Electronic fuel injection

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Electronic fuel injection

  1. 1. ELECTRONIC FUEL INJECTION
  2. 2. Introduction • Strict emission standards require precise fuel delivery • Computers used to calculate fuel needs • EFI very precise, reliable & cost effective • EFI provide correct A/F ratio for all loads, speeds, & temp ranges
  3. 3. The Fuel Injector • Electromechanical device • Controlled by PCM • Engine rpm determines when injector opens • How long it stays open determined by: – Engine temp – Engine load – Throttle pos. – O2 sensor voltage
  4. 4. Throttle Body Injection (TBI) • First injection unit used • Housing similar to Carb • One or two injector • One or two of these units mounted to intake manifold FIG 6-40 CLASS
  5. 5. LOW PRESSURE FUEL INJECTOR • 13-16 psi operating pressure • Ball style pintle • Easily replaceable
  6. 6. GM’s Crossfire Injection
  7. 7. Multi-Port Fuel Injection • One injector per cylinder • Mounts in intake manifold, sprays directly at intake valve • Fired in groups or individually (SFI) • Ram Tuning for denser air charge • Lower A/F temps • Leaner mixture during warm-up
  8. 8. Bosch & Delphi Multec
  9. 9. Fuel Pressure Regulator • Located at end of fuel rail • Maintains constant pressure at injectors • Internal chamber contains a diaphragm – Pressurized fuel on one side – Manifold vacuum & spring tension on other • Manifold vacuum pulls up on diaphragm, metering fuel that is returned to tank • Excess fuel pressure can overcome spring tension, allowing fuel to return to tank • Increases in manifold pressure causes spring tension to push diaphragm down, blocking return line, increasing pressure in rail.
  10. 10. Fuel Pressure Regulator
  11. 11. Fuel return Vacuum hose connection Fuel rail Fuel Pressure Regulator
  12. 12. Central Port Injection (CPI) • Injector located in center of intake manifold • 60 psi system • 6 or 8 poppet valves attached to one TBI type injector
  13. 13. Central Multi-Port Injection (CMPI) • Similar to CPI • Individual injectors, with poppet valves
  14. 14. CMPI Connections Electrical Connectors Fuel Supply Fuel Return
  15. 15. CMPI Up Close Fuel Pressure Regulator Cylinder Numbers
  16. 16. Poppet Nozzles • Contains a check ball & extension spring • Regulate the flow of fuel into cylinder • Fuel flows when pressure exceeds 40 psi • Ball reseats when pressure drops
  17. 17. Injector Testing • Coil Test – Specific current supplied, measures voltage drop • Injector Balance – Inj. Energized for a precise time frame, record fuel pressure drop
  18. 18. Injector Circuit Testing • Noid lights • Simple test light that plugs into injector connector • Light flashes with each electrical pulse
  19. 19. Injector Cleaning • Periodic cleaning removes varnish & other deposits • Pressurized canister dispenses cleaning solution • MUST disconnect fuel pump!

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