"Cloud infrastructure design is complex and makes even the most straight-forward topics, such as Identity and Access Management (IAM), non-trivial and confusing and therefore, full of security risk. While AWS IAM provides for access via console and API/CLI using access keys, there is also a temporary security tokens feature, designed for secure temporary access. However, temporary tokens have multiple security pot-holes that can lead to exploits. I'll explore the limitations of temporary tokens including: - the lack of visibility/management - minimal logging - limited remediation options and how this can be taken advantage of, especially in combination with other techniques such as assuming of roles, pre-signed URLs, log attacks, and serverless functions to achieve persistence, lateral movement, and obfuscation. In addition, I’ll look at common defensive techniques and best practices around lockdown, provisioning, logging and alerting to see whether these are practical and can shift the field."