SNCC April 1960•“Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee” (snick) •Encouraged fighting for civil rights using non-violent, direct action•Originally started in North Carolina; •Georgian, John Lewis, 1st President •Ella Baker executive secretary of SCLC• Students felt that older black community was too accepting and not advancing change fast enough•Organized boycotts & “sit-ins”; usually at all white lunch counters • Sit-in: to sit until someone served you or your demands are met•Dr. Benjamin Mays often made deals with whites and young blacks in Atlanta at these events so that no-one got hurt•Organization helped plan the March on Washington
Beginning in 1960, black students in Southerncities staged in sit-ins at segregated lunchcounters that only served white customers.After their early success, the protestors formedthe Student Non-Violent CoordinatingCommittee (SNCC) to mobilize student civilrights efforts. Originally headed by John L.Lewis, SNCC was allied with, but separatefrom, the Congress for Racial Equality(CORE), SCLC, and the NAACP.
Sibley Commission•Most GA school systems refused to integrate•1955 General Assembly said it wouldn’t fund any system that integrated•A US judge ordered GA to have an integration plan by fall 1960 & that the General Assembly would have to repeal their laws against integration•John Sibley (attorney/banker) was put in charge of a committee ordered by the courts to investigate the problem of integration •Sibley went around the state and gave the two options: close schools or integrate •If one school had a black student enter it, it would close under GA law, then all schools would have to close•People felt they were “heard” & the committee suggested the state stop using resistance•The judge felt Georgia was trying and gave them one more year to integrate•A judgment was given that the local school boards would provide the decisions…thisallowed the slowing of the process to integrate…
Ernest Vandiver Under Ernest Vandivers governorship, from 1959 to 1963, the legislature implemented sweeping changes in the segregation policies ofGeorgias public schools. The county unitsystem for nominating officeholders was also revised during his tenure.
Albany Movement•1961 Center for Civil Rights activity (population 40% African American)•Held several sit-ins at the bus and railroad stations, held meetings, & led protest marches; some with Dr. Martin Luther King/Ralph David Abernathy & freedom riders•Between Nov & Dec, 500 + demonstrators went to jail •They were arrested while kneeling & praying outside city hall•Movement ran out of $ after a while; some thought they failed•Others felt success as one citizen was in a run-off for a city commission seat & in 1963, Albany removed its segregation laws•Led to case of Baker v Carr; it caused the state to restructure its districts representation in the General Assembly •Leroy Johnson was 1st black to be elected to General Assembly since Reconstruction
UGA ADMISSIONS•Hamilton Holmes & Charlayne Hunter were first two black students allowed to enter UGA •They had to file a lawsuit first•Jan. 1961, a judge ordered the school to admit the two students by the following Monday morning.•The students were admitted while being surrounded by newsmen and escorted by police•Some people in Georgia were angry because they voted for this Governor (Vandiver) who pledged to keep the schools from being integrated.•Gov. Vandiver called the UGA President & instructed him to let them enroll•If they didn’t allow the students to attend, the oldest University would have had to close•The two students had to leave for awhile due to harassment/threats from other students•Homes graduated & was an orthopedic surgeon until his death in 1995•Hunter-Gault married and was a nationally known newspaper/television reporter•Vandiver renounced his pre-election attitude & requested the GA legislature to repeal the other segregation laws in GA •This resulted in smoother integration for other school systems•2001 The building where the two registered was named Hunter-Holmes Academic Building
University of Georgia students racing aroundcampus in protest to the registration of 2 African American students.
•After Albany, black leaders planned protests in Birmingham that resulted in disaster •This disaster was reported & national attention was focused on Civil Rights March on •Goals of the March were:Washington • Acceptable Civil Rights Laws • Fair Employment • A large Federal works program • Adequate housing, education, & suffrage •Pres. Kennedy announced on TV that segregation had become a moral crisis for the US •He sent Congress the strongest Civil Rights Bill in history Civil •After Kennedy’s assassination, president Lyndon B. Johnson pushed through Rights the bill to a law Act-1964 •The Equal Protection clause gave the 14th amendment more influence; prohibiting segregation in restaurants, hotels, theaters, public recreation areas, schools, & libraries •Gave the Federal Government the right to withhold federal funds to those schools that didn’t integrate •Promised nondiscrimination in the distribution of federal monies
Lester Maddox- “People Person”•1967-a segregationist/restaurant owner that closed his restaurant rather than integrate it- who became a governor (He said “forced” integration/segregation was wrong) •As a “state’s rights supporter” he felt it was death to “freedom, liberty, & independence”•He was a run-off winner in an election against Ellis Arnall in a “Primary Election”•In the “General Election, “ he ran against Howard “Bo” Callaway…due to write-ins for Arnall, Maddox won the election•He surprised people by appointing more Africa Americans to state boards/commissions than all other governors combined: Named 1st black member to Board of Pardons/Paroles reformed state prisons integrated the GA State Patrol•Made improvements to education •Increased teacher salaries •Spent money on higher education•Encouraged “People Days”-people could visit the mansion & discuss anything they wished•He was then elected LT. Governor since he could not run another term (the gov. was Jimmy Carter)
Maynard Jackson•Atlanta’s youngest & 1st African American Mayor; 1974 •Ceremony had to be held at the Civic Center because city hall•Died the same week as Maddox; 2003…his name was added to airport; recognized as one of Atlanta’s great leaders•Graduated from Morehouse College when he was 18•He was remembered for his size and dress (6’3” & 300 Lbs); wore expensive, stylish clothes•From a prominent family; Grandson of early black leaders•Ran for Senate in 1968-lost against Herman Talmadge•Ran for vice-mayor of Atlanta in 1969 – won• Mayoral accomplishments: •Reduced size of city government •Lowered crime rates •MARTA started •Black businesses got more contracts to work on city projects •Expanded airport…worked for black business contracts with airport •Atlanta chosen for 1996 Olympic Games •Encouraged the use of Affirmative Actions which helped blacks get higher status jobs
Maynard JacksonElected mayor of Atlanta in 1973, Maynard Jackson was the first African American to serve as mayor of a major southern city. Jackson served eight years and then returned for a third term in 1990.
Andrew Young•Best remembered for civil rights changes & political leadership•Top aide to Dr. Martin Luther King Jr.•Lead Civil Rights movements: Albany, Birmingham,•Was part of SCLC (taught citizenship schools; non-violent organizational strategies to black leaders)•Worked with King on Poor People’s campaign in 1968 (was there at King’s assassination)•Rep. to Congress from 1973-1977 (his district was 62% white; 1st black elected since 1860’s)•UN Ambassador 1982-1990 •Helped International representatives & businesses relocate or set up offices in Atlanta •Helped international banking come to Georgia•Atlanta Committee Co-Chairman for 1996 Olympics•Chairman of GoodWorks International (helps companies work with developing nations)•Supported Carter – helped Carter get elected•Was very trusted & respected for wisdom; fair decisions•Maynard Jackson convinced him to run for Mayor of Atlanta (served two terms) •Changed rules so that businesses could easily relocate •20,000 permits were issued during him 1st 3 years •Made is easier for entrepreneurs to try new businesses•1999 Georgia State University named a college- “Andrew Young School of Policy Study”•Is a professor at Georgia State University
Presidential Medal of Freedom Recipient Andrew Young