In recognition of the significant threat posed by climate change the Government of Samoa has signed and ratified both the United Nations Framework on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and its associated Kyoto Protocol. Since ratifying these international agreements in 1998 and 2000 respectively, Samoa has made good progress on their implementation. However, as a LDC, Samoa’s capacity to implement these international agreements is somewhat limited, and external support has been relied upon in certain areas.
Climate change mitigation is action to decrease the intensity of radiative forcing in order to reduce the potential effects of global warming .  Mitigation is distinguished from adaptation to global warming , which involves acting to tolerate the effects of global warming . Most often, climate change mitigation scenarios involve reductions in the concentrations of greenhouse gases , either by reducing their sources  or by increasing their sinks.
Some key issues that come to mind on why adaptation plays an integral role in the livelihoods of Samoa as a SID Is because under the IPCCC Report – made up of scientists from around the world that cc is already happening not going to happen but already happening – Kyoto Protocol. And cc is projected to worsen over the coming decades. Limited global commitment – despite our insignificant emissions we still do our part – not delivering on its obligations under the KP and not likely to commit to a New Legally Binding Deal that the COP and international negotiations aim at – adaptation is crucial to respond to the adverse impacts of climate change
Thus the need for all countries esp SIDs and LDCs to develop an adaptation strategy to guide and alocate resources to respond to the impacts of CC and especially 70 percent of Samoa’s population is located along the coastline along with key infrastructure thus a need to develop a comprehensive adaptation program
The MNRE has led the preparation of Samoa’s National Adaptation Program of Action (NAPA) (2005) in response to the decision of the Seventh Session of the Conference of the Parties of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). The preparation process followed the principles outlined in the annotated guidelines prepared by the Least Developed Countries Expert Group (LEG). The basic approach to NAPA preparation was to safeguard the country’s sustainable development goals, while recognizing the need to address urgent and immediate adaptation priorities. A wide range of stakeholders participated in the process to identify and rank these priorities and allocate valuable resources. The Samoa NAPA (2005) was submitted to the UNFCCC Secretariat in December 2005. and endorsed by cabinet. a key feature of the NAPA is the inclusion of project profiles, which outline adaptation actions for key sectors addressing social, environmental and economic factors. The implementation of these projects is seen as an urgent priority for Samoa to deal with the consequences of climate change. In order to address these challenges, the Government of Samoa proposed an integrated approach to address climate change impacts and in Recognition of the inter-connectedness of climate change impacts and vulnerabilities in different sectors that make it difficult to address one sector in isolation from another, Taking into consideration all the different dimensions of climate vulnerability, the NAPA process in Samoa indicated a Climate Early Warning System as the 4th recommendation (See Table 2), along with both agriculture and health sectors adaptation needs prioritized in the list. Integration of these components into a multi-sector project was found feasible
The project focuses on the enhancement of organizational and technical capabilities in the Samoa Meteorology Division to monitor climate trends and provide regular, timely and accurate climate risk and early warning information to agricultural extension and public health services. The project will strengthen the capabilities of Samoa’s public health workers and agricultural planners to make use of climate risk information and adopt measures that increase the resilience of communities to climate-induced food security and disease risks. Demonstration of adaptive crop management and climate-related disease prevention in four high-risk districts will provide a knowledge base to catalyze increasingly resilient policy and investment decisions in Samoa, and enable replication and up-scaling of project lessons within the country and in the wider Pacific region. Coordination with the Secretariat for the Pacific Regional Environment Programme (SPREP) and the Pacific Adaptation to Climate Change (PACC) project will govern this regional interface.
We designed this project as an integrated approach and cross sectoral knowing that climate change is affects everyone. Recognizing the need for an integrated approach to national adaptation priorities, the Government of Samoa seeks to implement an integrated approach to climate change adaptation in three selected NAPA priority areas namely (i) Climate Early Warning Systems (CLEWS); (ii) Agriculture and Food Security; and (iii) Climate Health. The project will demonstrate the value of a robust climate information and early warning system to support adaptive planning and preparedness in the agriculture and health sectors, and enable a transfer of lessons learnt from these target sectors to other development sectors. Upon project completion, the improved CLEWS will provide a consistent point of departure to support climate resilient planning processes in other government departments.
Based on these requirements, the cross sectoral approach of the ICCRA&HSS Project focuses on the following components:
Although the financial scope provided by LDCF funding will not enable the GoS to address all the above issues in a comprehensive manner For vulnerable sectors (demonstrated in the priority development segments of food production and public health); 3. their impact on human health and livelihood security, and available short-term risk reduction as well as long-term climate change adaptation options; 4. strengthening the options available to local farmers to deal with climatic uncertainties and unpredictable dynamics in local food markets; ICCRA&HSS project will be instrumental in mainstreaming climate change into national development plans
CLIMATE CHANGE Definition of Adaptation: In simple terms: “ Learning to live with the new climatic conditions Mitigation Adaptation CAUSE (Rising GHG Concentrations ) IMPACTS (Water supply, food security etc)
<ul><li>Why should we adapt? </li></ul><ul><li>Climate change is already happening </li></ul><ul><li>Climate change is projected to worsen over the coming decades </li></ul><ul><li>Limited global commitment to mitigation </li></ul>
Priority Adaptation Needs –NAPA Priority Sector Project Profile 1 Water Securing Community Water Resources 2 Forestry Reforestation and Rehabilitation and Community Forest Fire Prevention Program 3 Health Climate Health Program 4 Climate Services Climate Early Warning System 5 Agriculture Agriculture and Food Security Sustainability 6 Land use Planning Zoning and Strategic Management Planning 7 Coastal Ecosystems Implementing CIM Plans for Highly Vulnerable Districts 8 Environment Establishing Conservation Programme in highly Vulnerable Marine & Terrestrial Areas 9 Tourism Sustainable Tourism Adaptation Program
<ul><li>(i) Requirement of a cross-cutting approach to strategically develop sectoral capacity and integration of relevant agricultural, health and meteorological data; </li></ul><ul><li>(ii) Alignment of a cross-sectoral approach on health and agriculture with the Strategy for the Development of Samoa 2008–2012; and </li></ul><ul><li>(iii) Strengthening of cross-sectoral collaboration and coordination between the agricultural/food security sector (i.e. Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries [MAF]), the health sector (i.e. Ministry of Health (MOH) and National Health Service [NHS]) and environmental data services (i.e. MNRE for MD). </li></ul>
<ul><li>GEF/UNDP LDCF ( Least Developed Country Fund) – 2 Million USD – NHS,MAF,MNRE </li></ul><ul><li>4 Year project - 2009 – 2013 </li></ul><ul><li>Project Goal : </li></ul><ul><li>To safeguard human development in Samoa from new and additional risks associated with climate change. </li></ul><ul><li>Project Objective: </li></ul><ul><li>To increase the resilience and adaptive capacity of local communities in Samoa to the adverse impacts of climate change on agricultural production and public health </li></ul>
<ul><li>Outcome 1: </li></ul><ul><li>Enhanced technical and organizational capabilities of the Met Division to monitor climate trends and provide climate risk and early warning communications to the agricultural and health sectors </li></ul><ul><li>Outcome 2: </li></ul><ul><li>Capacity of the agricultural sector improved to design adaptive policies and perform short – term seasonal) and long – term (decadal) agricultural planning and crop management </li></ul><ul><li>Outcome 3: </li></ul><ul><li>Capacity of the public health planners and public health workers strengthened to reduce the impact of climate change </li></ul>
<ul><li>Introduce a systematic process of capturing, analyzing, processing and disseminating climate risk information. </li></ul><ul><li>Inform sectoral policy processes and investment decisions through tangible climate risk data, </li></ul><ul><li>Introduce targeted education/health promotion activities for public service providers and sectoral planners about climate change projections, </li></ul><ul><li>Demonstrate and analyze the benefits of crop diversification and drought- and saline-resilient crops at the community farming level, </li></ul><ul><li>Analyze the relationship between climate trends and vector-borne, water-borne, food-borne and thus provide a critical mass of data and knowledge for the design of more effective disease prevention programmes; </li></ul><ul><li>Enable exchange of experiences between Pacific SIDS on matters of climate change monitoring and agriculture/health sector adaptation. </li></ul>
Observation Network 42 Rainfall stations 8 Climate stations 16 automatic weather stations Install another 17 AWS by December 2011 Climate elements Rainfall Temperature (incl extreme Maximum and Minimum Temp) Humidity Wind speed Wind direction Soil temperature Soil moisture Solar radiation Sunshine hours Atmospheric pressure Leaf wetness
<ul><li>Phase 1 </li></ul><ul><li>Physiographic soil legends </li></ul><ul><li>Soil classification correlations </li></ul><ul><li>Key to the identification of Samoan soils </li></ul><ul><li>Soil and land attributes significant to crop growth </li></ul><ul><li>MNRE GIS generate SMR and STR maps </li></ul><ul><li>Phase 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Crop suitability tables for SMUs </li></ul><ul><li>Soil fertility tables for SMUs </li></ul><ul><li>Crop gross margins for 50+ crops </li></ul><ul><li>MNRE GIS staff generate single factor crop maps </li></ul><ul><li>3 day land evaluation/land use planning training workshop </li></ul>
<ul><li>Phase 3 </li></ul><ul><li>Prepare Soil Resource Interpretative Manual </li></ul><ul><li>2x 2-day soil training workshops </li></ul><ul><li>Participate with stakeholder meetings </li></ul><ul><li>Identify synergies with project being implemented by MAF, MNRE </li></ul><ul><li>Assist incorporating outputs with NAPA and CLEWS </li></ul><ul><li>Improve LU planning for REDD and LULUC projects </li></ul>
<ul><li>Document soil, climate, etc. requirements for optimum crop growth (57 crops) </li></ul><ul><li>Crop suitability table prepared for 195 soil mapping units </li></ul><ul><li>- 57 crops </li></ul><ul><li>- 4 classes of suitability </li></ul>
<ul><li>Specification and details </li></ul><ul><li>Gross Income </li></ul><ul><li>Variable Costs </li></ul><ul><li>Labour Input </li></ul><ul><li>Gross Margin Sensitivity Analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Yield (kg/ha) – Prices ($/kg) </li></ul>
<ul><li>CONTENT </li></ul><ul><li>Physiographic legends for soil map units and soil series </li></ul><ul><li>Soil moisture and soil temperature regimes (includ. maps) </li></ul><ul><li>Classification of the soil series according to Soil Taxonomy and FAO/UNESCO systems </li></ul><ul><li>Key to the identification of Samoan soils </li></ul><ul><li>Land and soil attributes significant for crop growth </li></ul><ul><li>Land and soil constraints for soil mapping units </li></ul><ul><li>Nutrient status of Samoan soils </li></ul><ul><li>Application of the Fertility Capability Soil Classification to Samoa </li></ul><ul><li>Crop suitability (57 crops) tables and classes </li></ul><ul><li>Single factor crop maps </li></ul><ul><li>Crop gross margin analysis (separate document) </li></ul>
<ul><li>Health outcomes projected to increase with climate change and variability. </li></ul><ul><li>Determinants of health vulnerability </li></ul><ul><li>geographical size </li></ul><ul><li>tropical climate </li></ul><ul><li>dense urban population </li></ul><ul><li>Linkage of climate to heath via Coping mechanisms </li></ul><ul><li>Climate Early Warning System </li></ul>
<ul><li>Climate Parameters </li></ul><ul><li>Precipitation, including flooding </li></ul><ul><li>Temperature </li></ul><ul><li>Humidity </li></ul><ul><li>Proposal that two climate-health early warning reporting levels will be produced. ‘Base level’ reports will be generated from general relationships between the reference diseases and climate </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Location-specific’ based on sufficient health/disease with reliable relation to climate/weather data </li></ul>
<ul><li>Implementing Adaptation Measures </li></ul><ul><li>Three pilot studies : </li></ul><ul><li>Using climate information to warn of possible increases in diarrheal disease; </li></ul><ul><li>Two sets of parallel activities are proposed for the pilot study: data analysis and development of interventions based on current programs. </li></ul><ul><li>Indicators based on examination of seasonal patterns reflective in diagrams </li></ul><ul><li>Focus of the data analyses </li></ul><ul><li>children under the age of 10 years </li></ul><ul><li>Increased prevalence after rainfall </li></ul><ul><li>Monthly reports generated for several categories of communicable diseases, including diarrheal diseases, and possibly filarisis and typhoid </li></ul><ul><li>Similar coding of information from CHNIS. On-going. </li></ul>
<ul><li>Improving vector control in a changing climate; </li></ul><ul><li>Climate change could increase favorable weather conditions for breeding of mosquito vectors (e.g. dengue by domesticated vector, Aedes aegypti/Aedes polynesiasis ) . </li></ul><ul><li>Samoa is a receptive location to dengue fever. </li></ul><ul><li>Conducting simple larval surveys </li></ul><ul><li>Aim to identify when numbers increase beyond a threshold that an infectious disease outbreak is possible. </li></ul><ul><li>Designed to reduce the densities of vector </li></ul><ul><li>Target mosquito populations as much as possible and to maintain them at low levels </li></ul><ul><li>The larval surveys accounts for supplementing current activities. </li></ul><ul><li>Synergy activity NS1 (antibody-antigen) to target Dengue during acute phase (day2-day6) IgG/IgM test kits (after day 6). Procurement to arrive early 2011. </li></ul>
<ul><li>Addressing a possible increase in the prevalence of hypertension due to saltwater intrusion into drinking water. </li></ul><ul><li>Raised blood pressure throughout the range seen in developed countries is the major cause of cardiovascular disease, responsible for 62% of strokes and 49% of coronary heart disease. </li></ul><ul><li>the prevalence of hypertension in Samoa 22% and the Samoan diet is typically fairly high in salt. Adding salt to the diet from drinking water sources could increase the rate of hypertension. </li></ul><ul><li>Proposed sites Western Savaii namely Auala, Asau. MTII as control </li></ul><ul><li>Target intervention along borehole feeding communities with high salinity. </li></ul><ul><li>Increasing awareness that salt consumption is a major cause of hypertension. </li></ul>
<ul><li>Key Points </li></ul><ul><li>Climate change is real and is already happening </li></ul><ul><li>Climate change will present new risks for Samoa </li></ul><ul><li>Adaptation strategies are an integral part of Samoa’s national response to climate change </li></ul><ul><li>Climate change adds to the urgency of other environmental and sustainable development priorities </li></ul><ul><li>Climate change brings new risks that we have not faced in the past that will require new strategies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sea level rise, drought, forest fires, climate related diseases </li></ul></ul>