Modern Civil Rights1940’s – 1950’s
Major Developments            •One way to keep black people from voting after the Civil War (disenfranchisement)          ...
Major Developments              •In 1945 the Georgia Constitution was rewritten              •Before 1945, if the Governor...
Major Developments             •The Court decided that 3 candidates would be up for the General Assembly to vote on in    ...
Herman Talmadge•Talmadge & Thompson ran in the 1948 election against each other: Talmadge won…(this was Eugene’s son)•He d...
Benjamin Mays •   Born in South Carolina to parents who     were former slaves •   Was an older black leader in Atlanta;  ...
Martin Luther King Jr.               •Jan 15, 1929; Atlanta native; Grandfather one of the founders of the NAACP         “...
State Flags       1920-1956   2001-2003                   2003-present       1956-2001
Why the big deal?         •1956-a new flag GA legislators changed the flag to include the St. Andrew’s Confederate Cross  ...
History• Make a timeline of the important historical  eventsName of Event 1   Name of Event 2   Name of Event 3   Name of ...
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Modern Civil Rights 40 50

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Modern Civil Rights 40 50

  1. 1. Modern Civil Rights1940’s – 1950’s
  2. 2. Major Developments •One way to keep black people from voting after the Civil War (disenfranchisement) •The 15th Amendment guaranteed blacks the right to vote; the state legislature viewed End of this as only in the general election white •If the primary was kept “white,” it would not matter; thus a law was passed Primary regarding who could vote in the primary = the candidates were assured the election win “white” because all that was available to chose in the general election would be white •After Reconstruction, the Democratic Party was in control, the 1900 primary was ruled to only allow whites to vote in the primary (Republicans & Independents rarely got support, so they never ran for office) •1946 U.S. Supreme Court (King v Chapman) that the Georgia system was unconstitutional = blacks were now allowed to vote in the primaries •1950, Topeka Kansas, 7-year old, Linda Brown was not allowed to enroll in an all white Brown v school Board of •The NAACP (group of educated black men improving rights) helped Brown’s father sueEducation the Board of Education in Kansas; the case went all the way to the U.S. Supreme Court •The 1954 Court ruled the Plessy case was unconstitutional and that all schools were to be integrated “with all deliberate speed”. •Many states were very slow in executing the order
  3. 3. Major Developments •In 1945 the Georgia Constitution was rewritten •Before 1945, if the Governor died, the Constitution said that the Georgia Assembly“The Facts” would elect a governor from the next two candidates if the winner died before taking office •After 1945, the Constitution said that the lieutenant governor would be governor…prior to 1945, there was no position of lieutenant governor. •Eugene Talmadge was elected governor in November of 1946; he died in December of 1946, before he was sworn into office in January… •So, who should be the governor? •M.E. Thompson - was elected to be the Lieutenant Governor, but was not “sworn in 1946 yet”…Governor’s •Governor Arnall - was still in office (He refused to leave until the GA Supreme Court Race intervened…)Candidates •Herman Talmadge (Eugene’s son) - was asked to start a write in process due to the knowledge that his father might not live through the next election term
  4. 4. Major Developments •The Court decided that 3 candidates would be up for the General Assembly to vote on in January. •The Legislature ignored the decision; decided to chose from the top two (thinking Talmadge was one of those two (he was actually, third!)…once this was found out, the General Assembly adjourned (took a break)… 1946 •While adjourned, a box of ballots that had been “found” was delivered to Atlanta to beGovernor’s counted…these ballots were all in the same handwriting, all in alphabetical order, & Race some of the voters were already dead!“What really •The General Assembly voted & swore Herman Talmadge in at 2 a.m.happened?” •Governor Arnall knew the election to be illegal: refused to leave. He was escorted out by security under Talmadge’s orders (who then changed the office door locks!) •When Arnall returned the next day, he couldn’t get in & then set up a Governors office at his nearby law office, wrote his resignation letter 3 days later, and turned the position over to M.E. Thompson (who was supposed to be the acting governor, but others said he had “technically” never been sworn into Lt. Governor’s office •The Georgia Supreme Court ruled that Thompson was the acting Governor and a special election in 1948 to see who would finish the term… •It was controversial (maybe even embarrassing?) to Georgians due to the National news coverage that reported no one really knew who was running the state.
  5. 5. Herman Talmadge•Talmadge & Thompson ran in the 1948 election against each other: Talmadge won…(this was Eugene’s son)•He did improve conditions for all colors in Georgia although he was still a believer in segregation -He resisted integration and refused efforts to integrate society; even promised to bring back white primaries (but he didn’t succeed) -When he was a senator, he wrote an amendment trying to allow states to ignore Brown v Board of Ed. rulings•tried to improve education & built youth centers -He succeeded in getting teachers double pay -Expanded schools to include K-12 -Helped get the school year expanded to 9 months while raising the standard for support facilities & equipment w/ a 3 % sales tax•supported building hospitals and health centers all overthe state•Worked on building better roads across rural areas•Went on to be elected as a state senator
  6. 6. Benjamin Mays • Born in South Carolina to parents who were former slaves • Was an older black leader in Atlanta; President of Morehouse College • Ordained Baptist minister who mentored Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. & others • Believed in the dignity of others; did not believe in using violence for change • Felt that black people in America were not treated as they should be • Served as Atlanta’s 1st Black School board President • Was a mediator between blacks & whites during the SNCC protests in Atlanta • Gave a speech at Dr. King’s funeral
  7. 7. Martin Luther King Jr. •Jan 15, 1929; Atlanta native; Grandfather one of the founders of the NAACP “Letter from •Attended Morehouse College; Became pastor of Dexter Ave. Baptist Church, AL; BirminghamPersonal -he came from a long line of pastors jail” History •Married Coretta Scott, 1953 is considered •After studying Gandhi’s reforms and the Rosa Parks bus episode, he was the most appointed to lead the Montgomery Improvement Association important •Four point approach: writings of Social a. Direct, non-violent actions b. Legal remedies the CivilDistinctions c. Ballots d. Economic boycott Rights movement •1957 assisted with formation Southern Christian Leadership Conference •1957 moved back to AL •1963 helped organize protests in Birmingham AL that were noted for police violence •1964 Pres. Kennedy helped push legislation that resulted in 1964 Civil Rights Act •1967 began Poor People’s Campaign to help economic issues that the legislation didn’t cover •Aug. 28, 1963, March on Washington, gave “I Have a Dream” speech •1968, Memphis, TN gave his “I’ve Been to the Mountaintop” speech •April 4, 1968 was assassinated (day after the speech in TN - on the balcony of Lorraine Hotel) •Time Magazine’s 1963 Man of the Year; 1964- Nobel Peace Prize donated the entire $54000 prize money to the black movement (2nd African American to receive this)
  8. 8. State Flags 1920-1956 2001-2003 2003-present 1956-2001
  9. 9. Why the big deal? •1956-a new flag GA legislators changed the flag to include the St. Andrew’s Confederate Cross •Many legislators said it was to honor Confederate veterans & the state’s heritage •African American’s were offended for the reference to slavery •Modern leaders were discouraged that people were looking at the past & not into the future State •Many felt that this flag meant resistance to desegregation and fighting court orders Flag •The new political party called the “Dixiecrats” used it as a protest symbolIssues •Other southern states used it to represent resistance •The KKK used it in their activities •Many citizens wrote letters to the editor of the Atlanta Constitution against adopting the flag •The use of the flag damaged the reputation and tourist industry in GA •Lost convention & exhibition money •Boycotts imposed on conventions •2001- Gov. Roy Barnes was asked to change the flag by civic leaders, business men/developers, the hospitality industry, the Atlanta Convention & Visitors Bureau and the legislative Black Caucus •It was changed but still contained the illustration of the confederate flag •2003 -Sonny Perdue used the flag as a campaign issue and won against Gov. Barnes •The 2003 flag is based on the first flag of the Confederacy, 2004 the flag was voted on 3-1 by the people of Georgia
  10. 10. History• Make a timeline of the important historical eventsName of Event 1 Name of Event 2 Name of Event 3 Name of Event 4 Name of Event 5 Name of Event 61st Date 2nd Date 3rd Date 4th Date 5th Date 6th DateDescription of Description of Description of Description of Description of Description ofEvent Event Event Event Event Event

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