Greg Butler, Orroroo presentation

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Greg Butler is the research and development manager for South Australian No-Till Farmers Association (SANTFA). Kym Fromm invited Greg to talk to the Climate Champions during the February Climate Champions tour of SA.

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  • The following four videos are of Greg giving his presentation to the Climate Champion group during the National Workshop, held in Adelaide, 2011.

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Greg Butler, Orroroo presentation

  1. 1. Managing Crop Risk by Monitoring Soil Moisture Greg Butler, SANTFA R&D
  2. 2. <ul><li>SANTFA’s goals </li></ul><ul><li>Working examples of real applications. </li></ul><ul><li>The right products in the right places. </li></ul><ul><li>Interim support through interpretation. </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li> Demonstrating the mechanics of soil water </li></ul><ul><li>Enhance risk management and decision making. </li></ul><ul><li>Analysis of Farming Systems. </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Managing moisture in rain-fed cropping </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Infiltration / Transpiration / Evaporation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cation Exchange Capacity - the Velcro of the soil. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Non plant-available water / Plant available water / Drainage </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><ul><li>Infiltration rate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How quickly the soil pores drain rainfall to below the surface and through the soil profile. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Surface cover protect the soil surface from rain impact. </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><ul><li>Soil water holding capacity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Displacement of space by the soil mass. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- Number and size of pores determine surface area. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- CEC is the Velcro on the surface of soil particles. - electromagnetic attraction to hold water & nutrients. - Capillary action. </li></ul></ul>
  7. 8. + -
  8. 10. Carbon 4 -VE 4 th ma Nitrogen 3 -VE 7 th ma Oxygen 2 -VE 3 rd ma Hydrogen 1 -VE 1 st ma Helium 0 -VE 2 nd ma
  9. 11. Carbon 4 -VE 4 th ma Nitrogen 3 -VE 7 th ma Oxygen 2 -VE 3 rd ma Hydrogen 1 -VE 1 st ma Helium 0 -VE 2 nd ma
  10. 12. Hydrogen Hydrogen Oxygen Water (H 2 0)
  11. 13. Negative polarity Positive polarity  +  +  -
  12. 14. WATER (H 2 O) 2 x Hydrogen - the simplest and most common of all elements in the Universe. 1 x Oxygen - the third most abundant element in the Universe.
  13. 15.  +
  14. 16.  +  +  -
  15. 17.  +  +  -
  16. 18.  +  +  -
  17. 19.  +  +  -
  18. 20. Oxygen A reactive life force. 21% of Atmosphere.
  19. 21. Clay Surface Holding Water
  20. 22. Clay Surface Water bound
  21. 23. Clay Surface PAW
  22. 24. Clay Surface Water draining
  23. 25. Organic matter & CEC
  24. 26. <ul><ul><li>Plant Available Water (PAW). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- Micro-pores bind water into tight spaces through strong capillary forces. * Clay: silicate layers. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- PAW is what sponge can give up and is not locked away. PAW is equally determined by the transpiration potential of the crop. * How hard the crop can squeeze the sponge: Wheat & Faba. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- CEC / SOC. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Deep soil moisture out of the reach of the juvenile roots may become ‘available’ later in the season. </li></ul></ul>
  25. 28. Stockport
  26. 29. Tarlee
  27. 30. Kulpara 1 - Site Variation
  28. 31. Kulpara 2 - Site Variation
  29. 35. Tracking Infiltration and PAW Infiltration PAW Stepping
  30. 36. Tracking Infiltration and PAW Infiltration PAW Stepping Preferred Transpiration
  31. 37. Tracking Infiltration and PAW Preferred Transpiration
  32. 43. Nth Yorke Peninsula: Summer Rainfall
  33. 44. Nth Yorke Peninsula: Anzac Day Rains
  34. 45. Nth Yorke Peninsula: Winter Rainfall
  35. 46. Mid North: Wheat 2009
  36. 47. Lower North: Canola 2009
  37. 48. Separate Graph Summed Graph Soil Moisture Monitoring
  38. 54. Yorke 2, Summed Graphs 2007 & 2008
  39. 55. Yorke 2, Summed Graphs 2007 & 2008
  40. 56. 2007 2008
  41. 57. 2007 2008 < 20% >
  42. 58. 2007 2008 9 days 3 days
  43. 59. 2007 2008 9 days 3 days
  44. 60. 2007 2008 9 days 3 days Yield Potential Grain Fill
  45. 61. X o Δ Slope, Potential : Fill X o ≈ Screening % Abs SM Potential ≈ Yield 4T 3T Yield Potential Grain Fill
  46. 64. 2007. 2.9t @ 3%Scrn 2008. 4.0t @ 16%Scrn 2009. 3.7t @ <1%Scrn
  47. 65. 2007. 2.9t @ 3%Scrn 2008. 4.0t @ 16%Scrn 2009. 3.7t @ <1%Scrn Wettest Recorded Driest Recorded
  48. 66. 2007. 2.9t @ 3%Scrn 2008. 4.0t @ 16%Scrn 2009. 3.7t @ <1%Scrn Wettest Recorded Driest Recorded Yield
  49. 67. Comparing Practices
  50. 68. Stubble cover and the relationship of water runoff.
  51. 69. 0.5 T =15% soil cover 3.0T = 75% soil cover
  52. 72. Fertiliser Options Nitrogen management: - Preventing water-logging: - Stubble cover.* - Managed compaction.* - PA on a need basis. - Post Em to moist soils that are drying? - N-Injection? * Includes adaptation
  53. 73. Urea
  54. 74. Urea hydrolysis - The first emission. 1 Urea + 1 Water CH 4 N 2 O + H 2 O 2 Ammonia + 1 Carbon dioxide 2 NH 3 + CO 2
  55. 75. + H + Ammonia to Ammonium
  56. 76. Complex Biological Oxidation + Ammonium (to Nitrite) to Nitrate NH 4 + NO 2 - NO 3 = - -
  57. 77. Clay Surface Plant availability of Ammonium & Nitrate + _ _
  58. 79. Nitrous Oxide N 2 O is 298 times higher impact per unit than CO 2 over a100 year period. Serious ozone depletion
  59. 80. Denitrification
  60. 88. Glucose
  61. 90. Carbohydrates (Energy) Lipids (Build Function + Energy) Protein (Build function)
  62. 91. C 6 O 6 H 12 + 6 O 2 6 CO 2 + 6 H 2 O
  63. 93. Installation Types - Surface & Subsurface - Direct & Slurry Options - Other sensors (rain gauges ++) - Telemetry (mobile phone network / internet) - Power (solar) - Software

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