direct Audio (Pulse Code Modulation – PCM) Pulse-code modulation (PCM) is a method used to digitally represent sampled analog signals. It is the standard form of digital audio in computers, Compact Discs, digital telephony and other digital audio applications. In a PCM stream, the amplitude of the analog signal is sampled regularly at uniform intervals, and each sample is quantized to the nearest value within a range of digital steps. PCM allows me to analyse and edit sounds easily and effectively. AUDIO RECORDING SYSTEMS Analogue Analog (or analogue) recording is a technique used for the recording of analog signals which among many possibilities include audio frequency, analog audio and analog video information for later playback. Analog recording methods store signals as a continual wave in or on the media. The wave might be stored as a physical texture Most of my recordings were created using analogue recording.
  6. 6. Salford City College Eccles Sixth Form Centre BTEC Extended Diploma in GAMES DESIGN Unit 73: Sound For Computer Games IG2 Task 1 6 on a phonograph record, or a fluctuation in the field strength of a magnetic recording. This is different from digital recording of which among many possibilities include digital audio and digital video, which digital signals are represented as data or discrete numbers. Digital Mini Disc Different sizes of floppy disks are mechanically incompatible, and disks can fit only one size of drive. Drives with 3½-inch and 5¼-inch slots were available during the transition period between the sizes, but they contained two separate drive mechanisms. In addition, there are many subtle, usually software-driven incompatibilities between the two. 5¼-inch disks formatted for use with Apple II computers would be unreadable and treated as unformatted on a Commodore. As computer platforms began to form, attempts were made at interchangeability. For example, the "Superdrive" included from the Macintosh SE to the Power Macintosh G3 could read, write and format IBM PC format 3½-inch disks, but few IBM- compatible computers had drives that did the reverse. 8-inch, 5¼-inch and 3½-inch drives were manufactured in a variety of sizes, most to fit standardized drive bays. Alongside the common disk sizes were non-classical sizes for specialized systems. Knowing about digital mini discs is not particularly important regarding my work as they are outdated and defunct. Compact Disc (CD) Compact disc (CD) is a digital optical disc data storage format. The format was originally developed to store and play back sound recordings only (CD-DA), but was later adapted for storage of data (CD-ROM). Several other formats were further derived from these, including write-once audio and data storage (CD-R), rewritable media (CD-RW), Video Compact Disc (VCD), Super Video Compact Disc (SVCD), Photo CD, PictureCD, CD-i, and Enhanced Music CD. Audio CDs and audio CD players have been commercially available since October 1982. Compact discs are also not too relevand to my workas all of my work is stored on hard drives
  7. 7. Salford City College Eccles Sixth Form Centre BTEC Extended Diploma in GAMES DESIGN Unit 73: Sound For Computer Games IG2 Task 1 7 Standard CDs have a diameter of 120 millimetres (4.7 in) and can hold up to about 80 minutes of uncompressed audio or 700 MiB (actually about 703 MiB or 737 MB) of data. The Mini CD has various diameters ranging from 60 to 80 millimetres (2.4 to 3.1 in); they are sometimes used for CD singles, storing up to 24 minutes of audio or delivering device drivers. Digital Audio Tape (DAT) Digital Audio Tape (DAT or R-DAT) is a signal recording and playback medium developed by Sony and introduced in 1987. In appearance it is similar to a Compact Cassette, using 4 mm magnetic tape enclosed in a protective shell, but is roughly half the size at 73 mm × 54 mm × 10.5 mm. As the name suggests, the recording is digital rather than analogue. DAT has the ability to record at higher, equal or lower sampling rates than a CD (48, 44.1 or 32 kHz sampling rate respectively) at 16 bits quantization. If a digital source is copied then the DAT will produce an exact clone, unlike other digital media such as Digital Compact Cassette or non-Hi-MD Minidisc, both of which use a lossy data reduction system. Similar to compact discs and mini discs the digital audio tape is not relevant to my work MIDI MIDI is a technical standard that describes a protocol, digital interface and connectors and allows a wide variety of electronic musical instruments, computers and other related devices to connect and communicate with one another. A single MIDI link can carry up to sixteen channels of information, each of which can be routed to a separate device. MIDI carries event messages that specify notation, pitch and velocity, control signals for parameters such as volume, vibrato, audio panning, cues, and clock signals that set and synchronize tempo between multiple devices. These messages are sent to other devices where they control sound generation and other Most of the sound editing software i have used has used midi technology.
  8. 8. Salford City College Eccles Sixth Form Centre BTEC Extended Diploma in GAMES DESIGN Unit 73: Sound For Computer Games IG2 Task 1 8 features. This data can also be recorded into a hardware or software device called a sequencer, which can be used to edit the data and to play it back at a later time.[2]:4 Software Sequencers A music sequencer (or simply sequencer) is a device or application software that can record, edit, or play back music, by handling note and performance information in several forms, typically MIDI or CV/Gate, and possibly audio and automation data for DAWs and plug-ins. Most of the sounds I edit are edited in a software sequencer. Software Plug-ins In computing, a plug-in (or plugin, extension, or add-on) is a software component that adds a specific feature to an existing software application. When an application supports plug-ins, it enables customization. The common examples are the plug-ins used in web browsers to add new features such as search- engines, virus scanners, or the ability to utilize a new file type such as a new video format. Well-known browser plug-ins includes the Adobe Flash Player, the QuickTime Player, and the Java plug-in, which can launch a user-activated Java applet on a web page to its execution a local Java virtual machine. Some software plugins may be necessary in creating my sounds. MIDI Keyboard Instruments A MIDI keyboard is typically a piano-style user interface keyboard device used for sending MIDI signals or commands over a USB or MIDI cable to other devices connected and operating on the same MIDI protocol interface. This could also be a personal computer running software such as a digital audio workstation (DAW) that listens to and sends MIDI information to other MIDI devices connected by cable or running internal to the personal computer system. The basic MIDI keyboard does not produce sound. Instead, MIDI information is sent to an electronic module capable of reproducing an array of digital Midi keyboard instruments are how I will create a lot of sounds.
  9. 9. Salford City College Eccles Sixth Form Centre BTEC Extended Diploma in GAMES DESIGN Unit 73: Sound For Computer Games IG2 Task 1 9 sounds or samples that resemble traditional analog musical instruments. These samples or waveforms are also referred to as voices or timbres. AUDIO SAMPLING File Size Constraints - Bit- depth In digital audio using pulse-code modulation (PCM), bit depth is the number of bits of information in each sample, and it directly corresponds to the resolution of each sample. Examples of bit depth include Compact Disc Digital Audio, which uses 16 bits per sample, and DVD-Audio and Blu-ray Disc which can support up to 24 bits per sample. In basic implementations, variations in bit depth primarily affect the noise level from quantization error—thus the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and dynamic range. However, techniques such as dithering, noise shaping and oversampling mitigate these effects without changing the bit depth. Bit depth also affects bit rate and file size. This will prevent my work from having too high a bit depth in its final product. File Size Constraints - Sample Rate In signal processing, sampling is the reduction of a continuous signal to a discrete signal. A common example is the conversion of a sound wave (a continuous signal) to a sequence of samples (a discrete-time signal). A sample refers to a value or set of values at a point in time and/or space. A sampler is a subsystem or operation that extracts samples from a continuous signal. A theoretical ideal sampler produces samples equivalent to the instantaneous value of the continuous signal at the desired points. This will prevent my work from having too high a sample rate in its final product.
  10. 10. Salford City College Eccles Sixth Form Centre BTEC Extended Diploma in GAMES DESIGN Unit 73: Sound For Computer Games IG2 Task 1 10