Environmental Seminar08 Archaeology Presentation


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Presentation to 2008 Quarry Planning seminar

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Environmental Seminar08 Archaeology Presentation

  1. 1. Archaeology <ul><li>Since 2002 the Archaeological Code of Practice has been operating between the ICF and Government. </li></ul><ul><li>The Code’s purpose is to provide a framework within which ICF members are enabled to continue their operations while avoiding impacts on archaeological heritage. </li></ul><ul><li>ICF members agreed to avoid impacts on archaeology whenever possible </li></ul><ul><li>. </li></ul>
  2. 2. <ul><li>Where avoidance is not possible ICF members agreed to fully fund the preservation by record of all sites being removed by development works. </li></ul><ul><li>The ICF has appointed a Project Archaeologist to implement the Code and co-ordinate the industry response. </li></ul><ul><li>Part of the role of the Project Archaeologist is to prepare the specification for the consultant archaeologist at AIA stage and ensure that all preparatory archaeological work for the AIA is of the highest standard. </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>The Project Archaeologist now meets with the DoEHLG on a monthly basis. </li></ul><ul><li>The Code is currently being reviewed and an updated version will be launched later in the year. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Section 261 of the Planning Act 2000: Control of Quarries <ul><li>Came into force April 2004 </li></ul><ul><li>Archaeological conditions imposed selectively </li></ul><ul><li>Where archaeological conditions have been imposed under Section 261 they relate to the: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fencing of monuments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provision of buffer zones </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Preparation of Archaeological Impact Assessments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Preparation of Architectural Impact Assessments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Archaeological monitoring </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>As many more quarries are now working under archaeological conditions the challenge for the coming years will be to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Develop a sustainable approach to the industries' operations. </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Quarry Managers <ul><li>Quarry Managers need to be familiar with the 261 conditions for their site. </li></ul><ul><li>They need to have the 261 documents available to them for reference. </li></ul><ul><li>They also need to be aware of any archaeology on their sites. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Avoidance <ul><li>The most sustainable means of dealing with archaeology remains avoidance whenever possible. </li></ul><ul><li>This can be achieved by checking lands before acquisition. </li></ul><ul><li>Through.. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Map-based survey Avoiding areas with known monuments
  9. 9. Aerial photography Identifying previously unknown monuments
  10. 10. Geophysics Identifying sub-surface monuments pre-acquisition
  11. 11. On Existing quarries <ul><li>Where existing quarries have known or suspected archaeological monuments it will usually also be most sustainable to avoid these through design. </li></ul>Access Buffer <ul><li>Visual amenity can be restored through the restoration process. </li></ul>Ringfort
  12. 12. Avoidance through design can be achieved by: <ul><li>Establishing adequate buffers </li></ul><ul><li>Retaining field boundaries whenever possible </li></ul><ul><li>Retaining woodland </li></ul><ul><li>Constructing screening mounds </li></ul>
  13. 13. Establishing adequate buffers Fencing Buffer
  14. 14. Retaining woodland <ul><li>  </li></ul>Tower House Quarry screened by trees
  15. 15. Retaining field boundaries whenever possible Field Boundary Quarry View from Ringfort
  16. 16. Screening Mounds Screening mound Quarry Original surface Ringfort
  17. 17. Preservation by Record <ul><li>Where avoidance is impossible and this can be demonstrated the DoEHLG may agree to licence excavation work. </li></ul>Excavated Barrow Quarry
  18. 18. Planning Ahead <ul><li>Forward planning is the key to sustainability. </li></ul><ul><li>The best approach will be to identify what areas will be stripped over the life of the quarry . </li></ul>
  19. 19. <ul><li>And have these geophysically prospected </li></ul>
  20. 20. Advantages of Geophysics <ul><li>The entire development area can be prospected quickly. </li></ul><ul><li>The work can be done months and years in advance. </li></ul><ul><li>Any archaeological features identified can be resolved well before the lands are needed for development. </li></ul><ul><li>. </li></ul>
  21. 21. Geophysics can be carried out without damaging valuable pasture or arable lands
  22. 22. Testing Any anomalies will usually have to be tested but this can be timed to avoid planting times
  23. 23. Monitoring <ul><li>Where monitoring is selected the work must be done well in advance and because of the risk of uncovering archaeological material should never be left to the last minute. </li></ul><ul><li>Where archaeological material is uncovered the monitoring archaeologist should cordon it off and mark it on the ground. </li></ul>
  24. 24. The archaeologist should then prepare a report that accurately describes and locates the archaeological material. On the basis of this report one will be in the position to make an informed decision on whether to excavate the material or preserve it.
  25. 25. <ul><li>Any decision will be made after considering the location of the archaeology in relation to the development and the significance of archaeology and in consultation with the Dept. </li></ul><ul><li>Depending on the location of the archaeology it may be practical to preserve it in situ. </li></ul>Quarry edge Burnt spread at quarry edge, preserved in situ
  26. 26. <ul><li>Or, the significance of the archaeology may require preservation in situ. </li></ul><ul><li>In situations where the location and significance of the archaeology allow the Dept. may agree to grant a licence for preservation by record . </li></ul>
  27. 27. <ul><li>In these cases the monitoring report will serve as the basis for the preparation of a project brief for next phase of the work. </li></ul><ul><li>Depending on the complexity of the archaeology the next phase may be full excavation, archaeological testing, geophysical investigation, or a combination of all three. </li></ul>
  28. 28. Conclusion <ul><li>Check out the Sec. 261 conditions for archaeology </li></ul><ul><li>Make sure quarry managers are aware of the archaeology on their sites </li></ul><ul><li>Always avoid archaeological impact </li></ul><ul><li>Retain natural features whenever possible </li></ul>
  29. 29. <ul><li>Archaeological excavation is the last resort </li></ul><ul><li>Where monitoring is a condition soil stripping must be planned be planned well in advance </li></ul><ul><li>Consider geophysics for larger areas. </li></ul>