Unit 5,Chapter 10 – Developing National Identities
GPS Standard & Essential QuestionSS8H7 - The student will evaluate key political, social, economic changes that occurred in Georgia between 1877 and 1918. A.) Evaluate the impact of the Bourbon Triumvirate, Henry Grady, International Cotton Exposition, Tom Watson and the Populists, Rebecca Latimer Felton, the 1906 Atlanta Riot, the Leo Frank Case, and the county unit system had on Georgia during this period.Essential Question: How did politics, public discourse, and social reaction lead to divisions in Georgia after Reconstruction?
Chapter 10, sections 1 & 2The information related to the material covered for this standard can be found on the following pages: 312-319, 337, 346- 350, and 358-361
Who made up the Bourbon Triumvirate in GA?1.Joseph E. Brown2. Alfred H. Colquitt3. John B. Gordon
What 2 goals did these men have for the state?1.They wanted stronger economic ties with the industrial North to expand GA’s economy2. They wanted to maintain many of the old traditions & white supremacy.
Who was Joseph E. Brown?• Democrat• State senator• State governor, pushed states’ right’s• During Reconstruction, lost much of his popularity for favoring Radical Reconstruction because he thought it would speed the process up
Who was Alfred H. Colquitt?• Democrat• Joined Brown as a state senator, forming a lifelong friendship• Became governor in 1876 and during his tenure reduced debt and wrote a new state constitution
Who was John B Gordon?• Democrat• State senator in 1872• Two terms as state governor, beginning in 1886• During his terms he reduced the state debt and brought new industry to the state
Other than politics, what else did these three men have in common?They were all associated with the railroad industry
What was Henry Grady’s New South?A South that was more industrial like the North
By what nickname was Henry Grady known?He was called the Voice of the New South.
According to Grady, what was replacing agriculture in GA?1.textile mills2. coal & iron ore mining3. tobacco factories Textile Mill in Coweta County, Georgia
What important, lasting contributions did Henry Grady make to GA?1. He helped establish GA Tech2. helped raise money for the YMCA building in Atlanta.Coach Ross is all smiles after Georgia beat Georgia Tech….again
What was the purpose of the 1895 Cotton States & International Exposition?It was to show the South’s economic recovery, to highlight the natural resources, & to invite northern investors to invest in southern industries.
What things did visitors to the Expo see? They saw new machinery & learnedways that cotton could be made intomarketable products.
Name 3 new businesses that began in GA during this time period.1. Rich’s Department Store2. Coca – Cola3. Atlanta Mutual Life Insurance
Which influential Georgianplayed a key role in securing the Expo?• Henry Grady, aka “Voice of the South”
What was the Farmers’ Alliance?Formed in 1870, an organization of mostly farmers that worked to lower interest rates, railroad freight rates, and change the government’s tight money policy
How did the Farmers’ Alliance gain influence and power?Many were elected to Congress & they helped elect several southern governors.
What 2 groups formed The Populist Party?The Farmers’ Alliance and members of the labororganization joined together.
What 4 reforms were the focus of this party?1. They wanted an 8-hour work day.2. They wanted a graduating (gradually increasing) income tax.3. They wanted restrictions on immigration.4. They wanted government ownership of the railroads, telephone, & telegraph.
Name 3 other topics that were part of their party’s platform?1. unlimited coinage of dollars2. direct election of US senators3. tariff reduction4. use of Australian ballot
Who was Tom Watson?He was the national leader of the Populist Party.
With what issue was Watson concerned?He was concerned with farm reform and the poor and struggling farmers.
With which group of farmers was Watson, the first southern politician, to show concern?African American farmers who were mostly sharecroppers and tenant farmers
What group helped Watson getelected to Congress in 1890?The Farmers’ Alliance
After his election as a Democrat, to which political party did Watson change? Populist(This caused the Democrats to despise him)
What bill did Watson introducethat brought him national fame and recognition? The Rural Free Delivery Bill
What did the Rural Free Delivery Bill require? The US Postmaster General had to find a wayto deliver mail for free to rural homes.
What improvements came about as a result of the RFD bill?There was an increase in the building of roads, bridges, & other needed improvements for rural mail delivery.
What jobs did Watson hold during his lifetime? He was ateacher, lawyer , US Congressman, & magazine publisher.
Who was Rebecca Latimer Felton?• She was a leader in the fight for movements centering on voting rights and alcohol• Felton also worked to discredit the Bourbon Triumvirate, travelling the state and telling people they cared little about the middle and lower classes• Prior to attacking the Triumvirate, Felton was a leader in the suffrage and temperance movements
On what issue did Felton and the Bourbon Triumvirate disagree? Explain why.1.They disagreed on convict leasing.2. The Triumvirate all benefited financially from the system.
How was the convict lease system similar to slavery?1.It was made up mostly of black prisoners who had no choice in what work they did.2. They received no pay for the work.3.The treatment was at the mercy of the boss.
Who financially benefited from this system and how?GA state government received $25,000 from private companies & other amounts from private individuals because it provided work/jobs for the prisoners.
How did the convict leasing system contribute to increased poverty & unemployment?• Paid workers had to compete with the convicts for the limited number of jobs that were available that paid low wages.
What issues in GA were improved by Dr. Felton?1.education2. prison reform3. limits on sales of alcohol
What happened in September, 1906 in Atlanta?There were race riots that were caused by false reports of black assaults. This brought large crowds of blacks & whites to a confrontation, resultin g in the riots.
What was the result of these riots?Martial law was declared in the city.
Define the term “martial law”. Martial law is whenmilitary forces are used to maintain orderbecause civilian forces are either unable or unwilling to do it.
What was the cost of these riots to the city? A lot of property was destroyed; 20 African- Americans & 2 whites were killed; and hundreds more were injured.
What event in Atlanta caused the rebirth of the KKK?The lynching of Leo M. Frank.
Of what crime was Frank convicted?He was convicted of murdering 13-year-old Mary Phagan.
Who testified against him and why was his testimony allowed to be heard in court?African-American Jim Conley was allowed to testify because Frank was Jewish and there were many who were anti- Semitic (anti- Jewish).
Why was Frank lynched?Governor John Slaton converted Frank’s death sentence to life imprisonment. Outraged citizens removed him from his Milledgeville cell, took him to Mary Phagan’s Marietta home, & hanged him from a tree.
Why was Frank ultimately granted a pardon? What did this do?It stated that the State of GA had failed to protect him while he was in the state’s custody. It made the State responsible but it did not officially clear him of the crime.
Who did the Knights of Mary Phagan become?It became the Ku Klux Klan.
What did the 1917 Neill Primary Act do?It established acounty system for holding primary elections.
How did the county unit system affect rural counties in GA? It gave thempolitical power that they hadn’t had before. *Declared unconstitutional in 1962