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Preventing Youth Crime
Outline and evaluate strategies used by criminal agencies to control youth crime.
An estimate number of 10 to 17 yr olds in UK in 1999 was 2704392 males and 2561681 females. These young people represent of the general
population and are also often the group who elicit the most concern and discussion within local communities and the media. There is a big interest in
the consistent crimes in this age group, resulted in a lot of research being made.
Therefore this essay will be establishing research done by various criminal agencies that help to prevent youth crime occurring and evaluating this
research critically. Preventing youth crime before it happens is the first and best way to protect society. The Youth Justice Strategy
...show more content...
The Crown Prosecution Service is headed by the Director of Public Prosecutions (DPP), who reports to the Attorney General.
Other prosecuting authorities include the Serious Fraud Office, the Inland Revenue, Customs and Excise Commissioners, local authorities, and trading
standards departments, all of which will prosecute cases. Any Individual citizens can bring private prosecutions for most crimes, but some need the
consent of the Attorney General; these cases may be taken over by the DPP.
An Independent Inspectorate (HM Crown Prosecution Service Inspectorate) reports on the performance of the Crown Prosecution Service and the
prosecution Group of HM Customs and Excise.
In 2001, a unified National Probation Service for England and Wales was formed, which was led by a National Director, who reports directly to the
Home Secretary. The service supervises and watches offenders in the community, which is under direct court orders and being on release from custody
on licence. It also prepares reports for the courts to help with sentencing. Certain young offenders can be supervised by local authority social services
departments or youth offending teams.
HM Inspectorate of Probation has both an inspection and an advisory role, and also monitors any work that the Probation Service carries out in
conjunction with the voluntary and private sectors.
The prison service is
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The Importance Of Youth Crime Punishment
Even though a youth and a adult commit the same crime, every country punishes the youth less than the adult. Is that right? Youth crime accounted for
no small percent of the total crime. There were almost 101,000 youth aged 12 to 17 accused of Criminal Code violations (excluding traffic) reported
by police in 2014, resulting in a youth crime rate of 4,322 per 100,000 youth population. While youth make up 7% of the Canadian population, they
comprise 13% of persons accused of crime (Allen & Superle, 2016). Today, youth crime is characterized by a decline in the average age of criminal
juveniles, a tendency toward grouping, an increase in rebellion, and an increase in violent crime. Strengthening punishment for youth crime is a
complex issue. Some people argues that strengthening punishment can't reduce youth crime. Rather, they claim that government should lead youth the
right path through protection and education. However, youth crime punishment should be stricter than now. Youth crime punishment is weak now, so
the youth can underestimate the law and continue the crime. This essay will discuss about why youth crime punishment should be stricter than now.
There are three reasons such as youths commit crimes like adults, youths should learn that they are responsible for crime, and the punishment should be
strengthened even considering the victims. First of all, it's not right for youths to punish the same as adults because the youths are immature compared
to the adults. On the other hand, unlike the past, youths are easily accessible to the Internet and medias, so they are not much different from adults. In
the past, most children–committed crimes were accidental, but recent crimes are so detailed and well planned, showing that juveniles are aware of their
choices. For example, Robert Thompson and Jon Venables committed crimes more gruesome than most adults. The victim was 2–year–old James
Bulger, who was taken by the two boys while shopping with his mother. Robert and Jon then took the boy to a secluded area, threw paint in his eye,
beat him with bricks and stones, forced batteries into his mouth, and dropped a 22–pound iron onto his head (Liam, 2015). They have a motivation to
commit crimes, it means it's not
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Youth Crime Essay
Youth Gang Involvement
MET CJ/631–Youth Crime Problems
Boston University
Dr. Frank Carney
April 20, 2013
Abstract
Within the United States, youth involvement in gangs has become a serious problem for the future safety and security of the United States. The
following thesis explores the growing problem of youth involvement in gangs and attempts to understand the growing trend by exploring historical
facts and figures, policies and programs. Within the last half of a decade the number of gang members has risen to 1.4 million, an increase of nearly 40
percent and the number of youth gang themselves has stayed consistent at the high rate of disproportionate rate of 40 percent. This paper attempts
...show more content...
All 50 states now report gang problems within their jurisdictions (Howell, 2010, p. 2). Gangs are a serious problem because they are often involved in
a wide–range of criminal activities, often characterized by extreme violence. One of the primary concerns surrounding contemporary gangs is the large
number of juveniles that are involved in gang and the criminality that exists within these groups. A large number of the nations youth are ending up
traveling down this path to adulthood at an increasing rate. It is almost as if youth involvement in the gangs has become an acceptable model of
behavior within the juvenile population. The average age of gang members is also slowly increasing, indicating that juveniles who choose to enter
these gangs are staying involved with the gang longer, perhaps indicating that gang life has more to offer than meets the eye, socially and economically
(Siegel and Welsh, 2012, p. 332). These findings represent an ongoing and potentially serious problem not only for law enforcement officials and the
criminal justice system, but also for the safety and longevity of the United States. It is absolutely critical to the safety and security of this nation that
the problem of youth involvement in gangs be understood so that the necessary actions can be taken to prevent such an ideology from becoming a
norm within the American culture. Throughout the
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The Nature Of Youth Crime
Analysis of Findings
Question 1: What is the nature of youth crime in Australia?
Youth crime is the crime committed by juvenile offenders. It is the common issue in Australia. The age group between 14
–19 years old is the popular
group of youth crime. (News 2013) Different age groups commit different types of crimes. (The youth court 2009) Also, there are many kinds of crime
and crime method in the society, such as, drug offences, robbery, burglary, assault and violent offenses. The group of people who crime together that is
called criminal group. It is a prevalence crime method and it is effective for crime. This question will focus on what is youth crime, the change of youth
crime in recent year and the relationship between drug offences and the youth crime in Australia.
Firstly, some people believes that the youth crime still increases in recent years. (The Australian 2008) However, there is a little evidence show that a
decline when we look at the government statistics. Figure A illustrates that the juvenile and the adult offenders from 1996–97 to 2006–07.
Figure A: juvenile and the adult offenders
Source: Australian Institute of Criminology Statistics
As the figure show that, although it had slightly declined in recent years, the juvenile offence is twice as high as adult offences. Some experts of the
youth crime are not surprised for this result. For example, professor Mark Halsey from Flinders University said, "youth offenders could be split into
two groups. Most
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Argumentative Essay On Youth Crime
Within London in 2015 seven young people were fatally wounded by knives, often by other young people, who themselves will now spend
extensive periods within custody. This is not an issue that only affects London; in cities across the UK we now have a history of youth murders and
convicting those that are responsible. Society and the media have found a way to cope with the loss of children in such horrific circumstances by
putting their deaths down to violence within gangs and groups of teenagers. Generally, adults find comfort in rationalising youth violence by viewing
the children involved as "unruly groups", raised by parents who have failed and are probably involved in some form of criminality, shaping the actions
of their children. This is a limited and unhelpful view, of a complex and multivariate issue. My proposal is that whilst Youthcrime is often put down to
multiple causes, including: family environment, peer pressure, pre–disposition and neighbourhood. It is family environment that is the most significant
factor. Whilst the essay will consider the multiple causes or other drivers such as peer pressure, the case for family environment being the most
important factor is quantitatively and qualitatively compelling, and is subdivided into three key drivers – parental supervision and dicipline, parental
conflict and separation, socio–economic status. However, some may argue that children can be pre–disposed into carrying out crime or anti–social
behavior due to an
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Key Issues In Youth Crime
The key issues in the causes of crime is that there is not enough rehabilitation that can be utilized to ensure that past criminals would not convert back
to their old habits. Also, there could be more support for the past criminal. This would allow them to understand that they have help to ensure they are
continuing to be great citizen of the United States. Another key issue in the causes of crimes is that there is not enough program that will assist with
the life changes of the pass criminals. The key issues in youth crimes is that they need more guidance and support from people in the communities. The
more positive example youth have, the more the youth will grasp the qualities of those positive people. Also, a key issue is that the youth
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Youth Unemployment and Crime
The causes and consequences of youth unemployment in Australia has been of particular concern within both government and private sectors for many
years. According to the Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS), 10.9% of the total 15–24 age population was unemployed in September, 1995. This
figure climbed to 15.3% in September, 2003. This evidence gives cause to the growing concern surrounding the increase in youth unemployment. For
sizeable numbers of youth, its not going to get any easier to find work as they move into their twenties or complete education. Opinions such as those
found in the Smith Family Youth Unemployment Report (2003) hypothesise that juvenilecrime is directly connected to the high rates of youth
unemployment in...show more content...
For considerable numbers of young people it is not getting any easier to find work as they move into their twenties or complete education. According
to a study undertaken in 1995 by Wooden (1999) young people who just worked part–time represented 10% of the total 20–24 age group compared to
5.7% of teenagers. Altogether 215,000 young people were working part–time. Two–thirds of those working part–time wanted to work longer hours but
couldnВ№t find the work. So the total number unemployed or just working part–time equals 507,000 young people or 18.8% of the total 15–24
population or 26.2% of the 15–24 age labour force. It is this group as a whole that is at risk of being relegated to the margins of the labour force. A
further 163,000 young people had already dropped out of the labour force, a significant number of them discouraged by their attempt to find work. It is
also worth looking at where high rates of youth unemployment are concentrated. It is highest in regional centres and is disproportionately located in
the western suburbs of Sydney and Melbourne and outlying states such as South Australia. For example, in July 1997 52% of the young unemployed in
New South Wales were located in just four regions of outer Western Sydney, the Hunter Valley, the Illawarra and the north coast areas around the
Richmond and Tweed rivers (Wooden: 1999). In South Australia youth unemployment in AdelaideВ№s northern an southern
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The Evolution Of Youth Crime
Youth crime has vastly changed compared to how it was seen 10 years ago, and will likely be much different 10 years from today. Over the years,
types of crimes committed by youth have changed, and the overall seriousness of crimes has reduced over time as well (Carrington, 2013). These
changes in crime statistics can vastly change how police agencies respond and react to youth crime, and can often be misconstrued to make public feel
a state of moral panic. Youth are also becoming increasingly involved in gangs and gang violence, which is making police agencies think out of the
box to prevent violent victimization of youths in gangs. Through the process of evolution of youth crime, it is imperative that police agencies remain
vigilant, proactive, and aware of how they can intervene with at–risk youth and prevent them from becoming involved in criminal activities.
Seriousness and Exaggeration of Youth Crime Upon evaluation of four analyses and surveys used to evaluate the seriousness of crime between 1984
and 2011, it was evident that the crime has become less serious over the past years when applying the seriousness measurement scale from Statistics
Canada (Carrington, 2013, p. 308). Examples of this scale include first–degree murder carrying a measure of 7,042 points on the scale, and the other
end consisting of cannabis possession for 7 points (Carrington, 2013, p. 299). In between these values, Carrington points out that most crimes
committed by youth are on the lower
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Youth Crime
Sociological theories of youth crime
This essay will discuss the understanding of the sociological and psychological factors of youth crime. It will be agreeing and disagreeing in the above
statement
Youth crime is also known as juvenile delinquency, juvenile delinquency refers to criminal acts performed by juveniles. Most legal systems prescribe
specific procedures for dealing with juveniles, such as juvenile detention centres. There are a multitude of different theories on the cause of crime, most
if not all of which can be applied to the cause of youth crime. Youth crime is aspect of crime which receives great attention from the news media and
politicians. Crime committed by young people has risen since the mid– twentieth century,...show more content...
Preventing youth crime before it happens is the first and best way to protect society. The Youth Justice Strategy identifies prevention as one of its key
objectives. This new approach to youth crime also acknowledges that the law is only one part of the solution Вѕ some of the most effective responses
to crime lie outside the criminal justice system.
Crime and disorder remains an important concern for our communities. We know this from our own experiences and our knowledge is backed by the
2000 Crime Survey, where just over 8 in 10 people identified crime as a serious problem.
And although disorder may not involve criminal behaviour, the Scottish Household Survey has consistently reported that around 30% of respondents
think groups of young people hanging around to be a problem in their area. Over half of families living in council flats identified this as a problem.
Long–lasting strategies that address the causes of youth crime must involve a variety of individuals, organizations and governments in such areas as
crime prevention, child welfare, mental health, education, social services and employment. The Strategy supports the involvement of a broad range of
organizations that work with children. Families, communities and victims will also be more involved in addressing youth crime under the
government's new strategy.
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Essay On Youth Crime
Introduction
The criminal activities done by youth who are under age of eighteen is called youth crime. There are many types of crime which are done by youth.
Property crime, drug offences, violent crime, common assault, mischief, break and enter, sexual assault, robbery all are included in crimes that youth
mostly do. Mostly youth commit crime by involving more than one person. In this paper, I will discuss different type of crime that youth do, how
Parental status effect youth to commit a crime, how government and police handle the situation when youth commits the crime and how Good
education can help to prevent a youth for committing the crimes. Youth had a double crime rate than older adults aged 25 and over.
Discussion
To begin...show more content...
First, at the individual level, youth whose parents are single or divorced commit more crime. Second, single–parent and divorced families are more
vulnerable and less likely to participate in community organizations, thus reducing the community's control capacity. Third, these families are also less
able to monitor activities in the neighborhood and supervise local youth (Sampson and Groves, 1989; Veysey and Messner, 1999)"( Wong, S. K.
(2017). The effects of single–mother and single–father families on youth crime: Examining five gender–related hypotheses. International Journal Of
Law, Crime & Justice, 5046–60. doi:10.1016/j.ijlcj.2017.04.001). Single parent families increase the number of youth crime. Every mother and child
had a strong bond by the birth of the baby compares with the bond of father. Single mother applies more influence of social control on their children's
then single fathers. Mothers has more effective role in her daughter's life and father have a more effective role in his son's life. The girls who lives
with their mother and the boys who lives with their father commit less crimes. "A number of studies found support for the same–sex hypothesis. Based
on a study of over 600 adolescents and parents, Thomas et al. (1996) found that White male adolescents living with the single mother without
nonresident father involvement had the highest levels of delinquency, drinking and illicit drug use" (Wong, S. K. (2017). The effects of single–mother
and
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Impact Of Crime On Youth And Crime
Introduction
Youth crime to society is very normal to see and the neighborhoods' that children grow up in can have an effect on their development and behaviour for
the rest of their lives. Communities are typically evaluated by their socioeconomic status using three main factors: income, education, and occupation.
It is a status that is both economic and sociological combined totals that measures a person's work experience and economic and social position in
relation to others. A low socioeconomic neighborhood affects the overall human functioning, by lowering opportunities and privileges afforded to
people within society. They typically have a lower level of education and community services/ resources than high socioeconomic communities and this
can affect a youth's upbringing. Youthcrime is typically found more in low socioeconomic neighborhoods. Poverty, upbringing, neighbourhood (that the
youth grows up in), neglect and abuse increase a youth's risk of committing drug–related crimes in Canada/US. Some factors that influence this are,
environmental stressors, social pressure, low education and parents commit criminal behaviour themselves. Living in these types of communities, it can
affect the quality and environment of youth and how they manage and cope with life.
Poverty
Poverty is a reoccurring problem within many countries and many people are faced with this problem every day. Poverty is basically an individual
living below average of the community they are living
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Is Youth Crime A Problem To Society?
Is youth crime really a problem to society?
Young people have been a main focus in society. Since 1960 there has been an increase in youth crime which is the reason as to why there are major
adult concerns (Newburn, 2013). "Government became more harsh and intrusive in dealing with young people who were seen to be a problem"
(France, 2007, pg.19). Older generations perceive young people as having less morals and respect in comparison to what they did at their age
(Newburn, 2013). In particular, society views the youth of today as troublemakers, lazy, untrustworthy and unreliable. There are different theories that
provide an explanation between involvement in offending and different factors such as family factors and wider social factors which will be discussed
below.
There is debate whether youth crime is really a problem to society or just an issue that is constructed by society. It is argued that media has
influenced society's views on this matter by categorising young people as 'folk devils' (Banks, 2013). Certain groups, episodes and people that pose
a threat to society's values is when a moral panic takes place (Cohen, 1972). For example, this can be seen nowadays when there is no actual threat
but old people get intimidated when they see large groups of young people hanging about on streets. These influences led to policy change, increasing
the level of social control. This means that youth crime may be perceived as a moral panic rather than an actual problem.
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Youth and Crime
When today's youth commit crimes it is often the taxpayers that have to pay for it. In many cases, when the crimes include damage to property,
theft of personal belongings or merchandise the public are required to pay for the damages through taxes and raised prices in stores. When it comes
to theft, the public would be required to pay more money in the long run for a product that is often stolen due to the rate of loss on it. When it comes
to property damage we, the owners, are responsible for replacing what has been damaged and paying to replace or repair the item from our own
pockets, or to place claims using house or automobile insurance, causing our premiums to rise. Youthcrime rates seem to have been increasing over the
past...show more content...
The youth crime rate is currently lower than the adult rate of crime. This gives evidence to the idea that the government should be spending more time
worrying about how to solve the damage that is being created. Today's youth should be responsible for their own mistakes and should be punished by
either community service, repairing the damage or returning what they stole.
The general public seems to associate a wide variety of crimes with young people. Drug offenses were the most common response, with about one
quarter, followed in order by theft and stealing, vandalism, robbery, shoplifting and petty theft, murder, burglary, car theft and joy
–riding, shootings and
stabbings, and assault and battery. Overall, more respondents identified youth with non–violent crimes (drugs and property offenses such as theft and
burglary) than violent crimes. The public believes that youth who break the law will commit other crimes in the future, even if youth have no prior
record.
Toronto's past Mayor, Mayor Mel Lastman, came up with an innovative idea. He believes that creating different activities around the city for youths to
participate in would cut down the rate of crime in the city. These programs would cost nearly 4.5 million to create. The new programs would created a
mobile skating park that could be moved to different areas of the city were youth needed them the most and
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Rhetoric Of Youth Crime
This journal talks about the up to date political rhetoric and societies opinion on the topic of youth crime. In the article it states two critical societal
gauges, the first being social order," a society based on a persuasive and binding morality", therefore the most important threat is disorder (Hartnagel,
2004, pp. 358). Next in order is justice; "a society based on a fair and equitable distribution of power, wealth, prestige and privilege minority
(Hartnagel, 2004, pp.358). These two dialogues vary with whether order with justice or justice with order should be the controlling guideline. The
journal talked about a murder case that had a negative impact on the public and a few politicians requested a change in the Youth Offenders Act
(Hartnagel,...show more content...
In 1992, the demonstration expressed that youthful wrongdoers must be conveyed to adult court if the security of the general population and the youth
can not be met through Youth Offenders Act and raised the most extreme sentence for murder from three to five years (Hartnagel, 4004, pp. 361).
However, in 1995 the youth accused of a vicious offense went straight to adult court unless allowed an application expressing the individual can be
attempted in youth court, on the condition that there is proof that the trial would be of the best interest for the recovery of the youth and the security of
the overall public (Hartnagel, 2004, pp.361). Canadians believed due to survey and studies that the Youth Offenders Act is unsuccessful because youth
crime elevated over the years (Hartnagel, 2004, pp.364). The media has a huge impact on the public therefore, the article states that the media rarely
contains the correct information. General society believe what they read since the media is not completely true they are deceived, along these lines the
feelings on youth crime will keep on being contorted (Hartnagel, 2004,
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Incarceration of Youth
The United States leads the world in the incarceration of young people, there are over 100,000 youth placed in jail each year. Locking up youth has
shown very little positive impact on reducing crime. Incarcerating youth have posed greater problems such as expenses, limited education, lack of
employment, and effect on juveniles' mental and physical well–being. In today's society there has been an increase in the crimes committed by
juveniles. Most juveniles have underlining factors that have caused them to choose this type of lifestyle. Many children in the juvenile system have
come from impoverish stricken neighborhoods and are festered with gang activity which has made them a product of their environment. The minds of
adolescents do not allow them to see how they are affecting their lives. A study was conducted, and according to the article, "Adolescents in Adult
Court: Does the Punishment Fit the Criminal?", when children mature, they will look back at their past and possibly leave their surroundings. Think
about two people committing the same crime, both with the same thought process and ability to make decisions, except one is a juvenile and the other
is grown. Due to the lack of experience in decision–making or the time to evaluate the situation like the adult, the youth should be viewed as
irresponsible. The fact that a child's mind is still maturing should reassure people that they will not be the same person incarcerated a few years later.
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Youth Crime In Canada
Youth crime is an issue in Canada and it needs to be dealt with correctly. In Canada there is a law called the "youth criminal justice act", the purpose
of the YCJA is to hold youth accountable to their actions and give them meaningful consequences, as well as promote rehabilitation and reintegration
into society. Several studies show that a young person's brain and an adult's brain are not the same, therefore youth cases and adult cases must be
sentenced and dealt with differently. In this cartoon, it depicts a young child going through a pair of handcuffs labelled as "law", suggesting that the
YCJA is too easy for offenders to get through and it does not help them or society. The artist believes that the justice system does not punish youth
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Youth Crime
Through out history, sociologists have conjured different perspectives on society and social behavior, and from these observations sociological theories
have been established. This paper will be focusing on one of these theories, which is the symbolic interactionist perspective. According to symbolic
interactionist perspectives, society is the sum of the interactions of individuals and groups (Murray, Linden, & Kendall, 2011, p.20). These theorists
emphasize on the interaction between one another and the symbols that represent meaning in human communication. This paper will be exploring the
cause and effect of youth crime and analyzing this issue through a symbolic interactionist perspective. The Symbolic Interactionist Perspective...show
more content...
Other types of crime committed by youth involve gang related activity and possession of weapons. Evidence of gang involvement was reported by
police in 22% of homicides with a youth accused( Bressan & Taylor– Butts, 2008). Statistics Canada also emphasizes that Drug–related crimes among
youth have climbed dramatically over the last 10 years, with a rate of drug offences among youth in 2006 that was nearly double (+97%) that of 10
years earlier (Bressan & Taylor– Butts, 2008). This is a frightening and important statistic that needs to be addressed and should open people's eyes up
to the staggering amount of crimes that youth can commit. Differential Association During adolescence years, are usually when youth are breaking
away from their parents and may feel that they have little responsibility or social role. Adolescence at this time may believe that they have the mindset
that they have the knowledge to survive in society. This urge to be on their own leads to mislead choices that may lead to crime. Symbolic theorist,
Edwin Sutherland developed a theory that could explain how one may be more likely to commit a crime when exposed to it through social interaction."
Differential association theory states that individuals have a greater tendency to deviate from societal norms when they frequently associate with
persons who favor deviance over
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Speech On Youth Crime
Logically, when we talk about youth crimes every person in this world will either response good or bad reaction towards it. For instance, we can see
that youth crimes are spreading swiftly around the world and this problem should be the main concern among the society. Currently these days,
children at the age of 6 are already getting themselves involved in such a cruel act. What exactly is the meaning behind the word youth crime? Youth is
the period when young people between childhood and adult age is associated with vigor and immature feelings. Meanwhile, crime is an action that
although not illegal but it is considered to be outrage and wrong. Juvenile delinquency is the other word that is also famous in describing youth crime.
Hence, there...show more content...
This club will prevent them from getting involve in crime and let them know about how bad juvenile delinquency is. This club will also have
awareness on youth crime. There will be a session that involves counselor to give a talk on those who have or had been doing crime for a long
period of time. The session will mainly talk about the badness of youth crime, what are the after effects if they are too obsessed in doing offences and
let them know that there are people who succeed in their life with the background of a former criminal. People will not discriminate if they do not do
something stupid just to show them that doing youth crime is
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The Pros And Cons Of Youth Crime
3.1 Back on track
By going back directly to our topic I would like to talk about what happened in two of the biggest US states (for population) when they chose to deal
with youth crime differently.
Between 1996 and 2006 Texas increased the number of juveniles behind the bars by approximately 50%, mostly through severe sentences towards
non–violent crimes, property and drug offenders. On the other hand dramatically decreased the number of convicted youth by 75% trying to sentence
and imprison only the most violent criminals.
This resulted in Texas incarcerating more youth than California, even though the latter juvenile population is substantially bigger. These two
approaches can be used to see if tougher sentencing on youth can actually...show more content...
Of course, these strategies need to be intelligently balanced, in order to prevent cases like the one in Norway, that gives a completely different example
about prisons.
The proportion of criminal foreigners in Norwegian prisons has quadrupled in 14 years from 8.6% in 2000 to 34,2 % in 2014. The punishment level
and Norwegian prisons do not seem particularly deterrent to foreign criminals if we are to believe lawyers and police. In comparison with Norway,
inmates in Norwegian prisons are better off than the elderly in retirement homes. In prison, they have access to TV, Internet, and computers, and they
do not have to worry about food, beverages and warmth.
Basically, in Norway, and in other countries with these facilities, jail is not a "consequence". There is a possible basis for habit criminals to commit
new crimes. People who do not have either houses or food may decide to commit a crime in order to live a better life in prison. Those who are expelled
from Norway, return after a few days and will again be arrested for a new crime committed (Hopperstad, M.S. 2015).
This empirical evidence clearly tells us the hard work of making the
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Preventing Youth Crime

  • 1. Preventing Youth Crime Outline and evaluate strategies used by criminal agencies to control youth crime. An estimate number of 10 to 17 yr olds in UK in 1999 was 2704392 males and 2561681 females. These young people represent of the general population and are also often the group who elicit the most concern and discussion within local communities and the media. There is a big interest in the consistent crimes in this age group, resulted in a lot of research being made. Therefore this essay will be establishing research done by various criminal agencies that help to prevent youth crime occurring and evaluating this research critically. Preventing youth crime before it happens is the first and best way to protect society. The Youth Justice Strategy ...show more content... The Crown Prosecution Service is headed by the Director of Public Prosecutions (DPP), who reports to the Attorney General. Other prosecuting authorities include the Serious Fraud Office, the Inland Revenue, Customs and Excise Commissioners, local authorities, and trading standards departments, all of which will prosecute cases. Any Individual citizens can bring private prosecutions for most crimes, but some need the consent of the Attorney General; these cases may be taken over by the DPP. An Independent Inspectorate (HM Crown Prosecution Service Inspectorate) reports on the performance of the Crown Prosecution Service and the prosecution Group of HM Customs and Excise. In 2001, a unified National Probation Service for England and Wales was formed, which was led by a National Director, who reports directly to the Home Secretary. The service supervises and watches offenders in the community, which is under direct court orders and being on release from custody on licence. It also prepares reports for the courts to help with sentencing. Certain young offenders can be supervised by local authority social services departments or youth offending teams. HM Inspectorate of Probation has both an inspection and an advisory role, and also monitors any work that the Probation Service carries out in conjunction with the voluntary and private sectors. The prison service is Get more content on HelpWriting.net
  • 2. The Importance Of Youth Crime Punishment Even though a youth and a adult commit the same crime, every country punishes the youth less than the adult. Is that right? Youth crime accounted for no small percent of the total crime. There were almost 101,000 youth aged 12 to 17 accused of Criminal Code violations (excluding traffic) reported by police in 2014, resulting in a youth crime rate of 4,322 per 100,000 youth population. While youth make up 7% of the Canadian population, they comprise 13% of persons accused of crime (Allen & Superle, 2016). Today, youth crime is characterized by a decline in the average age of criminal juveniles, a tendency toward grouping, an increase in rebellion, and an increase in violent crime. Strengthening punishment for youth crime is a complex issue. Some people argues that strengthening punishment can't reduce youth crime. Rather, they claim that government should lead youth the right path through protection and education. However, youth crime punishment should be stricter than now. Youth crime punishment is weak now, so the youth can underestimate the law and continue the crime. This essay will discuss about why youth crime punishment should be stricter than now. There are three reasons such as youths commit crimes like adults, youths should learn that they are responsible for crime, and the punishment should be strengthened even considering the victims. First of all, it's not right for youths to punish the same as adults because the youths are immature compared to the adults. On the other hand, unlike the past, youths are easily accessible to the Internet and medias, so they are not much different from adults. In the past, most children–committed crimes were accidental, but recent crimes are so detailed and well planned, showing that juveniles are aware of their choices. For example, Robert Thompson and Jon Venables committed crimes more gruesome than most adults. The victim was 2–year–old James Bulger, who was taken by the two boys while shopping with his mother. Robert and Jon then took the boy to a secluded area, threw paint in his eye, beat him with bricks and stones, forced batteries into his mouth, and dropped a 22–pound iron onto his head (Liam, 2015). They have a motivation to commit crimes, it means it's not Get more content on HelpWriting.net
  • 3. Youth Crime Essay Youth Gang Involvement MET CJ/631–Youth Crime Problems Boston University Dr. Frank Carney April 20, 2013 Abstract Within the United States, youth involvement in gangs has become a serious problem for the future safety and security of the United States. The following thesis explores the growing problem of youth involvement in gangs and attempts to understand the growing trend by exploring historical facts and figures, policies and programs. Within the last half of a decade the number of gang members has risen to 1.4 million, an increase of nearly 40 percent and the number of youth gang themselves has stayed consistent at the high rate of disproportionate rate of 40 percent. This paper attempts ...show more content... All 50 states now report gang problems within their jurisdictions (Howell, 2010, p. 2). Gangs are a serious problem because they are often involved in a wide–range of criminal activities, often characterized by extreme violence. One of the primary concerns surrounding contemporary gangs is the large number of juveniles that are involved in gang and the criminality that exists within these groups. A large number of the nations youth are ending up traveling down this path to adulthood at an increasing rate. It is almost as if youth involvement in the gangs has become an acceptable model of behavior within the juvenile population. The average age of gang members is also slowly increasing, indicating that juveniles who choose to enter these gangs are staying involved with the gang longer, perhaps indicating that gang life has more to offer than meets the eye, socially and economically (Siegel and Welsh, 2012, p. 332). These findings represent an ongoing and potentially serious problem not only for law enforcement officials and the criminal justice system, but also for the safety and longevity of the United States. It is absolutely critical to the safety and security of this nation that the problem of youth involvement in gangs be understood so that the necessary actions can be taken to prevent such an ideology from becoming a
  • 4. norm within the American culture. Throughout the Get more content on HelpWriting.net
  • 5. The Nature Of Youth Crime Analysis of Findings Question 1: What is the nature of youth crime in Australia? Youth crime is the crime committed by juvenile offenders. It is the common issue in Australia. The age group between 14 –19 years old is the popular group of youth crime. (News 2013) Different age groups commit different types of crimes. (The youth court 2009) Also, there are many kinds of crime and crime method in the society, such as, drug offences, robbery, burglary, assault and violent offenses. The group of people who crime together that is called criminal group. It is a prevalence crime method and it is effective for crime. This question will focus on what is youth crime, the change of youth crime in recent year and the relationship between drug offences and the youth crime in Australia. Firstly, some people believes that the youth crime still increases in recent years. (The Australian 2008) However, there is a little evidence show that a decline when we look at the government statistics. Figure A illustrates that the juvenile and the adult offenders from 1996–97 to 2006–07. Figure A: juvenile and the adult offenders Source: Australian Institute of Criminology Statistics As the figure show that, although it had slightly declined in recent years, the juvenile offence is twice as high as adult offences. Some experts of the youth crime are not surprised for this result. For example, professor Mark Halsey from Flinders University said, "youth offenders could be split into two groups. Most Get more content on HelpWriting.net
  • 6. Argumentative Essay On Youth Crime Within London in 2015 seven young people were fatally wounded by knives, often by other young people, who themselves will now spend extensive periods within custody. This is not an issue that only affects London; in cities across the UK we now have a history of youth murders and convicting those that are responsible. Society and the media have found a way to cope with the loss of children in such horrific circumstances by putting their deaths down to violence within gangs and groups of teenagers. Generally, adults find comfort in rationalising youth violence by viewing the children involved as "unruly groups", raised by parents who have failed and are probably involved in some form of criminality, shaping the actions of their children. This is a limited and unhelpful view, of a complex and multivariate issue. My proposal is that whilst Youthcrime is often put down to multiple causes, including: family environment, peer pressure, pre–disposition and neighbourhood. It is family environment that is the most significant factor. Whilst the essay will consider the multiple causes or other drivers such as peer pressure, the case for family environment being the most important factor is quantitatively and qualitatively compelling, and is subdivided into three key drivers – parental supervision and dicipline, parental conflict and separation, socio–economic status. However, some may argue that children can be pre–disposed into carrying out crime or anti–social behavior due to an Get more content on HelpWriting.net
  • 7. Key Issues In Youth Crime The key issues in the causes of crime is that there is not enough rehabilitation that can be utilized to ensure that past criminals would not convert back to their old habits. Also, there could be more support for the past criminal. This would allow them to understand that they have help to ensure they are continuing to be great citizen of the United States. Another key issue in the causes of crimes is that there is not enough program that will assist with the life changes of the pass criminals. The key issues in youth crimes is that they need more guidance and support from people in the communities. The more positive example youth have, the more the youth will grasp the qualities of those positive people. Also, a key issue is that the youth Get more content on HelpWriting.net
  • 8. Youth Unemployment and Crime The causes and consequences of youth unemployment in Australia has been of particular concern within both government and private sectors for many years. According to the Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS), 10.9% of the total 15–24 age population was unemployed in September, 1995. This figure climbed to 15.3% in September, 2003. This evidence gives cause to the growing concern surrounding the increase in youth unemployment. For sizeable numbers of youth, its not going to get any easier to find work as they move into their twenties or complete education. Opinions such as those found in the Smith Family Youth Unemployment Report (2003) hypothesise that juvenilecrime is directly connected to the high rates of youth unemployment in...show more content... For considerable numbers of young people it is not getting any easier to find work as they move into their twenties or complete education. According to a study undertaken in 1995 by Wooden (1999) young people who just worked part–time represented 10% of the total 20–24 age group compared to 5.7% of teenagers. Altogether 215,000 young people were working part–time. Two–thirds of those working part–time wanted to work longer hours but couldnВ№t find the work. So the total number unemployed or just working part–time equals 507,000 young people or 18.8% of the total 15–24 population or 26.2% of the 15–24 age labour force. It is this group as a whole that is at risk of being relegated to the margins of the labour force. A further 163,000 young people had already dropped out of the labour force, a significant number of them discouraged by their attempt to find work. It is also worth looking at where high rates of youth unemployment are concentrated. It is highest in regional centres and is disproportionately located in the western suburbs of Sydney and Melbourne and outlying states such as South Australia. For example, in July 1997 52% of the young unemployed in New South Wales were located in just four regions of outer Western Sydney, the Hunter Valley, the Illawarra and the north coast areas around the Richmond and Tweed rivers (Wooden: 1999). In South Australia youth unemployment in AdelaideВ№s northern an southern Get more content on HelpWriting.net
  • 9. The Evolution Of Youth Crime Youth crime has vastly changed compared to how it was seen 10 years ago, and will likely be much different 10 years from today. Over the years, types of crimes committed by youth have changed, and the overall seriousness of crimes has reduced over time as well (Carrington, 2013). These changes in crime statistics can vastly change how police agencies respond and react to youth crime, and can often be misconstrued to make public feel a state of moral panic. Youth are also becoming increasingly involved in gangs and gang violence, which is making police agencies think out of the box to prevent violent victimization of youths in gangs. Through the process of evolution of youth crime, it is imperative that police agencies remain vigilant, proactive, and aware of how they can intervene with at–risk youth and prevent them from becoming involved in criminal activities. Seriousness and Exaggeration of Youth Crime Upon evaluation of four analyses and surveys used to evaluate the seriousness of crime between 1984 and 2011, it was evident that the crime has become less serious over the past years when applying the seriousness measurement scale from Statistics Canada (Carrington, 2013, p. 308). Examples of this scale include first–degree murder carrying a measure of 7,042 points on the scale, and the other end consisting of cannabis possession for 7 points (Carrington, 2013, p. 299). In between these values, Carrington points out that most crimes committed by youth are on the lower Get more content on HelpWriting.net
  • 10. Youth Crime Sociological theories of youth crime This essay will discuss the understanding of the sociological and psychological factors of youth crime. It will be agreeing and disagreeing in the above statement Youth crime is also known as juvenile delinquency, juvenile delinquency refers to criminal acts performed by juveniles. Most legal systems prescribe specific procedures for dealing with juveniles, such as juvenile detention centres. There are a multitude of different theories on the cause of crime, most if not all of which can be applied to the cause of youth crime. Youth crime is aspect of crime which receives great attention from the news media and politicians. Crime committed by young people has risen since the mid– twentieth century,...show more content... Preventing youth crime before it happens is the first and best way to protect society. The Youth Justice Strategy identifies prevention as one of its key objectives. This new approach to youth crime also acknowledges that the law is only one part of the solution Вѕ some of the most effective responses to crime lie outside the criminal justice system. Crime and disorder remains an important concern for our communities. We know this from our own experiences and our knowledge is backed by the 2000 Crime Survey, where just over 8 in 10 people identified crime as a serious problem. And although disorder may not involve criminal behaviour, the Scottish Household Survey has consistently reported that around 30% of respondents think groups of young people hanging around to be a problem in their area. Over half of families living in council flats identified this as a problem. Long–lasting strategies that address the causes of youth crime must involve a variety of individuals, organizations and governments in such areas as crime prevention, child welfare, mental health, education, social services and employment. The Strategy supports the involvement of a broad range of organizations that work with children. Families, communities and victims will also be more involved in addressing youth crime under the government's new strategy. Get more content on HelpWriting.net
  • 11. Essay On Youth Crime Introduction The criminal activities done by youth who are under age of eighteen is called youth crime. There are many types of crime which are done by youth. Property crime, drug offences, violent crime, common assault, mischief, break and enter, sexual assault, robbery all are included in crimes that youth mostly do. Mostly youth commit crime by involving more than one person. In this paper, I will discuss different type of crime that youth do, how Parental status effect youth to commit a crime, how government and police handle the situation when youth commits the crime and how Good education can help to prevent a youth for committing the crimes. Youth had a double crime rate than older adults aged 25 and over. Discussion To begin...show more content... First, at the individual level, youth whose parents are single or divorced commit more crime. Second, single–parent and divorced families are more vulnerable and less likely to participate in community organizations, thus reducing the community's control capacity. Third, these families are also less able to monitor activities in the neighborhood and supervise local youth (Sampson and Groves, 1989; Veysey and Messner, 1999)"( Wong, S. K. (2017). The effects of single–mother and single–father families on youth crime: Examining five gender–related hypotheses. International Journal Of Law, Crime & Justice, 5046–60. doi:10.1016/j.ijlcj.2017.04.001). Single parent families increase the number of youth crime. Every mother and child had a strong bond by the birth of the baby compares with the bond of father. Single mother applies more influence of social control on their children's then single fathers. Mothers has more effective role in her daughter's life and father have a more effective role in his son's life. The girls who lives with their mother and the boys who lives with their father commit less crimes. "A number of studies found support for the same–sex hypothesis. Based on a study of over 600 adolescents and parents, Thomas et al. (1996) found that White male adolescents living with the single mother without nonresident father involvement had the highest levels of delinquency, drinking and illicit drug use" (Wong, S. K. (2017). The effects of single–mother and Get more content on HelpWriting.net
  • 12. Impact Of Crime On Youth And Crime Introduction Youth crime to society is very normal to see and the neighborhoods' that children grow up in can have an effect on their development and behaviour for the rest of their lives. Communities are typically evaluated by their socioeconomic status using three main factors: income, education, and occupation. It is a status that is both economic and sociological combined totals that measures a person's work experience and economic and social position in relation to others. A low socioeconomic neighborhood affects the overall human functioning, by lowering opportunities and privileges afforded to people within society. They typically have a lower level of education and community services/ resources than high socioeconomic communities and this can affect a youth's upbringing. Youthcrime is typically found more in low socioeconomic neighborhoods. Poverty, upbringing, neighbourhood (that the youth grows up in), neglect and abuse increase a youth's risk of committing drug–related crimes in Canada/US. Some factors that influence this are, environmental stressors, social pressure, low education and parents commit criminal behaviour themselves. Living in these types of communities, it can affect the quality and environment of youth and how they manage and cope with life. Poverty Poverty is a reoccurring problem within many countries and many people are faced with this problem every day. Poverty is basically an individual living below average of the community they are living Get more content on HelpWriting.net
  • 13. Is Youth Crime A Problem To Society? Is youth crime really a problem to society? Young people have been a main focus in society. Since 1960 there has been an increase in youth crime which is the reason as to why there are major adult concerns (Newburn, 2013). "Government became more harsh and intrusive in dealing with young people who were seen to be a problem" (France, 2007, pg.19). Older generations perceive young people as having less morals and respect in comparison to what they did at their age (Newburn, 2013). In particular, society views the youth of today as troublemakers, lazy, untrustworthy and unreliable. There are different theories that provide an explanation between involvement in offending and different factors such as family factors and wider social factors which will be discussed below. There is debate whether youth crime is really a problem to society or just an issue that is constructed by society. It is argued that media has influenced society's views on this matter by categorising young people as 'folk devils' (Banks, 2013). Certain groups, episodes and people that pose a threat to society's values is when a moral panic takes place (Cohen, 1972). For example, this can be seen nowadays when there is no actual threat but old people get intimidated when they see large groups of young people hanging about on streets. These influences led to policy change, increasing the level of social control. This means that youth crime may be perceived as a moral panic rather than an actual problem. Get more content on HelpWriting.net
  • 14. Youth and Crime When today's youth commit crimes it is often the taxpayers that have to pay for it. In many cases, when the crimes include damage to property, theft of personal belongings or merchandise the public are required to pay for the damages through taxes and raised prices in stores. When it comes to theft, the public would be required to pay more money in the long run for a product that is often stolen due to the rate of loss on it. When it comes to property damage we, the owners, are responsible for replacing what has been damaged and paying to replace or repair the item from our own pockets, or to place claims using house or automobile insurance, causing our premiums to rise. Youthcrime rates seem to have been increasing over the past...show more content... The youth crime rate is currently lower than the adult rate of crime. This gives evidence to the idea that the government should be spending more time worrying about how to solve the damage that is being created. Today's youth should be responsible for their own mistakes and should be punished by either community service, repairing the damage or returning what they stole. The general public seems to associate a wide variety of crimes with young people. Drug offenses were the most common response, with about one quarter, followed in order by theft and stealing, vandalism, robbery, shoplifting and petty theft, murder, burglary, car theft and joy –riding, shootings and stabbings, and assault and battery. Overall, more respondents identified youth with non–violent crimes (drugs and property offenses such as theft and burglary) than violent crimes. The public believes that youth who break the law will commit other crimes in the future, even if youth have no prior record. Toronto's past Mayor, Mayor Mel Lastman, came up with an innovative idea. He believes that creating different activities around the city for youths to participate in would cut down the rate of crime in the city. These programs would cost nearly 4.5 million to create. The new programs would created a mobile skating park that could be moved to different areas of the city were youth needed them the most and Get more content on HelpWriting.net
  • 15. Rhetoric Of Youth Crime This journal talks about the up to date political rhetoric and societies opinion on the topic of youth crime. In the article it states two critical societal gauges, the first being social order," a society based on a persuasive and binding morality", therefore the most important threat is disorder (Hartnagel, 2004, pp. 358). Next in order is justice; "a society based on a fair and equitable distribution of power, wealth, prestige and privilege minority (Hartnagel, 2004, pp.358). These two dialogues vary with whether order with justice or justice with order should be the controlling guideline. The journal talked about a murder case that had a negative impact on the public and a few politicians requested a change in the Youth Offenders Act (Hartnagel,...show more content... In 1992, the demonstration expressed that youthful wrongdoers must be conveyed to adult court if the security of the general population and the youth can not be met through Youth Offenders Act and raised the most extreme sentence for murder from three to five years (Hartnagel, 4004, pp. 361). However, in 1995 the youth accused of a vicious offense went straight to adult court unless allowed an application expressing the individual can be attempted in youth court, on the condition that there is proof that the trial would be of the best interest for the recovery of the youth and the security of the overall public (Hartnagel, 2004, pp.361). Canadians believed due to survey and studies that the Youth Offenders Act is unsuccessful because youth crime elevated over the years (Hartnagel, 2004, pp.364). The media has a huge impact on the public therefore, the article states that the media rarely contains the correct information. General society believe what they read since the media is not completely true they are deceived, along these lines the feelings on youth crime will keep on being contorted (Hartnagel, 2004, Get more content on HelpWriting.net
  • 16. Incarceration of Youth The United States leads the world in the incarceration of young people, there are over 100,000 youth placed in jail each year. Locking up youth has shown very little positive impact on reducing crime. Incarcerating youth have posed greater problems such as expenses, limited education, lack of employment, and effect on juveniles' mental and physical well–being. In today's society there has been an increase in the crimes committed by juveniles. Most juveniles have underlining factors that have caused them to choose this type of lifestyle. Many children in the juvenile system have come from impoverish stricken neighborhoods and are festered with gang activity which has made them a product of their environment. The minds of adolescents do not allow them to see how they are affecting their lives. A study was conducted, and according to the article, "Adolescents in Adult Court: Does the Punishment Fit the Criminal?", when children mature, they will look back at their past and possibly leave their surroundings. Think about two people committing the same crime, both with the same thought process and ability to make decisions, except one is a juvenile and the other is grown. Due to the lack of experience in decision–making or the time to evaluate the situation like the adult, the youth should be viewed as irresponsible. The fact that a child's mind is still maturing should reassure people that they will not be the same person incarcerated a few years later. Get more content on HelpWriting.net
  • 17. Youth Crime In Canada Youth crime is an issue in Canada and it needs to be dealt with correctly. In Canada there is a law called the "youth criminal justice act", the purpose of the YCJA is to hold youth accountable to their actions and give them meaningful consequences, as well as promote rehabilitation and reintegration into society. Several studies show that a young person's brain and an adult's brain are not the same, therefore youth cases and adult cases must be sentenced and dealt with differently. In this cartoon, it depicts a young child going through a pair of handcuffs labelled as "law", suggesting that the YCJA is too easy for offenders to get through and it does not help them or society. The artist believes that the justice system does not punish youth Get more content on HelpWriting.net
  • 18. Youth Crime Through out history, sociologists have conjured different perspectives on society and social behavior, and from these observations sociological theories have been established. This paper will be focusing on one of these theories, which is the symbolic interactionist perspective. According to symbolic interactionist perspectives, society is the sum of the interactions of individuals and groups (Murray, Linden, & Kendall, 2011, p.20). These theorists emphasize on the interaction between one another and the symbols that represent meaning in human communication. This paper will be exploring the cause and effect of youth crime and analyzing this issue through a symbolic interactionist perspective. The Symbolic Interactionist Perspective...show more content... Other types of crime committed by youth involve gang related activity and possession of weapons. Evidence of gang involvement was reported by police in 22% of homicides with a youth accused( Bressan & Taylor– Butts, 2008). Statistics Canada also emphasizes that Drug–related crimes among youth have climbed dramatically over the last 10 years, with a rate of drug offences among youth in 2006 that was nearly double (+97%) that of 10 years earlier (Bressan & Taylor– Butts, 2008). This is a frightening and important statistic that needs to be addressed and should open people's eyes up to the staggering amount of crimes that youth can commit. Differential Association During adolescence years, are usually when youth are breaking away from their parents and may feel that they have little responsibility or social role. Adolescence at this time may believe that they have the mindset that they have the knowledge to survive in society. This urge to be on their own leads to mislead choices that may lead to crime. Symbolic theorist, Edwin Sutherland developed a theory that could explain how one may be more likely to commit a crime when exposed to it through social interaction." Differential association theory states that individuals have a greater tendency to deviate from societal norms when they frequently associate with persons who favor deviance over Get more content on HelpWriting.net
  • 19. Speech On Youth Crime Logically, when we talk about youth crimes every person in this world will either response good or bad reaction towards it. For instance, we can see that youth crimes are spreading swiftly around the world and this problem should be the main concern among the society. Currently these days, children at the age of 6 are already getting themselves involved in such a cruel act. What exactly is the meaning behind the word youth crime? Youth is the period when young people between childhood and adult age is associated with vigor and immature feelings. Meanwhile, crime is an action that although not illegal but it is considered to be outrage and wrong. Juvenile delinquency is the other word that is also famous in describing youth crime. Hence, there...show more content... This club will prevent them from getting involve in crime and let them know about how bad juvenile delinquency is. This club will also have awareness on youth crime. There will be a session that involves counselor to give a talk on those who have or had been doing crime for a long period of time. The session will mainly talk about the badness of youth crime, what are the after effects if they are too obsessed in doing offences and let them know that there are people who succeed in their life with the background of a former criminal. People will not discriminate if they do not do something stupid just to show them that doing youth crime is Get more content on HelpWriting.net
  • 20. The Pros And Cons Of Youth Crime 3.1 Back on track By going back directly to our topic I would like to talk about what happened in two of the biggest US states (for population) when they chose to deal with youth crime differently. Between 1996 and 2006 Texas increased the number of juveniles behind the bars by approximately 50%, mostly through severe sentences towards non–violent crimes, property and drug offenders. On the other hand dramatically decreased the number of convicted youth by 75% trying to sentence and imprison only the most violent criminals. This resulted in Texas incarcerating more youth than California, even though the latter juvenile population is substantially bigger. These two approaches can be used to see if tougher sentencing on youth can actually...show more content... Of course, these strategies need to be intelligently balanced, in order to prevent cases like the one in Norway, that gives a completely different example about prisons. The proportion of criminal foreigners in Norwegian prisons has quadrupled in 14 years from 8.6% in 2000 to 34,2 % in 2014. The punishment level and Norwegian prisons do not seem particularly deterrent to foreign criminals if we are to believe lawyers and police. In comparison with Norway, inmates in Norwegian prisons are better off than the elderly in retirement homes. In prison, they have access to TV, Internet, and computers, and they do not have to worry about food, beverages and warmth. Basically, in Norway, and in other countries with these facilities, jail is not a "consequence". There is a possible basis for habit criminals to commit new crimes. People who do not have either houses or food may decide to commit a crime in order to live a better life in prison. Those who are expelled from Norway, return after a few days and will again be arrested for a new crime committed (Hopperstad, M.S. 2015). This empirical evidence clearly tells us the hard work of making the Get more content on HelpWriting.net