Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

CIS 2015 How to secure the Internet of Things? Hannes Tschofenig


Published on

Companies and researchers are exploring ways to make software and hardware development easier for the masses. Soon you will be able to build your own autonomous drone, create a sensor that assess the watering needs of your plants, and develop a cat tracking device with minimal coding and hardware skills.
What is the place of security and privacy in this exciting development?
Are we building the next generation of Internet security vulnerabilities right now?
In his talk Hannes Tschofenig will highlight challenges with Internet of Things, what role standardization plays, and what contributions ARM, a provider of microprocessor IP, is making to improve IoT security.

Published in: Technology
  • Be the first to comment

CIS 2015 How to secure the Internet of Things? Hannes Tschofenig

  1. 1. 1 How to secure the Internet ofThings? Cloud Identity Summit 2015 Hannes Tschofenig 9th June 2015
  2. 2. 2 What is Internet of Things?
  3. 3. 3 §  Ubuntu Core devices will require a 600MHz processor with 128MB RAM and a 4GB flash for factory reset and system rollback. §  Ubuntu Core itself will only take up 40MB RAM leaving the rest for applications. Recent IoT Announcement
  4. 4. 4 Another Example
  5. 5. 5 ARM Processors in Smartphones §  Cortex-A family: §  Applications processors for feature-rich OS §  Cortex-R family: §  Embedded processors for real-time signal processing and industrial control applications §  Cortex-M family: §  Microcontroller-oriented processors for low-power applications.
  6. 6. 6 Cortex-M Processors Lowest cost Low power Example:Touchscreen Controller Lowest power Outstanding energy efficiency Example: Sensor node Bluetooth Smart Performance & efficiency Feature rich connectivity Example:Weables, Activity trackers,Wifi receiver Digital Signal Control (DSC)/ Processor with DSP Accelerated SIMD Floating point (FP) Example: Sensor fusion, motor control Processors use the 32-bit RISC architecture Maximum Performance Flexible Memory Cache Single & Double Precision FP Examples:Automotive, High-end audio set
  7. 7. 7 IoT Device Constraints §  Common limitations of IoT devices, as described in RFC 7228 on “Terminology for Constrained-Node Networks” §  RAM §  Flash §  Energy consumption (including sleeping nodes) §  CPU capabilities §  Radio technologies with low bitrate, high loss, and small frame sizes (e.g., Bluetooth Smart, IEEE 802.15.4). §  also focus on cost reduction.
  8. 8. 8 Cost Distribution Reducing total system cost by enabling better system tradeoffs We care about this. … if it results in savings here … (e.g. sophisticated power management) But it can make sense to spend more here … (e.g., on flash/RAM, CPU, BOM) = + + Total Cost Hardware Cost Energy Cost Development Cost (amortized, inc. deployment cost) … and here. (e.g. firmware update, manageability) More detailed treatment of this topic in a webinar by Peter Aldworth about “How to Select Hardware for Volume IoT Deployments?”
  9. 9. 9 Example: STM32L063C8T6 Mouser Volume Price 1000 € 2,25 2500 € 2,14 5000 € 2,06 §  32bit CORTEX M0+ with max 32 Mhz §  Flash: 64 KB §  RAM: 8 KB §  Datasheet can be found here.
  10. 10. 10 Securing Internet of Things
  11. 11. 11 The Internet:A Distributed Design Story Deployment Implementation Protocol Specifications and Architecture Cryptographic Primitives Improved algorithms for integer factorization, too small key size. Missing end-to-end security story, complexity Buffer overflow attacks, poor UI or other usability problems, poor choice of hardware Enabled debug ports, unfortunate default settings Examples of Problems Understanding the distributed nature of the development process is essential for tackling security problems. Depending on your role you are a consumer of various technologies and you might be able to influence one or several areas.11
  12. 12. 12 Follow Design Patterns Learn from Attacks Following Security Recommendations Perform Classical Threat Analysis How to Secure IoT? 12 See IETF#92 plenary talk with Dave Thaler and Mary Barnes (Internet Architecture Board).
  13. 13. 13 Learn from Attacks §  Survey of attacks revealed a series of problems: 1.  Limited software update mechanism 2.  Missing key management 3.  Inappropriate access control 4.  Missing communication security 5.  Vulnerability to physical attacks §  Looking at real-world attacks allows us to easily see the need for security (and to convince others to take action). §  Don’t forget to secure the mobile/cloud interfaces as well, as discussed in the Open Web Application Security Project (OWASP) Internet of Things Top-10 2014* list. 13 (*) Note: OWASP might be biased in their assessment since the organization deals mostly with Web-based vulnerabilities.
  14. 14. 14 Limited Software Update Mechanism §  In a presentation at the Chaos Communication Congress in December 2014 a security vulnerability of devices implementing the TR69 protocol, which also provides a software update mechanism, was disclosed. §  Real problem: Fix released in 2005 by AllegroSoft already but has not been distributed along the value chain of chip manufacturers, gateway manufacturers, Internet service providers. §  What happens when vendors do not support certain products anymore? Do IoT devices need a “ time-to-die”/”shelf-life”? 14 •  In January 2014 Bruce Schneier published an article where he expresses concerns about the lack of software update mechanisms in IoT deployments.
  15. 15. 15 §  Example: LIFX - Internet connected light bulb §  The attack revealed that an AES key shared among all devices to simplify key management. §  The firmware image was extracted via JTAG using a Bus Blaster.Then, the firmware was analyzed using IDA Pro. §  Mistakes only made by startups? See BMW ConnectedDrive Pictures  taken  from  h1p://­‐internet-­‐connected-­‐light-­‐bulbs   15 Missing Key Management Problem
  16. 16. 16 Insteon LED Bulbs §  To find IoT devices connected to the Internet global scans have been used, for example, using ZMap. §  Similar problems have been seen with various other appliances, such as surveillance cameras, baby monitoring cameras and gas stations. §  Lacking access control to configuration files can cause problems for the entire system, as demonstrated with attacks against industrial control systems. 16 §  Insecure default settings have caused problems with Insteon LED Bulbs, as reported in “ When 'Smart Homes' Get Hacked: I Haunted A Complete Stranger's HouseVia The Internet” Inappropriate Access Control
  17. 17. 17 §  In “Green Lights Forever:Analyzing the Security of Traffic Infrastructure” Ghena,et al. analyzed the security of the traffic infrastructure. §  Results: §  “The wireless connections are unencrypted and the radios use factory default usernames and passwords.” §  “All of the settings on the controller may be configured via the physical interface on the controller, but they may also be modified though the network.An FTP connection to the device allows access to a writable configuration database.This requires a username and password, but they are fixed to default values which are published online by the manufacturer.” §  A similar attack also exploited the unencrypted communication. §  “I even tested the attack launched from a drone flying at over 650 feet, and it worked!” 17 Missing Communication Security
  18. 18. 18 §  Physical access to IoT devices introduces a wide range of additional attack possibilities. §  In some cases it might be necessary to extract keys contained on chip.This can be accomplished using power analysis, or fault injection (glitching) attacks. §  Tools for physical attacks decrease in cost and become easier to use. §  Important to keep these attacks in mind since we will see more of them in the future. Chip  Whisperer   JTAGulator   18 Vulnerability to Physical Attacks
  19. 19. 19 Not all “hacks” are security attacks §  Example: iRobot Create 2 §  The 2007 release Create  was a closed system and researchers “hacked it” to use it for educational purposes. §  Create 2 is the programmable version. §  Many border-line cases: §  Nest devices at and §  Remotely controlling cars using wireless dongles: §  Hacking a toaster: §  Hacking your printer:
  20. 20. 20 §  Integrate a software update mechanism and leave enough “head room”. §  Use modern operating system concepts to avoid system-wide compromise due to a single software bug. §  Use an automated key management protocol with proper authentication and authorization (access control). §  Threat analysis must take physical attacks into account. §  Use Internet security protocols offering communication security. §  Take security into account during the software development lifecycle and in the deployment phase. 20 Learn from Attacks, cont.
  21. 21. 21 §  Internet of Things security today is like PC security 20 years ago. §  Most attacks on consumer-oriented IoT systems fall under the ”script kiddie” category. §  For industrial control systems many attacks are already scary (see DragonFly, and attack against German steel factory). §  Risk analysis is often complex since hacked devices may be used for further attacks. Hence, indirect consequences also need to be taken into account. §  Examples: DDoS attacks using SNMP (used in printers), hacked Femto home router used for spying 21 Remarks
  22. 22. 22 Relationship Management Services Identified using resource identifiers Users Identified using existing identity management techniques Devices Identified using non-cryptographic identifiers and cryptographic Keying material (certificates, raw public keys) Relationship creation and orchestration
  23. 23. 23 Device Management with OMA LWM2M Mobile Device Management Device Management Bootstrapping Device Configuration Firmware Update Fault Management §  Key management §  Service provisioning §  Access Control §  Changes to settings §  Changes to parameters of the device §  Update application and system software §  Bug fixes §  Report Errors from devices §  Query about status of devices Application Configuration & Control Reporting §  Configure settings of the application §  Send control commands §  Notify changes in sensor values §  Notify alarms and events
  24. 24. 24 Going beyond OMA LWM2M §  New IETF working group on “ Authentication and Authorization for Constrained Environments” (ace) §  Use Cases document available §  Architecture specification in progress. §  Various solutions being discussed, including profiled version of UMA/OAuth. §  Wider range of use cases to manage device, users, and services and their access control decisions. §  Example: Employee demands access to enterprise building using their smart phone. Can we integrate existing enterprise user identity management solutions with door locks? §  Focuses on the constraints of IoT devices.
  25. 25. 25 How is ARM contributing to a more secure IoT?
  26. 26. 26 8+ years of IoT products 30+ official mbed boards 5+ years 24/7 70,000+ developers 9,000+ projects 1M+ builds/year Today at
  27. 27. 27 ARM Cortex®-M -based MCU mbed Ecosystem •  Partners •  Developers •  Enabled Services •  Enabled Products mbed Device Server •  Freemium model to enable startups •  Application data and device management •  Growth market access for cloud platforms and operators mbed OS •  Free for use on ARM architecture •  Leading connectivity standards •  Productivity, minimized costs •  Built-in management •  Security
  28. 28. 28 Lifecycle Security Communication Security Device Security mbedTLS IPv6, 6LoWPANIPv4 Cryptobox Device Management: LWM2M mbed OS mbed Device Interface using Web Standards Directory and Subscription ApplicationTransfer Protocols – CoAP, HTTP, MQTT mbedTLS Admin and Multi-tenancy Data Flow Management – RESTful and Publish/Subscribe Device Management – Lightweight M2M (LWM2M) mbed Device Server
  29. 29. 29 §  Few developers have strong security experience.We want to help them! §  mbed helps developers to accomplish their goals faster with less pain. §  Offers operating systems §  Internet protocol stack §  Comprehensive security foundation §  We are contributing in global standards organizations together with our partners to develop solutions for linking device and user identity management (such as IETF ACE). Summary