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  2. 2. Mindfulness• Brief Overview• Types of Mindfulness Meditation – Mindfulness of Breathing Meditation – Walking Meditation – Loving-kindness Meditation – Listening Meditation
  3. 3. Mindfulness Defined• The cognitive ability to be aware of what is happening in the here-and-now without judgment or attachment to any particular outcome (Nopoli, Krech, Holley, 2005)• Components – Here-and-now awareness – Without judgment – Without attachment to outcome
  4. 4. Mindfulness Outcomes• Associated with relaxation (Benson, 1975) and stress reduction (Kabat-Zinn, 1990).• Meta-analyses suggest that mindfulness techniques may help a broad range of individuals cope with clinical and nonclinical problems, conferring stress reduction and health benefits (Grossman et al., 2004).
  5. 5. Mindfulness Mechanisms• It is hypothesized that the primary mechanism of mindfulness is self-management of attention. Repeatedly returning one’s attention to a single neutral stimulus such as the breath may succeed in producing a stable intrapsychic environment from which people can observe the arising of thoughts, emotions, and bodily sensations in a non-judgmental way and cope more effectively with stressors. (Semple, Reid, & Miller, 2005)• Activation of the parasympathetic nervous system during diaphragmatic breathing.
  6. 6. Mindfulness of Breathing• Be here now• Stay with the breath• Just be• Keep the beginner’s mind• Bow to everything SPINE ATTENTION BREATH
  7. 7. Walking Meditation• Awareness in the body
  8. 8. Loving-kindness Meditation• Towards Ourselves• Towards a Friend• Towards a Neutral Person• Towards a Difficult Person• All Beings Everywhere
  9. 9. Listening Meditation• Sustain attention over time• Hear the whole message• Make the speaker feel valued and respected• Listen to yourself