Georgia's Colonization

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Georgia's Colonization

  1. 1. SS8H2a Explain the importance of James Oglethorpe, the Charter of 1732, reasons for settlement (charity, economics, and defense), Tomochichi, Mary Musgrove, and the city of Savannah. Concepts: Movement / Migration Individuals – Groups – Institutions
  2. 2. COLONIZATION of GEORGIA SS8H2a ESSENTIAL QUESTION What were the three main reasons for creating the colony of Georgia?
  3. 3. EQ: What were the three main reasons for creating the colony of Georgia? CHARITY ECONOMICS DEFENSE REASONS FOR COLONIZING GEORGIA
  4. 4. COLONIZATION of GEORGIA SS8H2a ESSENTIAL QUESTION What was important about the Charter of 1732?
  5. 5. CHARTER OF 1732 • WHO: King George II, James Oglethorpe, 20 trustees, total of 115 colonists • WHAT: Document to start a colony in Georgia • WHEN: 1732 • WHERE: All land between Altamaha and Savannah Rivers to the south seas, Town of Savannah on Yamacraw Bluff • WHY: 1) protection from Spanish, French, and Native Americans, 2) provide resources for Britain, 3) populate the colony with “worthy poor”
  6. 6. THE TRUSTEES Twenty one men (including James Oglethorpe) who were the founders of the Georgia colony. They negotiated treaties with the Native Americans, made regulations (guideline or rules) about what the colonists could and could not do. They were entrusted by King George II to manage the colony of Georgia.
  7. 7. • Georgia as a Trustee Colony: • 21 Trustees in charge for 20 years • They could not own land, hold office, get paid. • Looked for industrious skilled workers who were down on their luck. (Debtors) • The trustees hoped the settlers would produce wine and silk to send back to England. • New settlers had to plant mulberry trees for the raising of silkworms .
  8. 8. Not everyone and everything was welcome in Georgia Liquor Rum Blacks Can you guess why? Refer to page 116 in your text (Georgia and the American Experience) Lawyers Catholics
  9. 9. Strict Rules for the Colonists • No slaves were allowed in the colony. • No rum or other liquor was allowed. • Land was limited to 50 acres per family.
  10. 10. COLONIZATION of GEORGIA SS8H2a ESSENTIAL QUESTION What role did James Oglethorpe, Tomochichi, and Mary Musgrove play in the colonization of Georgia?
  11. 11. EQ: What role did James Oglethorpe, Tomochichi, and Mary Musgrove play in the colonization of Georgia? Tomochichi Chief of the Yamacraw Indians. Became friends with Oglethorpe and allowed colonists to settle on Yamacraw Bluff near Savannah River in order to trade with the English. Traveled to England and convinced his own people the English had good intentions of colonizing the land in Georgia. Signed Treaty of Savannah. Mary Musgrove Daughter of an English trader and Creek Indian mother. She served as a translator for Tomochichi and Oglethorpe and helped the peaceful relationship between Indians and colonists by operating a trading post in Savannah. James Oglethorpe Englishman who founded the colony of Georgia and built the city of Savannah. Served in British military and Parliament and convinced King George II to grant him a charter to colonize Georgia with English citizens who were in debt. Resident Trustee.
  12. 12. James Oglethorpe with Tomochichi and Mary Musgrove
  13. 13. Geography Where is the city of Savannah?
  14. 14. SS8H2b Evaluate the Trustee Period of Georgia’s colonial history, emphasizing the role of the Salzburgers, Highland Scots, malcontents, and the Spanish threat from Florida. Concepts: Individuals – Groups – Institutions Governance Conflict and Change
  15. 15. COLONIZATION of GEORGIA PAGE 16 IN GEORGIA JOURNAL SS8H2b ESSENTIAL QUESTION What role did the Salzburgers and Highland Scots play in Georgia’s colonial history?
  16. 16. TRUSTEE PERIOD • • • • • • • TRUSTEE PERIOD LASTED FROM 1732 – 1752 KING GEORGE II ALLOWED THE TRUSTEES TO GOVERN THE COLONY TRUSTEES WERE A GROUP OF MEN WHO GOVERNED THE COLONY OF GEORGIA, LED BY JAMES OGLETHORPE TRUSTEES CREATED LAWS AND REGULATIONS: COLONISTS COULD NOT OWN SLAVES, ALCOHOL WAS BANNED, CATHOLICS WERE NOT ALLOWED TO SETTLE IN GEORGIA, WOMEN COULD NOT INHERIT LAND SIGNED TREATIES WITH NATIVE AMERICANS TO ACQUIRE LAND AND AS AN ALLY TO FIGHT AGAINST THE SPANISH NEW COLONISTS ARRIVED TO GEORGIA: SALZBURGERS AND HIGHLAND SCOTS – BROUGHT WITH THEM THEIR CULTURE RELIGIOUS FREEDOM IN GEORGIA ATTRACTED EUROPEAN PROTESTANTS – EVENTUALLY THE METHODISTS CHURCH WAS FOUNDED IN GEORGIA
  17. 17. SALZBURGERS • “The Georgia Salzburgers, a group of Germanspeaking Protestant colonists, founded the town of Ebenezer in what is now Effingham County. Arriving in 1734, the group received support from King George II of England and the Georgia Trustees after being expelled from its home in the Catholic principality of Salzburg (in presentday Austria). The Salzburgers survived extreme hardships in both Europe and Georgia to establish a prosperous and culturally unique community.” - New Georgia Encyclopedia
  18. 18. SALZBURGERS key points • 1734 - came to Georgia after being expelled from Germany / Austria for not being Catholic • Protestants who wanted religious freedom • Created the town of Ebenezer, but was too swampy to survive • Relocated to the town of New Ebenezer along Savannah River – became a very religious community, also had silk mills • Trustees liked the hard working Salzburgers because they did not like slavery or alcohol which were rules the colonists had to live by
  19. 19. Rincon, Georgia is where the town of New Ebenezer was located.
  20. 20. Sketch of Ebenezer, Georgia Print from Von Reck Archive, Royal Library of Denmark, Copenhagen
  21. 21. MAP OF THE SALZBURGER SETTLEMENT OF NEW EBENEZER ON THE SAVANNAH RIVER
  22. 22. SALZBURGERS Whatever you forget about the Salzburgers between now and the CRCT, at least remember this… The Salzburgers were Protestant Christians who were kicked out of Catholic controlled Germany and wanted religious freedom in Georgia.
  23. 23. ROLE OF THE SALZBURGERS AND HIGHLAND SCOTS • • • • • WHO: SALZBURGERS WHAT: GROUP OF PROTESTANT PEOPLE FROM EUROPE (GERMANY / AUSTRIA) WHO HELPED COLONIZE GEORGIA WHEN: 1734 WHERE: BUILT THE TOWN OF NEW EBENEZER NORTHWEST OF SAVANNAH ALONG THE SAVANNAH RIVER. WHY: ESCAPED RELIGIOUS PERSECUTION FROM CATHOLIC CONTROLLED GERMANY / AUSTRIA • • WHO: HIGHLAND SCOTS WHAT: • • WHEN: WHERE: • WHY:
  24. 24. HIGHLAND SCOTS • “James Oglethorpe wanted to protect the Georgia colony from possible attacks from Spanish Florida. The men of Scotland had the reputation of being good soldiers, and so Oglethorpe recruited a group of about 175 Highland Scots to settle in the area south of Savannah. The group arrived at the Altamaha River in 1736 and established a settlement they originally called New Inverness. Later, they changed the name to Darien.” - Dr. Glen Blankenship and Vicki Wood
  25. 25. HIGHLAND SCOTS key points • Came to Georgia in 1736 from Scotland • Built the town / fort of Darien south of Savannah along the Altamaha River • Reputation of hard working people who were good soldiers • Protected the Georgia colony from Spanish Florida – helped Oglethorpe push the Spanish out of Georgia in the Battle of Bloody Marsh • Changed from farming to cattle raising and harvesting timber • Opposed slavery in the colony
  26. 26. Darien: Where the Highland Scots built a fort and settlement to protect the colony from Spanish Florida.
  27. 27. HIGHLAND SCOTS SUMMARY Whatever you forget about the Highland Scots between now and the CRCT, at least remember this… The Highland Scots were soldiers who colonized Georgia by creating the town of Darien and helped defend the colony from the Spanish during the Battle of Bloody Marsh.
  28. 28. ROLE OF THE SALZBURGERS AND HIGHLAND SCOTS • • • • • WHO: SALZBURGERS WHAT: GROUP OF PROTESTANT PEOPLE FROM EUROPE (GERMANY / AUSTRIA) WHO HELPED COLONIZE GEORGIA WHEN: 1734 WHERE: BUILT THE TOWN OF NEW EBENEZER NORTHWEST OF SAVANNAH ALONG THE SAVANNAH RIVER. WHY: ESCAPED RELIGIOUS PERSECUTION FROM CATHOLIC CONTROLLED GERMANY / AUSTRIA • • • • • WHO: HIGHLAND SCOTS WHAT: GROUP OF SOLDIERS FROM SCOTLAND WHO HELP COLONIZE GEORGIA AND DEFEND THE COLONY FROM THE SPANISH WHEN: 1736 WHERE: BUILT THE TOWN & FORT CALLED DARIEN ALONG THE ALTAMAHA RIVER AND RAISED CATTLE AND TIMBER WHY: OGLETHORPE NEEDED THEIR MILITARY HELP TO DEFEAT THE SPANISH DURING THE BATTLE OF BLOODY MARSH
  29. 29. SS8H2b Evaluate the Trustee Period of Georgia’s colonial history, emphasizing the role of the Salzburgers, Highland Scots, malcontents, and the Spanish threat from Florida. Concepts: Individuals – Groups – Institutions Governance Conflict and Change
  30. 30. COLONIZATION of GEORGIA PAGE 17 IN GEORGIA JOURNAL SS8H2b ESSENTIAL QUESTION How did Georgia react to the Spanish threat from Florida?
  31. 31. WAR OF JENKINS’ EAR BETWEEN THE SPANISH AND ENGLISH
  32. 32. BATTLE OF BLOODY MARSH “On July 7, 1742, English and Spanish forces skirmished on St. Simons Island in an encounter later known as the Battle of Bloody Marsh. This event was the only Spanish attempt to invade Georgia during the War of Jenkins' Ear, and it resulted in a significant English victory. General James Oglethorpe redeemed his reputation from his defeat at St. Augustine, Florida, two years earlier, and the positive psychological effects upon his troops, settlers, other colonists, and the English populace rallied them to the cause to preserve Georgia.” - New Georgia Encyclopedia
  33. 33. SS8H2b Evaluate the Trustee Period of Georgia’s colonial history, emphasizing the role of the Salzburgers, Highland Scots, malcontents, and the Spanish threat from Florida. Concepts: Individuals – Groups – Institutions Governance Conflict and Change
  34. 34. COLONIZATION of GEORGIA PAGE 18 IN GEORGIA JOURNAL SS8H2b ESSENTIAL QUESTION Who were the malcontents, and why were they so upset with Oglethorpe and the Trustees?
  35. 35. MALCONTENTS “Whereas many of Georgia's original settlers came with monetary aid from the Trustees, most of the Malcontents arrived without assistance and thus did not have the same loyalty to the colony's founders. In particular, the Malcontents objected to the Trustees' limits on land ownership and prohibitions on slavery and rum. Since the Malcontents could afford to purchase slaves and vast tracts of land, they felt the policies of the Trustees prevented them from realizing their economic potential.” - New Georgia Encyclopedia
  36. 36. PRIMARY SOURCE DOCUMENT “During the 1730s, Scottish settler Patrick Tailfer led a group of colonists, knowns as the Malcontents, in protest of various laws and policies enforced by the Georgia Trustees. “ - New Georgia Encyclopedia
  37. 37. COMPARING TWO COLONIES GEORGIA • TRUSTEE COLONY • NO SLAVERY • NO RUM • LAND LIMITS 50 acres • FEMALE COULD NOT INHERIT LAND • FORCED TO GROW MULBERRY TREES, GRAPES, AND INDIGO PLANTS • STRUGGLED TO MAKE MONEY SOUTH CAROLINA • ROYAL COLONY • SLAVERY WAS ALLOWED • TRADE RUM WITH INDIANS • NO LAND LIMITS • FEMALES COULD INHERIT LAND • COULD GROW COTTON, RICE, AND TOBACCO • VERY PROFITABLE
  38. 38. SS8H2c Explain the development of Georgia as a royal colony with regard to land ownership, slavery, government, and the impact of the royal governors. Concepts: Individuals – Groups – Institutions Governance Distribution of Power
  39. 39. COLONIZATION of GEORGIA PAGE 19 IN GEORGIA JOURNAL SS8H2c ESSENTIAL QUESTION How did Georgia change from a Trustee colony to a Royal colony?
  40. 40. ROYAL COLONY LAND OWNERSHIP SLAVERY GOVERNMENT • colonists allowed to own and sell more land • only wealthy could own slaves • Royal governors appointed by King • worked on rice plantations • Trustee laws repealed • planters bought more and more land • bi-cameral legislature • changed the economy of Georgia – grew rich • white males with property could vote • large plantations farms with slave labor • social classes developed • border of Georgia increased south to St. Mary’s River and west to Mississippi River • slaves were property and had no rights • colonists had more freedom: self-government • court system to settle disputes
  41. 41. SS8H2c Explain the development of Georgia as a royal colony with regard to land ownership, slavery, government, and the impact of the royal governors. Concepts: Individuals – Groups – Institutions Governance Distribution of Power
  42. 42. COLONIZATION of GEORGIA PAGE 20 IN GEORGIA JOURNAL SS8H2c ESSENTIAL QUESTION What impact did the Royal Governors have on the colony of Georgia?
  43. 43. EQ: What impact did the Royal Governors have on the colony of Georgia? John Reynolds Henry Ellis James Wright • 1st Royal Governor of Georgia • 2nd Royal Governor • 3rd (last) Royal Governor • Brought self-government • Restored the colony • Very popular • Set up court systems • Reformed the government • Increased the size of GA • Colony was poor • Divided GA into parishes • Economy improved • Unpopular and ineffective • Helped the Creek Indians • Population increased • Poor relations with Indians • Well liked and respected • Removed from office
  44. 44. ROYAL GEORGIA GEORGIA’S PHYSICAL BOUNDARIES INCREASE SOUTH TO ST. MARY’S RIVER EXTENDING WEST TO THE MISSISSIPPI RIVER

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