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# A Balanced Routing Algorithm for Blockchain Offline Channels using Flocking

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The International Congress on Blockchain and Applications / Ávila, Spain / 27th June 2019

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• Error on the second last slide - should say "Average path length for PBTs is higher for balanced routing"

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### A Balanced Routing Algorithm for Blockchain Offline Channels using Flocking

1. 1. Subhasis Thakur and John Breslin Data Science Institute National University of Ireland Galway A balanced routing algorithm for blockchain oﬀline channels using flocking
2. 2. - - SFI Research Centre - Precision pasture-based dairying (agtech) - Blockchain applications in the dairy supply chain 2
3. 3. Scalability problem 3
4. 4. Oﬀline channels 4
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19. 19. 19 Load balancing problem in the Lightning Network
20. 20. 20 Privacy-preserved load balancing problem How can we ensure uniform usage of channels without revealing channel balances?
21. 21. Flocking-based routing21 https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:S ort_sol_pdfnet2.jpg (Public Domain)
22. 22. Step 1: Convert channels to nodes of a network Step 2: Assign coordinates to each channel 22 (Vj ,Vb )
23. 23. Flocking of channels 1. A set of channels moves away from each other if used in a PBT 2. The set of mirrored channels moves close to each other 23
24. 24. 24 Flocking of channels Zone of Repulsion Zone of Alignment Zone of Attraction
25. 25. Angle of the channel Coordinate of each channel is in positive numbers Hence, the angle of each channel is in the range [0,90] 25
26. 26. Coordinate updating 26 Angle1 = 180 degrees + mean angle of the channels in the repulsion zone (opposite of channels in the repulsion zone) Angle2 = Mean angle of the channels in the alignment zone Xi = Xi + 0.2(Cos(Angle1 ) + Cos(Angle2 )) Yi = Yi + 0.2(Sin(Angle1 ) + Sin(Angle2 ))
27. 27. Routing protocol 27 ● Updated coordinates are regularly announced ● Routing as per the shortest path
28. 28. 28 Bitcoin Lightning Network Data used = three subgraphs of BLN # of nodes Average degree Average channel balance (simu- lated) Average PBT value (simu- lated) 400, 600, 800 11 7 0.5
29. 29. Network with 400 nodes The standard deviation of channels remain low for balanced routing 29
30. 30. Network with 600 nodes The standard deviation of channels remain low for balanced routing 30
31. 31. Network with 800 nodes The standard deviation of channels remain low for balanced routing 31
32. 32. The number of completed PBTs for balanced routing is higher than the same for shortest path routing Average path length for PBTs is lower for balanced routing 32
33. 33. 33 Thank you: any questions? subhasis.thakur@nuigalway.ie john.breslin@nuigalway.ie