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PIPE SYSTEMS1

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  • DRAWING OF ONE PIPE SYSTEM
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PIPE SYSTEMS1

  1. 1. BUILDING DRAINAGE SANITARY SYSTEM
  2. 2. BUILDING SANITARY DRAINAGE SYSTEMS  TWO-PIPE SYSTEM - INDPENDENT STACKS FOR SOIL AND WASTE WATER WITH ASP.  ONE-PIPE SYSTEM- COMBINED STACK FOR SOIL AND WASTE WATER WITH ANTI SIPHONAGE PIPE.  SINGLE STACK SYSTEM- COMBINED STACK FOR SOIL AND WASTE WATER WITH OUT ANTI SIPHONAGE PIPE.  SINGLE STACK(PARTIALLY VENTILATED) SYSTEM- VIA MEDIA BETWEEN ONE PIPE AND SINGLE STACK. ONLY SOIL TRAPS ARE VENTILATED.
  3. 3. TWO PIPE SYSTEM
  4. 4. ONE PIPE SYSTEM
  5. 5. SINGLE STACK SYSTEM
  6. 6. CHOICE OF PLUMBING SYSTEM AS PER SP:35 (S&T)-1987  TWO PIPE SYSTEM IS AGE OLD AND SAFE SYSTEM. ADVANTAGEOUS WHERE WASTE WATER IS RECYCLED FOR USE IN GARDENING ETC. NOT RELEVANT IN THE CASE OF JAYPEE GREENS.  REASONING BEHIND THE SEGREGATION OF THE SOIL AND WASTE STACKS HAS BEEN TO PUT SECOND LINE OF DEFENCE IN THE FORM OF TRAPPED GULLY AGAINST PASSAGE OF SEWER AIR INTO THE BUILDING VIA WASTE FIXTURES.  THIS WAS CONSIDERED A SERIOUS DEFECT SINCE THE FOUL AIR FROM WASTE PIPE INTO A BUILDING MAY BE AS OBJECTIONABLE AS FOUL AIR FROM SOIL PIPE. IT WAS CONSIDERED THAT THERE IS NO SECOND LINE OF DEFENCE AND SEPARATE PIPE FOR WASTE WATER IS NOT REQUIRED.  ONE PIPE SYSTEM IS TO BE PREFERRED WHERE BUILING PROVIDES FOR SUITABLE GROUPING OF ALL SOIL AND WASTE APPLIANCES AND WHERE ALL TYPES OF WATERS ARE TAKEN TO A COMMON SEWER TO THE PLACE OF DISPOSAL OR TREATMENT.  TRAP SEAL OF 40MM AND 50 MM FOR WASTE AND SOIL WATER RESPECTIVELY CONSIDERED SUFFICIENT SAFEGUARD.
  7. 7. CHOICE OF PLUMBING SYSTEM AS PER SP:35 (S&T)-1987 CONTD….  IN ADDITION FOLLOWING SAFEGUARDS ARE TO BE TAKEN:-  EACH WASTE PIPE CONNECTED ABOVE SOIL BRANCH TO COMMON STACK.  ALL TRAPS SHALL BE VENTILATED BY LOOP VENTS BY A PIPE NOT LESS THAN 50MM DIA.  MODERN TREND IS TO GO IN FOR PARTIALLY VENTILATED ONE PIPE OR SINGLE STACK SYSTEM.  IN HIGH RISE BUILDINGS, PARTIALLY VENTILATED ONE PIPE OR SINGLE STACK SYSTEM IS BEING USED WHERE VENT STACK IS CONNECTED TO THE DRAINAGE STACK OR THE SOIL APPLIANCES AT EACH OR ALTERNATE FLOOR. FOLLOWING SAFEGUARDS TO BE TAKEN IS SUCH A SYSTEM:  VERTICAL DISTANCE BETWEEN WASTE BRANCH AND SOIL BRANCH SHALL NOT BE LESS THAN 20 CM.  IF WB/SINK DIRECTLY CONNECTED TO MAIN STACK THEY SHALL HAVE 75MM MIN WATER SEAL TRAP FOR BRANCH CONNECTION OF LESS THAN 75MM DIA OR 50 MM FOR BRANCH CONNECTION MORE THAN 75MM DIA.
  8. 8. SYSTEMS MOST PREVALENT IN WORLD US - ONE PIPE SYSTEM SINCE 1934. UK - ONE PIPE SYSTEM EUROPE - ONE PIPE SYSTEM INDIA - TWO PIPE MOSTLY
  9. 9. SYSTEM FOLLOWED IN DLF LTD ONE PIPE SYSTEM SINCE 1997. OVER 6000 HOUSES CONSTRUCTED SO FAR.
  10. 10. REASONS FOR LOSS OF TRAP SEAL  INDUCED SIPHONAGE.  SELF SIPHONAGE.  EVAPORATION.
  11. 11. RECOMMENDED DEPTH OF TRAP SEALS  WATER CLOSETS - 50MM  FLOOR TRAPS - 50MM  FIXTURES CONNECTED DIRECTLY TO THE STACK WITH BRANCH WASTE PIPE 75MM DIA AND MORE - 40MM  FIXTURES CONNECTED DIRECTLY WITH BRANCH WASTE PIPE LESS THAN 75 MM (ONE PIPE/TWO PIPE SYSTEM) - 40MM  -- DO --(SINGLE STACK/MODIFIED SYSTEM) - 75MM
  12. 12. TWO PIPE SYSTEM ADVANTAGES  ENSURE SEGREGATION OF FOUL SEWAGE FROM WASTE WATER.  NO DANAGER OF BACKFLOW OF SEWAGE IN WASTE FITTINGS INCASEOF BLOCKAGE OF SOIL PIPE.  ENABLES USE OF WASTE WATER DIRECTLY FOR IRRIGATION/GARDENING.  SEPARATE WASTE WATER STACK PERMITS ARREST OF SOLIDS FROM KITCHEN IN THE GULLY TRAP THUS PREVENTING THE FROM ENTERING SEWER. GULLY TRAPS NEEDS TO BE CLEANED PERIODICALLY. DISADVANTAGES  DIFFICULT TO INSTALL IN HIGH RISE BUILDINGS WHERE STACKS TERMINATE IN SERVICE FLOOR OR IN THE CEILING OF THE BASEMENT.  LONG HORIZONTAL RUNS TO REACH EXTERNAL WALLS /EXTERNAL SEWERS.  PROVISION OF GULLY TRAP DIFFICULT TO IMPLEMENT IN ABOVE SITUATION.  REQUIRE MORE SHAFT/DUCT SPACE.  CONGESTED SHAFT RESULTS IN DIFFICULT TO MAINTAIN SYSTEM.  USED IN INDIA AS MATTER OF CONVENTION AND CONSERVATIVE APPROACH RATHER THAN AS A PRAGMATIC APPROACH.
  13. 13. ONE PIPE SYSTEM ADVANTAGES.  LARGELY REPLACED TWO PIPE SYSTEM IN MOST DEVELOPED COUNTRIES.  FAST BECOMING PREFERRED SYETEM IN OTHER PARTS OF THE WORLD.  HIGH QUALITY PIPES,FITTINGS AND INSTALLATION TECHNIQUES AVAILABLE THESE DAYS.  CONSTANT FLOW OFWATER ENSURES REDUCTION IN BLOCKAGE PROBLEM.  ELIMINATED GULLY TRAPS. THUS PRECLUDES THE NEED TO CLEAN THEM.  REQUIRE LESSER SHAFT/DUCT SPACE.  HIGHLY ECONOMICAL IN TERMS OF COST.  QUICK TO CONSTRUCT AND COMMISION. DISADVANTAGES.  DANGER OF BACK FLOW OF SEWAGE IN WASTE FITTINGS.
  14. 14. FACTORS FAVOURING ONE PIPE SYSTEM  USAGE: LOW- MINIMAL FUs CONNECTED AT EACH FLOOR AND LOW OCCUPANCY RESULTS IN DIFFICULT TO ENSURE SELF CLEANSING VELOCITY.  CONSTANT FLOW ENSURES REDUCED BLOCKAGES BY ACHIEVING OPTIMAL FLOW CONDITIONS ESPECIALLY IN HORIZONTAL STRETCHES.  SHAFT SPACE IS AT A PREMIUM.  REDUNDANCY - POSSIBLE SINCE NUMBER OF TOILETS AVAILABLE IN EACH APARTMENT.  BETTER QUALITY OF MATERIALS AND TECHNIQUES AVAILABLE NOW.  LOW AND EASY MAINTENANCE.  NO STATUTORY EMBARGO. IN FACT BIS CODES PERMITS ONE PIPE SYSTEM IN HIGH RISE BUILDINGS  PROVEN SYSTEM.  ALL PROBLEMS THAT ARE VISUALISED CAN BE OVER COME.
  15. 15. RECOMMENDATIONS  USE 100MM DIA SINGLE STACK SYSTEM UPTO 4 STOREYS.  USE 150 MM DIA SINGLE STACK UPTO 15 STOREYS.  USE 150 MM DIA ONE PIPE SYSTEM BEYOND 15 STROREYS.  COMBINE TWO OR MORE TOILETS AT A FLOOR WHEREVER POSSIBLE.  USE EWC WITH HORN FOR VENTILATION. SIMILARLY USE P TRAP/BEND WITH HORN FOR VENTILATION WHERE EVER POSSIBLE.  EXPLORE USE OF PATENTED SOVENT ONE PIPE SYSTEM, AIR ADMITTANCE VALVE ETC. TO ENSURE A VERY HIGH LEVEL OF RELIABILTY.
  16. 16. SOVENT SINGLE STACK DRAINAGE SYSTEM
  17. 17. ProVent PVC SINGLE STACK DRAINAGE SYSTEM VIEW FROM BELOW THE ROOF SLAB
  18. 18. FIXTURE UNITS FOR WATER SUPPLY S.No TYPE OF FIXTURE FUs SIZE OF INLET IN MM 1. ABLUTION TAP 1 12 2. BATH TUB/SHOWER 3 15 3. BIDET 3 15 4. SINK AND DRAIN BOARD 3 15 5. DRINKING FOUNTAIN 0.5 9 6. KITCHEN SINK (DOMESTIC) 2 15 7. WASH BASIN 1 9 8. WASH BASIN SURGEONS (OR FILL AND EMPTY TYPE) 2 15 9. SHOWER (DOMESTIC) 2 15 10. SHOWER (GROUP) 3 15 11. URINAL 4 15 12. WC FLUSH TANK 4 12 13. WC FLUSH VALVE 8 25/32
  19. 19. FUs IN JAYPEE GREENS MASTER TOILET  2 Nos. WHB - 2  WC WITH FLUSH VALVE - 4  SHOWER(DOMESTIC) - 2  BATH TUB - 3  ABLUTION TAP - 1  TOTAL - 12
  20. 20. FUs IN JAYPEE GREENS OTHER TOILETS  WHB - 1  WC WITH FLUSH VALVE - 4  SHOWER(DOMESTIC) - 2  ABLUTION TAP - 1  TOTAL - 8
  21. 21. RECOMMENDED SIZES FOR BRANCHES AND VERTICAL STACKS ( IN CASE OF HIGH DISCHARGES SIZE OF THE PIPE SHOULD BE BASED ON THOSE DISCHARGES) DIA OF PIPE MAX FUs HOR. BRANCHES STACK OF 3 FLOORS ONE PER MORE THAN 3 FLOORS TOTAL FOR STACK TOTAL FOR ONE BRANCH 32 1 2 2 1 40 3 4 8 2 50 6 10 24 6 75 20 30 60 16 100 160 240 500 90 150 620 960 1900 350 200 1400 2200 3600 600
  22. 22. SUGGESTED SYSTEM SELECTION FOR DIFFERENT TYPES OF BUILDINGS BY SHRI S.G.DEOLALIKAKR SER NO. TYPE OF BLDG. TWO PIPE SYSTEM ONE PIPE SYSTEM SINGLE STACK SYSTEM HOUSING A ONE OR TWO STOREYED SUs, BUNGLOWS Y Y Y B. 3-4 STOREYED N Y Y C. MULTISTOREYED Y Y N HOSPITAL D. 2/3 STOREYED FOR HOSPITAL FIXTURES, FOR TOILETS Y Y Y Y N Y E. MULTISTOREYED Y Y N
  23. 23. SUGGESTED SYSTEM SELECTION FOR DIFFERENT TYPES OF BUILDINGS BY SHRI S.G.DEOLALIKAKR SER NO. TYPE OF BLDG. TWO PIPE SYSTEM ONE PIPE SYSTEM SINGLE STACK SYSTEM F. HOUSING, HOSTEL AND ADMIN BLDG. FOR HOSPITAL Y Y Y HOTELS G. 1/2 STOREYED , BUNGLOWS Y Y Y H. 3-4 STOREYED N Y Y I. MULTISTOREYED N Y N OFFICE BUILDING J. UP TO 6-8 FLOORS FOR HOSPITAL FIXTURES, FOR TOILETS N Y Y K. MULTISTOREYED N Y N
  24. 24. SYSTEMS FOLLOWED IN JAYPEE GREENS, GREATER NOIDA EARTH COURTS - MODIFIED TWO PIPE SYSTEM. ONLY SOIL PIPE IS VENTILATED. SEA COURTS/SUN COURTS/CRESCENT COURTS - TWO PIPE SYSTEM PARTIALLY VENTILATED ; SOIL AND WASTE PIPE VENTILATED AT ALTERNATE FLOORS. ATHLETES HOSTEL - TWO PIPE/STACKS. ESTATE HOMES/VILLAS – TWO PIPE /STACKS SYSTEM.
  25. 25. RATE ANALYSIS OF VARIOUS SYSTEM FOR A TYPICAL TOILET S No. Item Unit Average Qty/t oilet Approx Rate Cost of One Pipe 100 mm stack Cost of One Pipe 150mm stack Cost of Two Pipe Sytem 1 Main Soil and Waste Pipe 100mm dia C.I. as per IS 3989 meter 3.30 1313.50 4334.55 0.00 8,669.10 2 Main Soil and Waste Pipe 150mm dia C.I. as per IS 3989 meter 3.30 1950.00 0.00 6,435.00 0.00 3 Branch soil/waste pipe 100 dia as per IS: 1729 meter 4.00 1225.00 4900.00 4,900.00 4,900.00 4 ASP 75 mm dia C.I. as per IS:3989 meter 3.30 1100.00 3630.00 3,630.00 7,260.00 5 Branch vent pipe 50mm dia meter 2.00 750.00 1500.00 1,500.00 0.00 6 Branch inter connection between ASP and Main Stack with 50mm dia MS Pipe meter 2.00 700.00 0.00 0.00 1400 Total Cost per Toilet 14364.55 16,465.00 20,829.10 Percentage savings over two pipe system 31.04 20.95
  26. 26. SIZES OF STACKS ONE PIPE SYSTEM UP TO 38 STORIES 100 MM TWO PIPE SYSTEM -SOIL -WASTE UP TO 125 STOREYS UP TO 62 STOREYS 100 MM 100 MM SINGLE STACK SYSTEM UP TO 4 STOREYS UP TO 15 STOREYS 100 MM 150 MM HORIZONTAL PIPE - ONE PIPE SYSTEM - TWO PIPE SYSTEM - SOIL - WASTE UP TO 13 STORIES 14- 52 STORIES UP TO 40 STORIES UP TO 20 STRORIES 21 TO 78 STORIES 100 MM 150 MM 100 MM 100 MM 150 MM
  27. 27. DESIGN PRINCIPLES  IS-5239-1983: BIS HAS RATIONALISED DESIGN PROCEDURE IN THE CODE OF PRACTICE FOR SANITARY PIPE WORK ABOVE GROUND BUILDINGS.  PIPE SIZE DETERMINED BY ‘FIXTURE UNITS’ ( FUs) BASED ON EXPERIMENTAL DATA ON VARIOUS FIXTURES AND USAGE ARRIVED AT BY BIS.  CARRYING CAPACITY OF HORIZONTAL DRAINS IS SUBSTANTIALLY LOWER. DIA OF VERTICAL STACKS MAY HAVE TO BE INCREASED DUE TO REDUCED CAPACITY IN HORIZONTAL STRETCHES.

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