Slideshare presantation
“Science is the Great Instrument
of Social Change.”
Arthur Balfour
Social Science
Social

Science

 relating to human society and

 the study of the physical and

how it is organized.

na...
5 primary Social Sciences:
 Anthropology
 Sociology

 Political Science
 Geography

 Psychology
Anthropology
 The study of humankind in all is aspects: culture and

development.
Sociology
 The study of the origin, development, and structure of

human societies and the behavior of individual people
...
Political Science
 the study of political organizations and institutions,

especially governments.
Geography
 The study of all the physical features of the Earth's

surface, including its climate and the distribution of
...
Psychology
 The scientific study of the human mind and mental

states, and of human and animal behavior.
ACTIVITY
University of the Witwatersrand, Author
Feedback session, 7th October, 2010

Caroline Long, Centre for Evaluation and
Asse...
Curriculum
 Re-packaging the NCS curriculum?
 Will this strategy solve the problem of learning and teaching

mathematics...
Level
Levels of Description Examples & Van Africa Akker, 2009)
curriculum (Thijs South den
Supra
Macro

Meso

Internationa...
Key transitions from Grade 6 to 10 (Usiskin, 2005)
 These are amongst others, from;
 whole number to real number;



...
What does research tell us?
 Kieren tradition – analysis of mathematical concepts, investigates

acquisition by learners ...
Proportional reasoning
 Capstone of primary school and cornerstone of
high school (Lesh et al, 1988)
 Children have intu...
Percentage
 Problems with percentage related to ONLY teaching

part-whole understanding of fraction
 Covers the differen...
Further comments
 Rational number, ratio and rate
 Grades 7, 8 – ratio and rate (one week, no progression

indicated)
 ...
Conclusion
 Development of a curriculum takes time
 Key research must be considered as in the alternative curriculum

(p...
Overview of
South Africa
To allow us to better
empathize with conditions in
Ocean View
A satellite picture of Africa at
night. . . What does the light, or
lack thereof, tell you about
Africa?
Photo Citation: b...
Coastline and Forest

The Sahel Region

Western Africa Landforms and Climate
The Sahara Desert

The Savanna
South Africa’s economy is the largest
and most developed in Africa (28thlargest in the world)
People are well off in many ...
Early history of
South Africa
South Africa today has 11
official languages.
The three most spoken
languages at home are
Zulu (22.7%), Xhosa
(16.0%), and...
How did this mix come about?
Let’s zoom out
to get some context
about the entire
continent of Africa
Berlin Conference of 1885
How did this mix come about?
Indigenous African groups
Zulu
Xhosa
Khoikhoi
San
Plus:
Dutch (Boers)
British Empire

And… slaves from
Madagascar
Malaysia...
Apartheid (separateness)
1948-1994
See this presentation
for some background
on Apartheid
http://www.slideshare.net/urse1515/apartheid-7910528
Photo Wendy North
2009
What?

5 W’s and How

Where?

Why?

When?

How?

Who?
We tend to assume that pictures are easy to
understand, requiring little skill, and we often take it
for granted that chil...
Where?
Where was the market image
taken?
Course Outcomes
Aim: to create ICT resources that
are adapted to the needs of your
children and your school
1. Adapt the i...
Put
Yourself in
the Picture
What do
you see,
hear,
smell
and
feel?
Photo Wendy North 2009
Chembakolli – a village in
India

First of all we did some
focused activities in the
classroom that helped us
develop usin...
We followed this by using
`freeze framing’ to help us
take on the role of a character
in the photograph. See our
photograp...
Sieving concrete
I can see some trees gently
brushing against each other,
my friends working hard.

the muddy floor
I can ...
Viking
Traders
What
would
you
?
What
would
you
?

Painting by Mark Bergin,
… The daily Life of the
Vikings, p. 17
ISBN 0 7...
Putting Yourself in the Picture

What do
you see,
hear, smell
and feel?

I can see
…
Conversation between Characters
This photograph was taken during World War 2. What might these
men be saying to one anothe...
Visual Literacy
Visual literacy can be compared alongside text
based`literacy’ in that they both employ similar
processes:...
Visual Literacy
How often do we focus on developing pupils’ skills of
reading and interpreting images as opposed to
develo...
Understanding both print and visual sources
depends on:
 Observation (based on the use of all the senses)
 Prediction
 ...
Looking, thinking & finding out
Observation
Senses sheet

Deduction/ Supposition
Conversation between
characters
Evaluatin...
Your turn
ACTIVITY 2
Using

Images
Histor
y
Geography
What items would we include in the
category of image?
 A picture
 A photograph
 A graphic
 A diagram

 A map
 … or a...
What is meant by an image
 The perception of places that are inside our heads that

derive from our experiences, both dir...
Why do we use images?
 To help to develop a `sense of place’
 To foster enquiry skills
 To improve visual literacy
 To...
Geography
I want to
 help children understand that there are many ways
to live in the world and to be happy and fulfilled...
Histor
y

The Nuffield History Project view
 We all come out of the past, and what happened there
influences what happens...
What can you work out from the
photograph?
What do you know for certain?

What questions would you like to ask?
The skill of looking at,
understanding and interpreting
pictures has to be taught through
planned directed study.
Margaret...
References
All slides are originally from Slideshare.com
Accessed on 7/ March/ 2014


Geoprimary. 2009. In the Picture: d...
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  • Green lines are Khoikhoi – some of the early settlers. Other early settlers are the San people. The merger between Khoikhoi and San was known as the Khoisan people. The orange lines are the Bantu-speaking people, who came in later. Other groups include Zulu (in purple), BaSotho (in yellow), and Swazi (in dark green just north of the Zulu, in purple). The blue lines in the south show the Dutch (and French and German) Trekboers fleeing the British, who had more men and weapons.
  • Green lines are Khoikhoi – some of the early settlers. Other early settlers are the San people. The merger between Khoikhoi and San was known as the Khoisan people. The orange lines are the Bantu-speaking people, who came in later. Other groups include Zulu (in purple), BaSotho (in yellow), and Swazi (in dark green just north of the Zulu, in purple). The blue lines in the south show the Dutch (and French and German) Trekboers fleeing the British, who had more men and weapons.
  • Pfs ss 131004160005-phpapp01

    1. 1. Slideshare presantation
    2. 2. “Science is the Great Instrument of Social Change.” Arthur Balfour
    3. 3. Social Science Social Science  relating to human society and  the study of the physical and how it is organized. natural world and phenomena, especially by using systematic observation and experiment.
    4. 4. 5 primary Social Sciences:  Anthropology  Sociology  Political Science  Geography  Psychology
    5. 5. Anthropology  The study of humankind in all is aspects: culture and development.
    6. 6. Sociology  The study of the origin, development, and structure of human societies and the behavior of individual people and groups in society.
    7. 7. Political Science  the study of political organizations and institutions, especially governments.
    8. 8. Geography  The study of all the physical features of the Earth's surface, including its climate and the distribution of plant, animal, and human life.
    9. 9. Psychology  The scientific study of the human mind and mental states, and of human and animal behavior.
    10. 10. ACTIVITY
    11. 11. University of the Witwatersrand, Author Feedback session, 7th October, 2010 Caroline Long, Centre for Evaluation and Assessment, (CEA)
    12. 12. Curriculum  Re-packaging the NCS curriculum?  Will this strategy solve the problem of learning and teaching mathematics?  Curriculum – a document of central importance  It influences the mathematical experiences of children have through the guidance and support for teachers.  It should include the best that mathematics education research has to offer.  For example: Rational Number Project has done extensive analysis applicable at all levels.  Responsibility for the curriculum  Mathematicians together with mathematics education specialist and specialist teachers for sound knowledge base – the substantive aspect of the curriculum.  Teachers are responsible for the technical-professional implementation of the curriculum.  Cycles of review and piloting are essential
    13. 13. Level Levels of Description Examples & Van Africa Akker, 2009) curriculum (Thijs South den Supra Macro Meso International Common core principles System, Core objectives, national attainment levels, Examinations School Mathematics programmes for an entire school Micro Classroom, teacher Nano Learner Teaching plan, instructional materials, textbooks Personal plan for learning Reference to TIMSS Frameworks, NCTM frameworks, etc. Broad ideas that are agreed on, the highest requirements, lasting principles, based on mathematically guided research There is expertise among school mathematics departments. ONLY if the MPC can produce a better document than teachers should this role be taken away from the teachers. Planning is an essential component of teaching. It is in the planning that the teacher consolidates her thoughts and makes specific decisions regarding her class. In the higher grades and in some schools this level may be taken seriously. We do not expect the teacher to have a laid out plan for individual learners.
    14. 14. Key transitions from Grade 6 to 10 (Usiskin, 2005)  These are amongst others, from;  whole number to real number;      number to variable; from patterns to functions; inductive arguments to deductive arguments; from informal description to formal definition of mathematics ideas; from a view of mathematics as a set of memorized facts to seeing mathematics as interrelated ideas accessible through a variety of means. p. 4.  Because learners have not made these transitions they are  "forced to memorize their way through algebra and geometry and functions";  "expected to think formally but they do not know what this [thinking] means";  "assumed to understand the properties of real numbers, but they are still thinking in terms of whole numbers" (p. 4).
    15. 15. What does research tell us?  Kieren tradition – analysis of mathematical concepts, investigates acquisition by learners and conducts teaching design experiments with implications for instruction  Kieren (1976). On the mathematical, cognitive and instructional foundations of rational numbers.  Children learn from their total experience and they bring their observations and learning to the classroom.  Learning in the early grades affects the understanding of later concepts  for example the early teaching of fractions as only part of a whole ONLY, interferes with later understanding of a concept such as percentage increase.  Learners can be taught a procedure, but they do not necessarily remember it in the way it was taught and neither can they apply the procedure correctly when confronted with a parallel problem (Hart, 1981; 1984).
    16. 16. Proportional reasoning  Capstone of primary school and cornerstone of high school (Lesh et al, 1988)  Children have intuitive understanding of proportional reasoning – this has to be developed starting from FP  Levels of cognitive development and levels of complexity are to be found in research  Qualitative reasoning precedes quantitative reasoning  Lack of fluency with proportional reasoning seen as one on the reasons for failure at tertiary level
    17. 17. Percentage  Problems with percentage related to ONLY teaching part-whole understanding of fraction  Covers the different notions underpinning rational number, and has additional complexity  See Parker & Leinhardt, (1995). Percent: a privileged proportion
    18. 18. Further comments  Rational number, ratio and rate  Grades 7, 8 – ratio and rate (one week, no progression indicated)  Grades 9 – ratio and rate (one week), add direct and indirect proportion (one week)  Rational number concept built up through experiences with common fractions, decimal fractions, ratios, rate, throughout the year.  Develop an understanding the rational number can have different representations.  No mention of proportional reasoning (see Lampen document)
    19. 19. Conclusion  Development of a curriculum takes time  Key research must be considered as in the alternative curriculum (previous slide)  Mathematicians and mathematics education specialists are responsible for substantive aspects.  Teachers for implementation of technical- professional aspects.  Next steps towards planning the mathematical future of our children require radical redirection.
    20. 20. Overview of South Africa To allow us to better empathize with conditions in Ocean View
    21. 21. A satellite picture of Africa at night. . . What does the light, or lack thereof, tell you about Africa? Photo Citation: bcnn5.com
    22. 22. Coastline and Forest The Sahel Region Western Africa Landforms and Climate The Sahara Desert The Savanna
    23. 23. South Africa’s economy is the largest and most developed in Africa (28thlargest in the world) People are well off in many parts of South Africa, although poverty and inequality remain widespread. About a quarter of the population is unemployed and lives on less than $1.25 a day
    24. 24. Early history of South Africa
    25. 25. South Africa today has 11 official languages. The three most spoken languages at home are Zulu (22.7%), Xhosa (16.0%), and Afrikaans (13.5%). English is the language of commerce & science, but was spoken by only 9.6% of South Africans at home in 2011.
    26. 26. How did this mix come about?
    27. 27. Let’s zoom out to get some context about the entire continent of Africa
    28. 28. Berlin Conference of 1885
    29. 29. How did this mix come about?
    30. 30. Indigenous African groups Zulu Xhosa Khoikhoi San Plus: Dutch (Boers) British Empire And… slaves from Madagascar Malaysia (Muslim) India Sri Lanka Other parts of Africa Angola and Guinea
    31. 31. Apartheid (separateness) 1948-1994
    32. 32. See this presentation for some background on Apartheid http://www.slideshare.net/urse1515/apartheid-7910528
    33. 33. Photo Wendy North 2009
    34. 34. What? 5 W’s and How Where? Why? When? How? Who?
    35. 35. We tend to assume that pictures are easy to understand, requiring little skill, and we often take it for granted that children see what they are asked to look at and that they see what we see in pictures. Margaret Mackintosh
    36. 36. Where? Where was the market image taken?
    37. 37. Course Outcomes Aim: to create ICT resources that are adapted to the needs of your children and your school 1. Adapt the ideas shared during the day to make them work for your school, your children and the kind of curriculum that you want to teach. This means you will be using ICT frames to create your own personalised resource. 2. Share the resource you have developed with one or more teachers during the final session
    38. 38. Put Yourself in the Picture What do you see, hear, smell and feel?
    39. 39. Photo Wendy North 2009
    40. 40. Chembakolli – a village in India First of all we did some focused activities in the classroom that helped us develop using four of our five senses. In this way we learnt that we could describe a place with lots of details and it helped us to bring the place to life through words.
    41. 41. We followed this by using `freeze framing’ to help us take on the role of a character in the photograph. See our photographs on the right. CAN YOU WORK OUT WHICH FREEZE FRAME SHOWS … ? friends village school writing sieving concrete the way home
    42. 42. Sieving concrete I can see some trees gently brushing against each other, my friends working hard. the muddy floor I can hear the slight breeze shaking and rattling the trees my friends talking to me, telling me some things they are going to have for their tea. I can feel the soft blue powder the rough and hard wood. my bracelet tickling my arm. I can smell the misty air that blocked my nose. the moss on the trees and the dead leaves. Photograph from Action Aid http://www.chembakolli.com/ Words: Y4 Waterton J & I Leah
    43. 43. Viking Traders What would you ? What would you ? Painting by Mark Bergin, … The daily Life of the Vikings, p. 17 ISBN 0 7502 3580 2
    44. 44. Putting Yourself in the Picture What do you see, hear, smell and feel? I can see …
    45. 45. Conversation between Characters This photograph was taken during World War 2. What might these men be saying to one another?
    46. 46. Visual Literacy Visual literacy can be compared alongside text based`literacy’ in that they both employ similar processes: identifying  decoding  interpreting 
    47. 47. Visual Literacy How often do we focus on developing pupils’ skills of reading and interpreting images as opposed to developing these skills with text based sources. Margaret Mackintosh
    48. 48. Understanding both print and visual sources depends on:  Observation (based on the use of all the senses)  Prediction  Deduction /supposition  Narrative skills
    49. 49. Looking, thinking & finding out Observation Senses sheet Deduction/ Supposition Conversation between characters Evaluating evidence – What do I know for certain? (definite, possibly, probably true) http://www.geography.org.uk/eyprimary/visualgeogr aphy/researchframes
    50. 50. Your turn ACTIVITY 2
    51. 51. Using Images Histor y Geography
    52. 52. What items would we include in the category of image?  A picture  A photograph  A graphic  A diagram  A map  … or a collection of them Chris Durbin, former geography inspector/adviser Staffordshire LA
    53. 53. What is meant by an image  The perception of places that are inside our heads that derive from our experiences, both direct and indirect.  The messages given by a single source or by a collection of sources.  These may be photographs, diagrams or maps but they can also be written accounts. Chris Durbin, former geography inspector/adviser Staffordshire LA
    54. 54. Why do we use images?  To help to develop a `sense of place’  To foster enquiry skills  To improve visual literacy  To improve critical literacy  We use them together to help children to become better learners (of geography and history).
    55. 55. Geography I want to  help children understand that there are many ways to live in the world and to be happy and fulfilled.  BUT also to understand that the unequal distribution of wealth and resources means that some people live very hard and difficult lives.
    56. 56. Histor y The Nuffield History Project view  We all come out of the past, and what happened there influences what happens here and now – we need to know so we can understand the world today.  Through history, we can lead children to understand how human beings behave and why people act as they do.  By getting inside the past, we can lead children to respect and value each different period and society in its own terms. http://www.nuffieldfoundation.org/primaryhistory/
    57. 57. What can you work out from the photograph? What do you know for certain? What questions would you like to ask?
    58. 58. The skill of looking at, understanding and interpreting pictures has to be taught through planned directed study. Margaret Mackintosh Chapter 9, Primary Geography Handbook (2004) ISBN 1-84377-103-9
    59. 59. References All slides are originally from Slideshare.com Accessed on 7/ March/ 2014  Geoprimary. 2009. In the Picture: developing visual literacy through geography and history  Long, C. 2010. Senior phase comments. University of the Witwatersrand,Centre for Evaluation and Assessment, (CEA)   Stefphoney Grinage. 2013. Social science (Teacher at Sacred Heart College) SteveTLC.2013. South Africa and Apartheid  Rebecca Subert . 2012. Geography: Geography of Africa Further references:  http://www.slideshare.net/urse1515/apartheid-7910528  http://www.geographyteachingtoday.org.uk/ks1-3-courses/course/primary-geography-andict/Association – Visual Geography  http://www.geography.org.uk/eyprimary/visualgeography/  http://www.wakefieldinset.wakefield.yhgfl.net/mydesktop/

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