The Civil War in GA
SS8H6b: State the importance of key events of the
Civil War; include Antietam, Emancipation
Proclamati...
Important Topics
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•

Antietam
Emancipation Proclamation
Gettysburg
Chickamauga
Union Blockade
Sherman’s Atlan...
Early stages of the Civil War
• GA, FL, MS, AL, LA, SC, and TX seceded from the
Union.
• The United States refused to turn...
Fort Sumter
Notice how
It blocks the
Channel leading
Into Charleston.
Fort Sumter
View of Charleston at the beginning of the
Civil War. Notice Fort Sumter in the harbor.
Early stages of the Civil War
• After the attack at Fort Sumter; VA, TN, NC, and AR
decide to join the confederacy.
• Even...
Map of The United States and Confederate
States of America
• Dark Red:
– Original states to
secede.

• Light Red:
– States...
The Civil War
• After Fort Sumter was bombed, Lincoln called for
75,000 volunteers to enlist for three months to “put
down...
Leaders
• General Robert E. Lee – Commander of the
Confederate Army (The South)
• General Ulysses S. Grant – Commander of ...
General
Robert E. Lee
Commander
of the
Confederate
Army

(The South)
Robert E. Lee
Commander Ulysses S.
Grant

Leader of the Union
forces (The North)
Grant
Grant
General
Grant
at camp
Union Blockade of
Southern Ports
• Shortly after the bombing of Fort Sumter
Lincoln declared a naval Blockade on southern
...
Union Blockade of
Southern Ports
• This blockade not only limited the amount of goods
coming into the Confederacy but it a...
Anaconda Plan
Map of the Union Blockade
• The Nashville and the Colonel Lamb – Civil
War Blockade running ships
Wartime resources
• The North was more prepared to fight the civil war
than the south.
– North – larger population, more f...
King Cotton Diplomacy
• To try and overcome the odds stacked against them
entering the war the south tried to use what is ...
Early Fighting in the War
• Even though the South was outnumbered and
had fewer resources they were winning most
of the ba...
The Civil War
• Antietam
– September 17, 1862
– General Lee attempts to invade the north.
– Single “bloodiest” day of the ...
The New York Gazette
September 23, 1862

Battle of Antietam: Over
22,000 Casualties in Single
Day
Fallen soldiers after Antietam
The Emancipation Proclamation
“And by virtue of the power, and for the purpose
aforesaid, I do order and declare that all ...
The Emancipation Proclamation
• Through the Emancipation Proclamation Lincoln
expressed his desire for all people to be fr...
The Emancipation Proclamation
“And I further declare and make known, that
such persons of suitable condition, will be
rece...
The Emancipation Proclamation
• This statement welcomed former slaves into
the armed services.
– 186,000 African American ...
Glory
• Movie about the 54th Massachusetts.
Gettysburg
The turning point in the war.
51,000 died in 3 days
• From July 1, 1863 – July 3, 1863.
• General Lee attempts to invade the North for a second
time.
• ...
The War comes to Georgia
• For the first two years of the war very few
battles were fought in GA.
• This changed during Se...
The War comes to Georgia
Chickamauga is located in
Northwestern GA just south
of Chattanooga, TN.
The War comes to Georgia
• This was the first major advance of Union forces
into GA.
• Two days of fierce fighting and the...
Battle of Chickamauga
Sherman Invades GA
• In the spring of 1864, Sherman begins his march
from Chattanooga to Atlanta.
– Atlanta was the muniti...
William Tecumsah Sherman
Sherman Takes Atlanta
• Sherman did
not want
Atlanta for
military
standpoint, he
wanted to
take Atlanta to
stop the
suppli...
Sherman Takes Atlanta
• Before the Confederates left Atlanta They destroyed
anything that they could not carry with them. ...
Atlanta, GA. View on Marietta Street
before Sherman came to Atlanta.
Sherman Troops Burning Atlanta
Illustration from Harper's Weekly - Union troops burning
Atlanta's public buildings, depots, and factories in 1864
Atlanta Depot before Sherman
Atlanta Depot before Sherman
Atlanta Depot After Sherman
Sherman’s March to the Sea
• After 2 ½ months Sherman burned Atlanta
and set off for Savannah.
• This March was intended t...
Sherman’s March to the Sea
• Sherman issued orders that explained how the march
would be conducted.
– 6. To corps commande...
Sherman’s March to the Sea
• After Sherman reached Savannah he
estimated that his troops had destroyed over
$100 million w...
What do you see in this picture.
Area damaged by Sherman’s March.
Notice that it did not stop in GA.
Sherman Reaches Savannah
• Sherman entered Savannah on December 21,
1864. 1 ½ months after leaving Atlanta.
– He captured ...
Savannah during the Civil War
Andersonville
• One of the most notorious Confederate
prisons during the Civil War.
• Held so many Union prisoners that it...
Andersonville
• The South constructed a prisoner of war camp
built to hold 15,000 prisoners.
• Instead it had 45,000 priso...
The War Ends
Surrender
• April 9, 1865, General Robert E. Lee
surrendered to Ulysses S. Grant at
Appomattox Courthouse in Virginia.
• T...
The American Civil War and It's Impact on Georgia
The American Civil War and It's Impact on Georgia
The American Civil War and It's Impact on Georgia
The American Civil War and It's Impact on Georgia
The American Civil War and It's Impact on Georgia
The American Civil War and It's Impact on Georgia
The American Civil War and It's Impact on Georgia
The American Civil War and It's Impact on Georgia
The American Civil War and It's Impact on Georgia
The American Civil War and It's Impact on Georgia
The American Civil War and It's Impact on Georgia
The American Civil War and It's Impact on Georgia
The American Civil War and It's Impact on Georgia
The American Civil War and It's Impact on Georgia
The American Civil War and It's Impact on Georgia
The American Civil War and It's Impact on Georgia
The American Civil War and It's Impact on Georgia
The American Civil War and It's Impact on Georgia
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The American Civil War and It's Impact on Georgia

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The American Civil War and It's Impact on Georgia

  1. 1. The Civil War in GA SS8H6b: State the importance of key events of the Civil War; include Antietam, Emancipation Proclamation, Gettysburg, Chickamauga, the Union blockade of Georgia’s coast, Sherman’s Atlanta Campaign, Sherman’s March to the sea, and Andersonville.
  2. 2. Important Topics • • • • • • • • Antietam Emancipation Proclamation Gettysburg Chickamauga Union Blockade Sherman’s Atlanta Campaign Sherman’s March to the Sea Andersonville
  3. 3. Early stages of the Civil War • GA, FL, MS, AL, LA, SC, and TX seceded from the Union. • The United States refused to turn over possession of the forts that they had in the Confederacy. • On April 12, 1861, Confederate forces began to fire on Fort Sumter in South Carolina, two days later the Union soldiers forced to surrender. • This was the first official fighting between Union and Confederate troops.
  4. 4. Fort Sumter Notice how It blocks the Channel leading Into Charleston.
  5. 5. Fort Sumter
  6. 6. View of Charleston at the beginning of the Civil War. Notice Fort Sumter in the harbor.
  7. 7. Early stages of the Civil War • After the attack at Fort Sumter; VA, TN, NC, and AR decide to join the confederacy. • Even though Missouri, Kentucky, Maryland, and Delaware were slave states they remained with the Union, because they did not believe it was right to secede. – They were known as the border states. – Some of VA’s western counties decided to stay with the Union, creating West Virginia.
  8. 8. Map of The United States and Confederate States of America • Dark Red: – Original states to secede. • Light Red: – States that seceded after Fort Sumter • Yellow: – Border States • Blue: – Union
  9. 9. The Civil War • After Fort Sumter was bombed, Lincoln called for 75,000 volunteers to enlist for three months to “put down the rebellion” • Many thought that the war would be quick and relatively bloodless. • It became the bloodiest war in US history, with the highest number of American casualties because both sides were considered to be Americans. – 600,000 killed – 400,000 wounded
  10. 10. Leaders • General Robert E. Lee – Commander of the Confederate Army (The South) • General Ulysses S. Grant – Commander of the Union Army. (The North) • Both men were graduates of West Point. • Lee was considered to be one of the finest military men in the nation at this point. He was asked to command the Union Army by President Abraham Lincoln. Lee refused Lincoln stating that he must decline because he felt an allegiance to his home and state of Virginia. • Reflect – What if Lee had led the Union troops? How might have the war been different?
  11. 11. General Robert E. Lee Commander of the Confederate Army (The South)
  12. 12. Robert E. Lee
  13. 13. Commander Ulysses S. Grant Leader of the Union forces (The North)
  14. 14. Grant
  15. 15. Grant
  16. 16. General Grant at camp
  17. 17. Union Blockade of Southern Ports • Shortly after the bombing of Fort Sumter Lincoln declared a naval Blockade on southern ports. – Any ship coming or going would be stopped and searched for contraband. • Some supplies did come through the blockade on ships designed to elude the Union ships, called Blockade runners. – Very, fast ships
  18. 18. Union Blockade of Southern Ports • This blockade not only limited the amount of goods coming into the Confederacy but it also limited the amount of cotton that was sent to other countries for sale. This limited the amount of money available for the Confederacy to fund its war efforts. • The blockades hurt the Confederacy because they needed these supplies to continue fighting the war. • The Union called this strategy the “Anaconda Plan.” – It would eventually squeeze the Confederacy to death.
  19. 19. Anaconda Plan
  20. 20. Map of the Union Blockade
  21. 21. • The Nashville and the Colonel Lamb – Civil War Blockade running ships
  22. 22. Wartime resources • The North was more prepared to fight the civil war than the south. – North – larger population, more factories, more railroads (suitable to carry heavy loads) – South – agriculture based economy, 1/3 of total population was slaves, railroad built to carry farm products ( light loads). • King Cotton Diplomacy – The south felt that they could force France and Britain into the war due to their need of cotton. This didn’t work because the north convinced them to use cotton from another source.
  23. 23. King Cotton Diplomacy • To try and overcome the odds stacked against them entering the war the south tried to use what is called King Cotton Diplomacy. • King Cotton Diplomacy – The south felt that they could force France and Britain into the war to help them due to their need of cotton. This didn’t work because the north convinced them to use cotton from another source.
  24. 24. Early Fighting in the War • Even though the South was outnumbered and had fewer resources they were winning most of the battles at the beginning of the war. • With the victories, General Lee felt confident enough to bring the fight to the north, which led to the battle of Antietam.
  25. 25. The Civil War • Antietam – September 17, 1862 – General Lee attempts to invade the north. – Single “bloodiest” day of the Civil War – No clear winner – Lincoln used the aftermath of this battle to issue the Emancipation Proclamation.
  26. 26. The New York Gazette September 23, 1862 Battle of Antietam: Over 22,000 Casualties in Single Day
  27. 27. Fallen soldiers after Antietam
  28. 28. The Emancipation Proclamation “And by virtue of the power, and for the purpose aforesaid, I do order and declare that all persons held as slaves within said designated States, and parts of States, are, and forever shall be free; and that the Executive government of the United States, including the military and naval authorities thereof, will recognize and maintain the freedom of said persons.”
  29. 29. The Emancipation Proclamation • Through the Emancipation Proclamation Lincoln expressed his desire for all people to be free. • It did not create freedom for everyone, this did not happen until the 13th Amendment, which was adopted after the end of the Civil War. • Not everyone received their freedom, because the Emancipation Proclamation did not make slavery illegal in the slave states still loyal to the Union. • There was still a long fight ahead ensure this freedom.
  30. 30. The Emancipation Proclamation “And I further declare and make known, that such persons of suitable condition, will be received into the armed service of the United States to garrison forts, positions, stations, and other places, and to man vessels of all sorts in said service.”
  31. 31. The Emancipation Proclamation • This statement welcomed former slaves into the armed services. – 186,000 African American enlisted. • 133,000 came from slave states. – Over 38,000 died during the Civil War. – Have you ever seen the movie “Glory.”
  32. 32. Glory • Movie about the 54th Massachusetts.
  33. 33. Gettysburg The turning point in the war.
  34. 34. 51,000 died in 3 days • From July 1, 1863 – July 3, 1863. • General Lee attempts to invade the North for a second time. • The two armies fought a battle in Pennsylvania that would change the course of the war. – North - 97,000 troops in the battle. • 23,000 -- killed, wounded, or captured. – South – 75,000 troops in the battle. • 28,000 -- killed, wounded, or captured. • This battle was known as Gettysburg. • The Union army won this battle. South forced to take a defensive role for the rest of the war.
  35. 35. The War comes to Georgia • For the first two years of the war very few battles were fought in GA. • This changed during September 1863, Union forces had captured Chattanooga, and started to advance into GA. • The Union forces met stiff resistance at the site of Chickamauga Creek.
  36. 36. The War comes to Georgia Chickamauga is located in Northwestern GA just south of Chattanooga, TN.
  37. 37. The War comes to Georgia • This was the first major advance of Union forces into GA. • Two days of fierce fighting and the Confederate Army was able to defeat the Union Army at a terrible cost. • 33,900 either wounded or killed. • This was to be last major victory of the Confederacy. • The following spring, William T. Sherman would begin his Invasion of GA.
  38. 38. Battle of Chickamauga
  39. 39. Sherman Invades GA • In the spring of 1864, Sherman begins his march from Chattanooga to Atlanta. – Atlanta was the munitions center of the Confederacy. • This invasion of GA was designed to not only take Atlanta but to also break the will of the Confederacy. • Throughout Sherman’s invasion of GA, he was met with resistance. • He finally was able to take Atlanta after much fighting in the surrounding areas.
  40. 40. William Tecumsah Sherman
  41. 41. Sherman Takes Atlanta • Sherman did not want Atlanta for military standpoint, he wanted to take Atlanta to stop the supplies that were supporting the Confederate Army.
  42. 42. Sherman Takes Atlanta • Before the Confederates left Atlanta They destroyed anything that they could not carry with them. (ex. Locomotives and railroad cars) • Sherman did not want the supplies, he wanted everything destroyed. – Within a week of taking Atlanta, he forced all Southern citizens to leave. – He then had anything used in supplying the confederate army destroyed and its building burned. • The fires spread quickly and burned down most of the city.
  43. 43. Atlanta, GA. View on Marietta Street before Sherman came to Atlanta.
  44. 44. Sherman Troops Burning Atlanta
  45. 45. Illustration from Harper's Weekly - Union troops burning Atlanta's public buildings, depots, and factories in 1864
  46. 46. Atlanta Depot before Sherman
  47. 47. Atlanta Depot before Sherman
  48. 48. Atlanta Depot After Sherman
  49. 49. Sherman’s March to the Sea • After 2 ½ months Sherman burned Atlanta and set off for Savannah. • This March was intended to speed up the end of the war and end civilian support for the war effort. • His goal was to bring “the sad realities of war” to the heart of GA.
  50. 50. Sherman’s March to the Sea • Sherman issued orders that explained how the march would be conducted. – 6. To corps commanders alone is entrusted the power to destroy mills, houses, cotton-gins, etc.; and for them this general principle is laid down: In districts and neighborhoods where the army is unmolested, no destruction of each property should be permitted; but should guerrillas or bushwhackers molest our march, or should the inhabitants burn bridges, obstruct roads, or otherwise manifest local hostility, then army commanders should order and enforce a devastation more or less relentless, according to the measure of such hostility.
  51. 51. Sherman’s March to the Sea • After Sherman reached Savannah he estimated that his troops had destroyed over $100 million worth of food and other resources. – This does not count houses, personal property, or government property (railroads, courthouses, etc..)
  52. 52. What do you see in this picture.
  53. 53. Area damaged by Sherman’s March. Notice that it did not stop in GA.
  54. 54. Sherman Reaches Savannah • Sherman entered Savannah on December 21, 1864. 1 ½ months after leaving Atlanta. – He captured 150 guns, plenty of ammunition, and 25,000 bales of cotton. • Why was there so much cotton in Savannah? – He sent a telegraph to Lincoln saying “I beg to present you as a Christmas gift the city of Savannah.” – Neither GA nor the Confederacy was able to recover from this march in time to change the outcome to the Civil War.
  55. 55. Savannah during the Civil War
  56. 56. Andersonville • One of the most notorious Confederate prisons during the Civil War. • Held so many Union prisoners that its population was greater than most confederate cities. • Because of the overcrowding and unsanitary conditions nearly 13,000 prisoners died of disease and starvation.
  57. 57. Andersonville • The South constructed a prisoner of war camp built to hold 15,000 prisoners. • Instead it had 45,000 prisoners at one time. • Disease killed 13,000 Union soldiers. • Camp commander Henry Wirz was hung after the war for war crimes.
  58. 58. The War Ends
  59. 59. Surrender • April 9, 1865, General Robert E. Lee surrendered to Ulysses S. Grant at Appomattox Courthouse in Virginia. • Two weeks later, General Joseph Johnston surrendered to General William Sherman in North Carolina.

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