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18.1 birds


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Class notes for 18.1: Birds.

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18.1 birds

  1. 1. 18.1 Birds<br />Page 367<br />
  2. 2. Bird Characteristics <br />Vertebrates<br />ENDOTHERMs<br />Organisms with a constant internal body temp.<br />Cells of body stay warm & work normally all the time<br />Only animals w/ feathers<br />Beaks, not teeth<br />Have wings<br />*Not all can fly!<br />Lay eggs w/ shells<br />
  3. 3. Origin of Birds <br />Earliest fossil of a bird found in 1861<br />Like a reptile: scales, jaws with teeth, claws on front limbs<br />Imprint of feathers<br />Evidence birds evolved from reptiles<br />
  4. 4. Diversity of BIRDS<br />Over 9,000 species of birds<br />4 Groups<br />Birds of prey<br />Perching birds<br />Water birds<br />Flightless birds<br />Each bird is adapted to eating a certain kind of food & living in a certain habitat<br />Lifestyle reflected in its:<br />Beak<br />Wings<br />Feet<br />
  5. 5. Birds of Prey<br />Eat mammals, fish, other birds<br />Sharp, hooked beaks to tear flesh<br />Claws for grasping<br />Examples:<br />Eagles<br />Hawks<br />Owls<br />Falcons<br />Vultures<br />Osprey<br />
  6. 6. Perching Birds <br />Insect eaters<br />Long, pointed beaks work like tweezers<br />Used as drills for boring into wood in search of insects<br />Examples:<br />Woodpeckers<br />Swifts<br />SEED EATERS<br />Thick, strong beak for cracking seeds<br />Examples: cardinal, blue jay, robin<br />
  7. 7. Flightless Birds <br />Lost ability to fly<br />Lifestyle makes flight unnecessary<br />Many are fast runners<br />Examples:<br />Ostrich<br />Rhea<br />Penguin<br />
  8. 8. Water Birds<br />Have a variety of beaks, wings, and feet<br />Many have webbed feet (swimming)<br />Some have long legs for wading<br />Some have long wings<br />Examples:<br />Flamingos<br />Storks<br />Swans<br />
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  21. 21. Flight Adaptations <br />Streamlined<br />Lightweight bones<br />Require large amounts of fuel<br />Bird’s body releases energy stored in food quickly & efficiently<br />Cells do this at much quicker rate than other animals<br />This process creates heat (ENDOTHERMS)<br />
  22. 22. Flight Adaptations<br />Vision<br />Avoid flying into things<br />See food from far away<br />Large eyes<br />Sharp vision<br />Muscles<br />Flying requires great muscular effort<br />Powerful flight muscles attached to large breastbone<br />
  23. 23. Flight Adaptations<br />Bones<br />Hollow, lightweight bones<br />Cross-supports inside bones for support<br />
  24. 24. Bird skeleton<br />
  25. 25. Flight Adaptations <br />Digestive System<br />Must take in large and steady amount of food<br />High Energy needs<br />CROP stores the food and releases it in steady stream for digestion<br />GIZARD grinds up food for easy digestion<br />
  26. 26. Bird digestion system<br />
  27. 27. Flight Adaptations<br />Air Supply<br />Special breathing system – provide blood with blood<br />In addition to lungs, birds have air sacks to increase amount of oxygen<br />Heart<br />4 chambered: keeps low and high oxygen blood separate<br />Provides flight muscles with oxygen<br />
  28. 28. Feathers<br />Needed to fly<br />Most feathers: CONTOUR feathers<br />Interlocking barbs<br />DOWN feathers: fluffier, traps layer of air next to body – heat, insulation<br />
  29. 29. Physics of flight<br />Flying made easer b/c wings provide LIFT<br />Wing shape is key<br />Upper surface of wing is rounded<br />Air takes longer to go around curved upper part than bottom flat surface<br />
  30. 30. Physics of flight<br />Air takes longer to go around curved upper part than bottom flat surface<br />Air above wing must move faster to cover distance in same amount of time<br />The different air speed above & below creates difference in air pressure<br />Pressure under wing HIGHER<br />Thus, more force pushing UP (under wing) than DOWN (on top of wing)<br />Results in lift<br />
  31. 31. migration<br />Why? Cold & shortage of food<br />MIGRATE: move to different place during part of every year<br />Many travel same routes every year<br />
  32. 32. reproduction<br />Similar to reptiles<br />Eggs fertilized in female body<br />Eggs must stay warm – have to INCUBATE<br />Many species - male & female take turns <br />one finds food, one incubates<br />Attachment b/n male & female called Pair-Bonds<br />
  33. 33. Bird eggs<br />Hard shell<br />Keeps embryo from being crushed during incubation<br />Bird egg contains:<br />ALBUMEN & YOLK – provides food for embryo<br />