Parinya non fulltext

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Parinya non fulltext

  1. 1. !"#$%&'(")*+,-%"-(&.*,/*+$,01#-(,"*("*2()3-*4&'*5&$6,"&-%*7,#8 69*:%..*;-(<1.&-(," =$>*+&$("9&**?,"$&@1) A*23%'('*;16<(--%0*("*+&$-(&.*B1./(..<%"-*,/*-3%*7%C1($%<%"-'*/,$*-3%*D%)$%%*,/ =&'-%$*,/*E")("%%$(")*("*4%,-%#3",.,)9 ;1$&"&$%%*F"(G%$'(-9*,/*2%#3",.,)9 A#&0%<(#*H%&$*IJJI !;K?*LMNOPQQOIIROM
  2. 2. การเพิ่มศักยภาพการผลิตกาซในหินคารบอเนตโดยการกระตุนหลุมเจาะ นายปริญญา นรพักตร วิทยานิพนธนี้เปนสวนหนึ่งของการศึกษาตามหลักสูตรปริญญาวิศวกรรมศาสตรมหาบัณฑิต สาขาวิชาเทคโนโลยีธรณี มหาวิทยาลัยเทคโนโลยีสุรนารี ปการศึกษา 2545 !;K?*LMNOPQQOIIROM
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
  4. 4. ! ปริญญา นรพักตร: การเพิ่มศักยภาพการผลิตกาซในหินคารบอเนตโดยการกระตุนหลุมเจาะ (INCREASING POTENTIAL OF PRODUCTION IN TIGHT GAS CARBONATE ROCK BY WELL STIMULATION) อาจารยที่ปรึกษา: ผศ. เกรียงไกร ไตรสาร, 262หนา. ISBN 974-533-226-7 พลังงานจากปโตเลียม ถือไดวาเปนปจจัยที่สําคัญที่สุดปจจัยหนึ่งในการพัฒนาเศรษฐกิจของ ประเทศ การสํารวจและการพัฒนาแหลงปโตรเลียมในประเทศไทยประสบความสําเร็จพอควร ลดการพึ่ง พาปโตรเลียมจากตางประเทศ แตการสํารวจและพัฒนาแหลงปโตรเลียมในภาคตะวันออกเฉียงเหนือของ ประเทศไทยยังไมประสบความสําเร็จเทาที่ควร มีการคนพบและผลิตปโตรเลียมที่อําเภอนํ้าพอง จังหวัด ขอนแกนเพียงแหงเดียว และพบอีกแหลงที่อําเภอภูฮอม จังหวัดอุดรธานี แตยังไมมีการผลิต ซึ่งถือวานอย มากเมื่อเปรียบเทียบกับแองปโตรเลียมที่กระจัดกระจายอยูทั่วภาคตะวันออกเฉียงเหนือของประเทศ ซึ่ง สวนใหญอยูในแหลงหินปูนยุคเพอรเมียนความพรุน(Porosity)และความไหลผานได(Permeability)มีคา นอยทําใหผลิตลําบากมีอัตราการผลิตนอย ดังนั้นจุดประสงคในการศึกษานี้เพื่อทราบคาความพรุนความ ไหลผานได ของหินปูนยุคเพอรเมียนในภาคตะวันออกเฉียงเหนือ หาขอมูลพื้นฐาน ศักยภาพ ปริมาณ สํารอง และประสิทธิภาพการผลิตปโตรเลียมในภาคตะวันออกเฉียงเหนือ ศึกษาผลการเพิ่มอัตราการผลิต และประสิทธิภาพการผลิตปโตรเลียมจากการกระตุนหลุมเจาะ (Well stimulation) โดยโปรแกรมที่พัฒนา ขึ้นเอง เปรียบเทียบกับ แบบจําลองคอมพิวเตอรที่ใชซอฟตแวรสําเร็จรูป ซึ่งมีขั้นตอนดังนี้ 1) รวบรวมขอ มูลเกี่ยวกับลักษณะของหินคารบอเนตยุคเพอรเมียน การสํารวจ การกระตุนหลุมเจาะ และการผลิต ปโตรเลียมในภาคตะวันออกเฉียงเหนือจากที่เคยมีผูศึกษามากอน 2) วิเคราะหขอมูลหลุมเจาะเพื่อนํามา ประกอบใน การศึกษา 3) เก็บตัวอยางหินที่เปนหินโผล (Outcrop) อยางนอย 10 ตัวอยาง และศึกษาคุณ
  5. 5. !! สมบัติทางฟสิกสจากหินตัวอยาง เพื่อหาความพรุนและความไหลผานได ในหองปฏิบัติการ 4) เขียนและ พัฒนาโปรแกรมคอมพิวเตอรเพื่อคํานวณ ปริมาณกรดที่ใช ระยะแตกของหิน ในการทําการกระตุนหลุม เจาะ อัตราการผลิตและศักยภาพการผลิตปโตรเลียม 5) สรางแบบจําลองคอมพิวเตอรแหลงผลิตปโตรเลียม (Reservoir simulation) กับโปรแกรม Work Bench เพื่อหาอัตราและประสิทธิการผลิต การศึกษาในครั้งนี้ สามารถรูถึงผลการกระตุนหลุมเจาะ ในแหลงกาซ หินปูนเนื้อแนน เพื่อเพิ่มศักยภาพและอัตราการผลิตปโตรเลียมในภาคตะวันออกเฉียงเหนือของประเทศ ไทย ขอมูลที่ไดจะมีประโยชนในการวางแผนการจัดหาแหลงพลังงาน ผลการศึกษาความพรุนของหิน คารบอเนตประมาณ4%คาความไหลผานไดกอนทําการกระตุนหลุมเจาะประมาณ0.2 มิลลิดารซีใชแบบ จําลองปริมาณกาซ 3 แสนลานลูกบาศกฟุต หลุมผลิต 6 หลุม หลังจากทําการกระตุนหลุมเจาะโดยใชกรด 4,440 บาเรลตอหลุม ทําใหเกิดแนวแตกเปนแนวดิ่งไกลออกจากหลุม รัศมี 540 ฟุต จะทําใหคาความไหล ผานไดเฉลี่ยในโซนของแนวแตกเปลี่ยนไปเปน 18.97 มิลลิดารซี ทําใหอัตราการผลิตเริ่มตนเพิ่มขึ้นจาก 24 เปน 73 ลานลูกบาศกฟุตตอวัน ผลการวิเคราะหเศษฐศาสตรปโตรเลียม ถาไมไดทําการกระตุนหลุม เจาะจะไมสามารถคืนทุนไดจากการเจาะหลุมผลิตเพิ่มแตถาทําการกระตุนหลุมเจาะจะสามารถคืนทุนได โดยอัตราการคืนทุนรอยละ 18.17 สามารถคืนทุนไดในปที่ 3 ของการผลิตและผลจากโปรแกรมที่พัฒนา ขึ้นเองไดผลใกลเคียง สาขาวิชาเทคโนโลยีธรณี ลายมือชื่อนักศึกษา………………………………. ปการศึกษา 2545 ลายมือชื่ออาจารยที่ปรึกษา……………………….
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
  7. 7. !8 RMU' FEHLERYPJPGO' URGR' IYGRPMEU' SHIL' GDE' TIMTEQQPIMRPHE' HEQKJGQ:' GDE' GETDMPTRJ' RMU HEQERHTD'FRFEHQ:';'#MRJO^PMN'GDE'XEJJ'URGR'SIH'KQPMN'PM'GDPQ'QGKUO:'B',IJJETGPMN'[_ TRHYIMRGE' HIT]' QRLFJEQ' RMU' LERQKHPMN' GDEPH' FIHIQPGO' RMU' FEHLERYPJPGO' VRJKEQ' PM JRYIHRGIHO:'?'6HPGPMN'RMU'UEVEJIFPMN'TILFKGEH'FHINHRL'GI'TRJTKJRGE'SHRTGKHPMN'RMU RTPU' SHRTGKHPMN' FEHSIHLRMTE:' FHIUKTGPIM' HRGE' RMU' FEGHIJEKL' FHIUKTGPIM' ESSPTPEMTO Z/RM]'LIUEJ'RMU'A',HERGPMN'QPLKJRGPIM'LIUEJ'Z$EQEHVIPH'QPLKJRGPIM9'''/DEHESIHE GDE'EWFETGEU'HEQKJGQ'SHIL'GDPQ'QGKUO'RHE'GI'PLFHIVE'GDE']MIXJEUNE'IS'XEJJ'QGPLKJRGPIM SIH'GDE'HEQEHVIPH'FIGEMGPRJ'RMU'GDE'PMTHERQE'IS'FHIUKTGPIM'HRGE9''$EQEHVIPH'QPLKJRGPIM LIUEJ' PMTJKUEQ' GDE' RYPJPGO' GI' KQE' GDE' QISGXRHE' RFFHIWPLRGPIM' IS' GDE' FEGHIJEKL FHIUKTGPIM'ESSPTPEMTO'PM'GDE'MIHGDERQG'/DRPJRMU9''7IHEIVEH:'PG'TRM'RJQI'YE'KQEU'RQ'GDE HESEHEMTE'URGR'SIH'QGKUOPMN'FEGHIJEKL'FIGEMGPRJ'RMU'FEGHIJEKL'FHIUKTGPIM'ESSPTPEMTO'PM MIHGDERQGEHM'/DRPJRMU9''/DE'RVEHRNE'FIHIQPGO'VRJKE'IS''JPLEQGIME'QFETPLEM'PQ''?`9 /DE'RVEHRNE'FEHLERYPJPGO'PQ'_9;'LU9''/DE' HEQEHVIPH' LIUEJ' DRQ' NRQ' PM' FJRTE' IS' B__ 4,19''/DEHE'RHE'QPW'FHIUKTGPIM'XEJJQ9'/DE'XEJJ'QGPLKJRGPIM'QDIXQ'SHRTGKHPMN'HRUPKQ'IS A?_'SEEG'SIH'?:??_'YYJ'IS'RTPU'FEH'XEJJ9''#VEHRNE'FEHLERYPJPGO'VRJKE'RG'SHRTGKHPMN'^IME XPJJ'TDRMNE'GI'[a9=>'LU'XPGD'GDE'FHIUKTGPIM'HRGE'RHE'PMTHERQPMN'SHIL';?'77.,1C2'GI >B'77.,1C29''$EQKJG'IS'ETIMILPT'RMRJOQPQ'RSGEH'XEJJ'QGPLKJRGPIM'PQ'[a9[>`'PMGEHMRJ HRGE'IS'HEGKHM99'"RO'YRT]'FEHPIU'XPJJ'YE'RG'GDE'GDPHU'OERH'IS'GDE'FHIUKTGPIM9''/RM]'LIUEJ RJQI'QDIXQ'GDE'TILFRHRYJE'HEQKJGQ9 สาขาวิชาเทคโนโลยีธรณี ลายมือชื่อนักศึกษา……………………………….. ปการศึกษา 2545 ลายมือชื่ออาจารยที่ปรึกษา………………………..
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  20. 20. d8!! '4-,/%0/04*53(-/7"89:;9<=>? 04*53( 1!*( 29= "HEQQKHE'UPQGHPYKGPIM'IS'JROEH'='Z6PGDIKG'XEJJ'QGPLKJRGPIM9999999999999999999999999999;B[ 29[_ "HEQQKHE'UPQGHPYKGPIM'IS'JROEH'[_'Z6PGDIKG'XEJJ'QGPLKJRGPIM99999999999999999999999999;B? 29[[ "HEQQKHE'UPQGHPYKGPIM'IS'JROEH'['Z#SGEH'XEJJ'QGPLKJRGPIM 99999999999999999999999999999999;B> 29[; "HEQQKHE'UPQGHPYKGPIM'IS'JROEH';'Z#SGEH'XEJJ'QGPLKJRGPIM 99999999999999999999999999999999;Ba 29[B "HEQQKHE'UPQGHPYKGPIM'IS'JROEH'B'Z#SGEH'XEJJ'QGPLKJRGPIM 99999999999999999999999999999999;B= 29[? "HEQQKHE'UPQGHPYKGPIM'IS'JROEH'?'Z#SGEH'XEJJ'QGPLKJRGPIM 99999999999999999999999999999999;?[ 29[A "HEQQKHE'UPQGHPYKGPIM'IS'JROEH'A'Z#SGEH'XEJJ'QGPLKJRGPIM 99999999999999999999999999999999;?B 29[< "HEQQKHE'UPQGHPYKGPIM'IS'JROEH'<'Z#SGEH'XEJJ'QGPLKJRGPIM 99999999999999999999999999999999;?A 29[> "HEQQKHE'UPQGHPYKGPIM'IS'JROEH'>'Z#SGEH'XEJJ'QGPLKJRGPIM 99999999999999999999999999999999;?> 29[a "HEQQKHE'UPQGHPYKGPIM'IS'JROEH'a'Z#SGEH'XEJJ'QGPLKJRGPIM 99999999999999999999999999999999;?= 29[= "HEQQKHE'UPQGHPYKGPIM'IS'JROEH'='Z#SGEH'XEJJ'QGPLKJRGPIM 99999999999999999999999999999999;A[ 29;_ "HEQQKHE'UPQGHPYKGPIM'IS'JROEH'[_'Z#SGEH'XEJJ'QGPLKJRGPIM 999999999999999999999999999999;A?
  21. 21. d8!!! '4-,/%0/-@+.%'-/!$)/!..3(64!,4%$- A g #MMKRJ'TRQD'SJIX #T g ,HIQQ'QETGPIM'RHER'FEHFEMUPTKJRH'GI'SJKPU'SJIX #S g 1HRTGKHE'RHER #ST g #HER'IS'SPJGEH A IH' xA g ,HIQQ'QETGPIMRJ'RHER'IS'FJKN sec/Atm g #GLIQFDEHE'FEH'QETIMU B g 4RHHEJ BCF ' g 4PJJPIM'TKYPT'SEEG BHP g 4IGGIL'DIJE'FHEQQKHE BP ' g 4RHILEGHPT'FHEQQKHE'PM'GDE'RGLIQFDEHE'KMPG BPD g 4RHHEJ'FEH'URO BTU g 4HPGPQD'GDEHLRJ'KMPG BV g 4KJ]'VIJKLE gB g *RQ'SIHLRGPIM'VIJKLE'SRTGIH oB g (PJ'SIHLRGPIM'VIJKLE'SRTGIH wB g 6RGEH'SIHLRGPIM'VIJKLE'SRTGIH 21 B,B '''''''''''''g ,IJJETGPIMQ' IS' GEHLQ' GDRG' PMTJKUE' QRGKHRGPIM:' "8/' GEHLQ' RMU FHIUKTGPIM'GEHLQ
  22. 22. d!d n 1B g ,IJJETGPIMQ' IS' GEHLQ' GDRG' PMTJKUE' QRGKHRGPIM:' "8/' GEHLQ' RMU FHIUKTGPIM'GEHLQ'RG'JEVEJ'M 1n 2B + g ,IJJETGPIMQ' IS' GEHLQ' GDRG' PMTJKUE' QRGKHRGPIM:' "8/' GEHLQ' RMU FHIUKTGPIM'GEHLQ'RG'JEVEJ'Mh[ CAPEX g ,RFPGRJ'TIQG cp g ,EMGPFIPQE C g !QIGDEHLRJ' TILFHEQQPYPJPGO' SRTGIH:' MENRGPVE' RMMKRJ' TRQD' SJIX VRJKE , g 1HRTGKHE'SJKPU'TIESSPTPEMG C° g 2ENHEE'PM',EJQPKQ'KMPG D g 2PRLEGEH D g 2RO ESCAL g -QTRJRGPIM f g 1RMMPMN'SHPTGPIM'SRTGIH .Fac g 1RTPJPGO * g ,KLKJRGPVE'NRQ'PM'FJRTE *S g 1HRTGKHE'NHRUPEMG *" g ,KLKJRGPVE'NRQ'FHIUKTGPIM GD g *HRPM'UEMQPGO Gth g *HIQQ'GDPT]MEQQ GOR B *RQ'IPJ'HRGPI GV g *HRPM'VIJKLE h g 3EPNDG
  23. 23. dd '3D g 3OUHRKJPT'DIHQEFIXEH HTOP g 3PND'IS'GIF'QGHKTGKHE I g #QQKLEU'VRJKE i g 2PQTIKMG'HRGE Tax.Inc g !MTILE'GRW IRR B !MGEHMRJ'HRGE'IS'HEGKHM gasK g (VEHYKHUEM'FEHLERYPJPGO 5S' g "EHLERYPJPGO'PM'SHRTGKHE 5S^ g "EHLERYPJPGO'PM'SHRTGKHE'^IME gk g *RQ'FEHLERYPJPGO ok g (PJ'FEHLERYPJPGO wk g 6RGEH'FEHLERYPJPGO km g (VEHYKHUEM'FEHLERYPJPGO L g 0EMNGD M g 7IMGD MM g 7PJJPIM D/MMSCF g 7PJJPIM'QGRMURHU'TKYPT'SEEG'FEH'URO MSL g 7ERM'QER'JEVEJ 3 m g ,KYPT'LEGEH mm g 7PJJPLEGEH 3 mm g ,KYPT'LPJJPLEGEH NPV g %EG'FHEQEMG'VRJKE
  24. 24. dd! ReN g $EOMIJUQ'MKLYEH NTh g %EG'GDPT]MEQQ n g #LIKMG'IS'OERH OPEC g (FEHRGPMN'TIQG P g "HEQQKHE "; g 2IXM'QGHERL'FHEQQKHE n P g "HEQQKHE'RG'GDPQ'GPLE'QGEF 1n P + g "HEQQKHE'RG'GDE'MEWG'GPLE'QGEF bP g 4PJJEG'EeKPJPYHRGEU'FHEQQKHE cgP g *RQ'TRFPJJRHO'FHEQQKHE cwP g 6RGEH'TRFPJJRHO'FHEQQKHE fP g ,DRLYEH'EeKPJPYHRGEU'FHEQQKHE gP g *RQ'FHEQQKHE oP g (PJ'FHEQQKHE obP g $ESEHEMTE'YPJJEG'EeKPJPYHRGEU'FHEQQKHE ofP g $ESEHEMTE'TDRLYEH'FHEQQKHE osP g $ESEHEMTE'TDRLYEH'XPGD'DEJPKL'FHEQQKHE sP g ,DRLYEH'XPGD'DEJPKL'EeKPJPYHRGEU'FHEQQKHE '"QT g "HEQQKHE'RG'QGRMURHU'TIMUPGPIM' wP g 6RGEH'FHEQQKHE 1P ! g )FQGHERL'FHEQQKHE
  25. 25. dd!! Phi g "IHIQPGO '"Q g .KHSRTE'IS'PMcETGPIM'FHEQQKHE PIR g "HISPG'GI'PMVEQGLEMG'HRGPI PV g "IHE'VIJKLE ∆"S g /DE'SHPTGPIM'FHEQQKHE'UHIF'.KHSRTE'IS'PMcETGPIM'FHEQQKHE ∆"Q g 3OUHRKJPT'FHEQQKHE Q ' g 1JIX'HRGE gq g *RQ'HRGE r g $RUPKQ iRHS g $EQKJG'IS'GDE'LKJGPFJPTRGPIM'EeKRGPIM'IM'GDE'JESG'DRMU'QPUE $S g 1HRTGKHE'HRUPRMG SCF g .GRMURHU'TKYPT'SIIG km.sq g .eKRHE@]PJILEGEH gS g *RQ'QRGKHRGPIM oS g (PJ'QRGKHRGPIM wS g 6RGEH'QRGKHRGPIM t g /PLE GQ g .FEMUPMN'GPLE T g /ELFEHRGKHE /QT g /ELFEHRGKHE'RG'QGRMURHU'TIMUPGPIM $US g )MPGEU'.GRGE'UIJJRH vRe g $EVEMKE RV g $ESEHEMTE'VIJKLE
  26. 26. dd!!! soR g (PJ'QRGKHRGPIM'HEQPQGPVPGO swR B 6RGEH'QRGKHRGPIM'HEQPQGPVPGO 6 g 6PUGD'IS'SHRTGKHE V g 8EJITPGO biV g 8IJKLE'IS'YPJJEG'HELIVEU 2 bilV g 8IJKLE'IS'YPJJEGQ 8! g 8IJKLE'PMcETGPIM 8QF g .FKHG'JIQQ f g *RQ'TILFHEQQPYPJPGO'SRTGIH xÄ g 2PQGRMTE'PM'W@UPHETGPIM yÄ g 2PQGRMTE'PM'O@UPHETGPIM zÄ g 2PQGRMTE'PM'^@UPHETGPIM % g "EHTEMG ð g ,IMQGRMG'VRJKE'EeKRJ'GI'B9[?[< wog Ö,Ö,Ö g 1JKW'IH'FDRQE'FIGEMGPRJ'IS'NRQ:'IPJ'RMU'XRGEH ö g "IHIQPGO gö g *RQ'FIHIQPGO oö g (PJ'FIHIQPGO wö g 6RGEH'FIHIQPGO gã g .FETPSPT'*HRVPGO'IS'*RQ ∈∈∈∈ g $EJRGPVE'FPFE'HIKNDMEQQ gñ g *RQ'UEMQPGO
  27. 27. dd!8 oñ g (PJ'UEMQPGO wñ g 6RGEH'UEMQPGO gë g *RQ'LIYPJPGO oi g (PJ'LIYPJPGO wë g 6RGEH'LIYPJPGO airj IH' 2Nj g *RQ'VPQTIQPGO'XDPTD'VRHPEQ'XPGD'GELFEHRGKHE gj g *RQ'VPQTIQPGO oj g (PJ'VPQTIQPGO wj g 6RGEH'VPQTIQPGO k g 8EJITPGO
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