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Adding More Semantics to the Social Web


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Invited Lecture to the Semantic Web and Ontology Special Interest Group / National Institute of Informatics, Tokyo, Japan / 10th July 2015

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Adding More Semantics to the Social Web

  1. 1. SIG-SWO Invited Lecture, NII Adding more semantics to the Social Web: structure and content John Breslin, Leader, Unit for Social Software, Insight, NUI Galway ジョン・ブレスリン、上級講師、 アイルランド国立大学ゴールウェイ校 10th July 2015 Slidesジョン・ブレスリン
  2. 2. John Breslin ジョン・ブレスリン @johnbreslin @jonburesurin
  3. 3. 1986: SW radio Before the Web and satellite phones, the world’s news was communicated and shared by shortwave radio •  I loved it! Stations “crowdsourced” SINPO data collection, and “gami"ed” this process by returning QSL cards à •  SINPO = signal-interference-noise-propagation-overall report
  4. 4. 1990: MAP.COM •  My "rst “social software” program from 25 years ago •  Fusing data from user logins on a VAX/VMS mainframe with computer locations in terminal rooms •  Terminal numbers were my unique identi"ers
  5. 5. 1998: Set up a gaming forum 2000: Co-founded from this •  Ireland’s largest discussion forum site •  2.5 million visitors/month (~40% of Irish population) •  Irish people seeking information, or just chatting about sports, TV, politics, health, whatever •  Spin-o# site •  Classi"ed ads •  Bought by Schibsted Media Group yesterday
  6. 6. 2004: Joined DERI at NUI Galway, founded the SIOC project •  Semantically Interlinked Online Communities •  Enables interoperability and exchange of social content: •  Blogs, forums, wikis •  More later…
  7. 7. 2011: Co-founder of StreamGlider, Inc. •  Real-time streaming newsreader for the iPad •  With Nova Spivack and the late Bill McDaniel •  Supports social, multimedia, news •  Can be used as an enterprise dashboard or event display
  8. 8. 2013-2015: Startup ecosystem activation •  Co-founder of NUI Galway Entrepreneurship Society •  Co-founder of Startup Galway, Galway City Innovation District and the PorterShed •  Advisor to Irish startups including AYLIEN, BirdLeaf, BuilderEngine and Pocket Anatomy •  Author of yearly series on “Talented 38 Tech Women”
  9. 9. Big fan of Japanese culture! •  Set up the discussion forum in 2001 •  First anime seen in 1978: Battle of the Planets 科学忍者隊ガッチャマン •  Fave manga: Battle Angel Alita 銃夢 •  Established the "rst Isao Tomita 冨田勲 website in 1996 •  Synthesizer musician known for classical reworkings, "lm / TV works •  Interviewed Tomita in 1999 à •  Also like 喜多郎, 坂本龍一, YMO, ピタゴラスイッチ, 本田
  10. 10. National University of Ireland Galway アイルランド国立大学ゴールウェイ校
 •  Galway is a small city in the West of Ireland •  NUI Galway was established in 1845: •  One of Ireland’s seven universities •  105 hectares (260 acres) •  120 links with universities around the world •  17,300 students: •  12,500 undergraduates, 3,600 postgraduates, 1,200 other •  2,541 sta#: •  1,078 academics, 1,015 admin and support, 448 research •  90,000 alumni in over a hundred countries
  11. 11. Notable people and interesting connections to NUI Galway •  Alice Perry, "rst female graduate engineer in the world, 1849 •  Michael O’Shaughnessy, chief engineer of San Francisco who commissioned / named the Golden Gate Bridge, graduated in 1884 •  Also, two Galway men founded Menlo Park in Silicon Valley in 1854 •  JRR Tolkien J・R・R・トールキン was an external examiner in 1949 •  John Ryan, Macrovision inventor, studied here in the 1960s •  Current Irish President Higgins and Taoiseach Kenny are graduates •  Honorary degrees given to Nelson Mandela ネルソン・マンデラ, Hillary Clinton ヒラリー・クリントン, Enya エンヤ •  Actor Martin Sheen マーティン・シーン studied here in 2006 •  The JK Rowling J・K・ローリング (ハリー・ポッター) charity Lumos partnered with NUI Galway last week to help orphaned children worldwide stay with their families
  12. 12. “Electron” [I am a lecturer in Electronic Engineering] •  The term “electron” was coined by George Johnstone Stoney •  Professor of Natural Philosophy QCG (NUI Galway) from 1852-1857 •  Calculated charge (1874) •  Proposed the term “electron” (1891) •  Electronic: 1,170,000,000 Google results •  Email: 7,510,000,000 Google results
  13. 13. Insight Centre for Data Analytics インサイト •  Ireland’s largest multi- institution ICT research institute, funded by SFI •  200 researchers •  8 institutions •  30 partners •  €88M in funding Subsumes DERI (NUI Galway), Clarity (UCD / DCU), Clique (UCD / NUI Galway), TRIL (UCD), 4C (UCC)
  14. 14. Unit for Social Software (USS) •  Established in 2005 as a sub-cluster of Semantic Web at DERI •  7 PhDs in progress (including 2 industry-based PhDs, 1 part- time PhD), plus 1 PhD and 1 MSc submitting •  9 PhD alumni, 3 MSc alumni •  6 postdoc alumni, 2 RA alumni, 15 visiting researcher alumni (including Yuki Matsuoka PhD from NII)
  15. 15. Background knowledge on the Social Semantic Web ソーシャル・セマンティック・ウェブ
  16. 16. Social platforms are like data silos Images from
  17. 17. Many isolated communities of users and their data
  18. 18. Need ways to connect these islands
  19. 19. Allowing users to easily travel from one to another
  20. 20. Enabling users to easily bring their data with them
  21. 21. A two-way street: the Semantic Web can help the Social Web, and vice versa •  Can use the Semantic Web to describe people, content objects and the connections that bind them all together so that social sites can interoperate via semantics •  In the other direction, object-centered social websites can serve as rich social data sources for semantic applications “I think we could...have both Semantic Web technology supporting online communities, but at the same time also online communities can also support Semantic Web data by being the sources of people voluntarily connecting things together.” – Tim Berners- Lee ティム・バーナーズ=リー Image from
  22. 22. Object-centred sociality (AKA social objects) •  Users are connected via a common object: •  Their job, university, hobbies, interests, a date… •  “According to this theory, people don’t just connect to each other. They connect through a shared object. […] Good services allow people to create social objects that add value.” – Jyri Engestrom •  Flickr or Instagram = photos •  YouTube or Vimeo = videos •  WordPress or Tumblr = posts •  etc.
  23. 23. The social objects that connect us to others can be represented by semantics
  24. 24. For example
  25. 25. What is the Social Semantic Web (SSW)? ソーシャル・セマンティック・ウェブ
  26. 26. Some SSW vocabularies •  FOAF •  SIOC •  Created at NUI Galway •  Online Presence Ontology [OPO] •  Co-created at NUI Galway •  Semantic Cloud of Tags [SCOT] •  Created at NUI Galway •  Meaning of a Tag [MOAT] •  Facebook OGP •  Contributions to RDF version from NUI Galway • •  RDF version at NUI Galway Facebook Open Graph Protocol OPO SCOT
  27. 27. Semantically Interlinked Online Communities (SIOC)
  28. 28. Creating an ontology needs more than just a spec page: community, evangelism, etc.
  29. 29. A range of SIOC modules were created to extend SIOC Core while avoiding clutter •  SIOC Access (sioce) •  SIOC Actions (sioca) •  SIOC Argumentation (siocr) •  SIOC Chat (siocc) •  SIOC Mining (siocm) •  SIOC Quotes (siocq) •  SIOC Services (siocs) •  SIOC Types (sioct) •  SWAN/SIOC (swansioc)
  30. 30. The foundations are there, so what have we been aiming for since 2008? 1.  Continue dissemination of Social Semantic Web ontologies to increase the level and quality of social semantic data 2.  Transition social semantic data (existing and future) into knowledge
  31. 31. Continued dissemination of the Social Semantic Web… …and making more data
  32. 32. Some applications already using SIOC
  33. 33. Impact: RDFa in Drupal 7 •  Drupal has a 6-7% market share of content management systems •  Drupal 7 release has Semantic Web support built-in: •  NUI Galway hosted and sponsored the Semantic Drupal “hackathon” that introduced this RDFa support •  Used on,,,… •  RDFa (SIOC, FOAF, Dublin Core, SKOS) data used for blog posts, forums, etc. •  E#orts are currently underway in Drupal 8 to replace some of these terms with types from the vocabulary (recommended by four major search engines) Image from
  34. 34. RDFa on
  35. 35. How much SIOC data is out there? Images (this one and later backgrounds) from
  36. 36. Sindice 2012: classes •  Total instances of SIOC classes: 7.7M •  Up 200k in three months •  Most occurences: sioc:Item (2.2M) •  Followed by: UserAccount (1.6M), MicroblogPost (1.3M), Post (800k), User (700k), Comment (400k)… •  Note: 1 billion foaf:Person instances!!! •  Used on most [distinct] sites: •  Item (7k), UserAccount (7k), Post (3k)… •  Consistent with "ndings by Mika and Potter in 2012: Item (20k), UserAccount (15k), Post (5k), BlogPost (3k) and Comment (3k) in that order
  37. 37. Sindice 2012: predicates •  Total instances of SIOC predicates: 22.5M •  Up 400k in three months •  Most occurences: sioc:follows (4.6M) •  Followed by: topic (4M), account_of (3.5M), has_creator (2.7M), links_to (1.5M), has_discussion (1.3M)... •  Used on most [distinct] sites: •  has_creator (8k), num_replies (7k), name (2k), account_of (1.5k), reply_of (1.5k)...
  38. 38. Sindice 2012: namespaces •  SIOC data is being generated from 10k distinct domains (2k SLDs) (plus 2k domains for the SIOC Types module) •  Increasing by about 100 domains a month •  No doubt helped by Drupal! •  FOAF data is being generated from 3M distinct domains (100k SLDs) •  Increasing by over 1000 domains a month
  39. 39. Web Data Commons: RDFa data sets from December 2014 1.  foaf:Image (143,818,149 Entities) 2.  og:"article" (65,233,945 Entities) 3.  gd:Breadcrumb (56,755,178 Entities) 4.  foaf:Document (35,991,377 Entities) 5.  sioc:Item (34,880,432 Entities) 6.  skos:Concept (26,315,007 Entities) 7.  og:"website" (23,429,568 Entities) 8.  sioc:Post (19,457,818 Entities) 9.  sioc:Comment (18,946,600 Entities) 10.  gd:Review-aggregate (14,970,496 Entities) 11.  sioc:UserAccount (14,846,680 Entities) •  Bizer et al., 2012-2014 •  2.01 billion web pages •  20.48 billion RDF triples •  SIOC available from 6-7% of the PLDs (pay-level domains) with RDFa •  Top RDFa classes shown on the right •  Lots of SSW terms still used
  40. 40. 2008-2010: Online Presence Ontology •  OPO aims to unify presence information and status noti"cation processes across di#erent services: •  Twitter, Facebook, Foursquare, etc. •  Help solve the information overload issue by providing a means to identify to whom / which community presence information should be directed: “sharing spaces” •  Collaborative e#ort between Université Paris-Sud XI, Orsay, University of Belgrade, NUI Galway and Université Paris- Sorbonne •  Leveraged in NUI Galway’s collaboration with Cisco
  41. 41. 2009: SWAN/SIOC W3C IG Note Collaboration with Harvard Medical School
  42. 42. 2010: SIOC and FOAF in Facebook Open Graph RDF
  43. 43. 2011: SSW RDF mappings for
  44. 44. From social semantic data to social semantic knowledge… …and adding more semantics to the content as well as structures
  45. 45. SMOB (Semantic Microblogging) [Google Grant for Passant]
  46. 46. Structure and display opinions and arguments to support their (re)use Original Discussion Ontology Semantic Enrichment Semantically Enriched RDFa Querying Queryable User Interface With Barchart Schneider, Web Science 2010, ACM SAC 2011, CSCW 2013
  47. 47. Adding discussion summaries to open collaboration systems Schneider, WikiSym 2012
  48. 48. Augmenting social media items with metadata using related web content tags? topic? location? Kinsella, ECIR 2011, ESWC 2011, Web Science 2010 Last night I saw Connacht play at The Sportsground. The match started well for Connacht with a great try but after half time the opposition closed the gap. Finally we managed to hold out for the win. It was a great game from both sides. Here's a clip of the "rst try.
  49. 49. TAG PREDICTION GEOLOCATION TOPIC CLASSIFICATION ...didn’t see t h e m a tc h but here’s a s u m m a r y from John.. ..............This review of the C o n n a c h t match shows that they are getting back in form!...... href href YouTube Title: Fionn Carr try Category: Sport Tags: rugby, try, carr, connacht Last night I saw Connacht play at The Sportsground. The match started well for Connacht with a great try but after half time the opposition closed the gap. Finally we managed to hold out for the win. It was a great game from both sides. Here's a clip of the "rst try. JohnSmith John Smith I’m at the Galway Sportsground Enhanced topics and tags on items (that can propagate to a user’s pro"le) href
  50. 50. Aggregated, interoperable and multi- domain SSW user interest pro"les Orlandi, IEEE WI 2013, I-SEMANTICS 2012, SWJ 2011; S2E Gift Funding from Cisco Foundation
  51. 51. Extract semantic entities from social content…
  52. 52. …categorise, reweight and rank…
  53. 53. …and use these to build SSW user interest pro"les with associated provenance info
  54. 54. ppo:PrivacyPreference ppo:hasLiteral rdfs:Literal rdfs:Resource ppo:appliesToResource rdf:Statement trix:Graph ppo:AccessSpace ppo:hasAccessSpace ppo:appliesToStatement ppo:appliesToNamedGraph ppo:hasAccessQuery ppo:Condition rdf:Property ppo:hasProperty ppo:classAsObject ppo:classAsSubject ppo:resourceAsObject acl:Access ppo:hasAccess ppo:resourceAsSubject ppo:hasCondition Restrictions Conditions Access Test Queries Access Control Privileges rdfs:Resource rdfs:Resource rdfs:Class rdfs:Class rdfs:Literal This rdfs:Literal represents a SPARQL query as a String. And with all this social semantic data, who gets to see it? à Privacy Prefs Ont (PPO) Sacco, IEEE TrustCom 2011; S2E Gift Funding from Cisco Foundation
  55. 55. •  PPM provides two main tasks: •  A user creates his or her privacy preferences •  A requester logs into the other user’s PPM which in turn will give back a faceted pro"le - "ltered based on the privacy preferences User B Requester Privacy Preference Manager Private Social Semantic Data Privacy Preferences User A WebID Sacco, 2nd Prize Award in I-Semantics 2012 Demo Track; Led to collaboration with the late George Thomas’ team in the US Department of Health and Human Services Privacy Preference Manager (PPM)
  56. 56. New SSW topics of interest •  Semantically Enabled Social Hub to Control Personal Data and Ownership •  Scalable Topic-Level Sentiment Analysis on Streaming Feeds (with AYLIEN) •  Social Semantic User Modeling in Online Social Networks for Recommendation (using SAP HANA) [next slide] •  High-Level Cross-Medium Open-Set Authorship Identi"cation (with AYLIEN) •  Semantic Crisis Management Framework
  57. 57. “Who’s learning what in MOOCs?” …and where are they learning it •  Social pro"le data (currently from LinkedIn search) and MOOC data (currently from the Coursera API) combined with geographic LOD •  Semantic model based on a newly proposed resume ontology along with GeoNames and a proposed extension for online courses managerscientist software analyst analyticssenior data engineer developer student research The Data Scientist’s Toolbox Intro to Data Science Data Analysis Machine Learning Computing for Data Analysis R Prog- ramming Piao, work in progress
  58. 58. Finding out more about current and future e#orts
  59. 59. Join the Social [Web] working group and interest group at the W3C • •  Social data syntax •  Social API •  Federation protocol • •  Use cases to drive social standards for both businesses and consumers •  Social architecture report •  Social vocabularies
  60. 60. Stay tuned for future activities organised by IFIP WG 12.7 •  International Federation for Information Processing Working Group on Social Networking Semantics and Collective Intelligence •  John Breslin is vice-chair and a co-founding member
  61. 61. The Social Semantic Web ソーシャル・セマンティック・ウェブ •  Read our "rst book on this topic, published by Springer in 2009 •  Recommended reading for seminars and courses o#ered by the Utrecht Graduate School of Humanities, Anna University Chennai, and the Technical University of Munich •  Authors from NUI Galway (Breslin, Passant, Decker)
  62. 62. Social Semantic Web Mining ソーシャル・セマンティック・ウェブ・マイニング •  A follow-up book published by Morgan & Claypool in 2015 •  Combines the structures put in place by the Social Semantic Web with knowledge derived from the content of those structures •  Co-authors from University of Southampton and the University of Chile (Omitola, Ríos, Breslin)
  63. 63. Come to Galway ゴールウェイに来ます
  64. 64. Interested in collaborating and/or being a visiting researcher at NUI Galway? •  SFI ISCA Japan Bilateral Short-Term Visits •  国際戦略協力賞ー日本 •  Funding available for Japanese researchers to visit NUI Galway •  Researchers of all levels are eligible to apply • •  JSPS Bilateral Programs •  “Open partnership” •  Joint research projects •  Joint seminars •  Deadline 8 September 2015 •  JSPS Long-Term Awards •  Postdoctoral fellowships [Deadline 4 September 2015] •  Talented researchers abroad (lecturers, professors) [probably May 2016]
  65. 65. ありがとうございます! Any questions? •  Ask me now… •  Or email me later at •  Thanks to Science Foundation Ireland’s ISCA Japan for funding my visit to NII!