Nonverbal Communication In A Police Interrogation Oldversion


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Phase III - topic 1 - Robert Browne

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Nonverbal Communication In A Police Interrogation Oldversion

  1. 1. How to use nonverbal behaviors to aid in interrogation and deception detection Nonverbal Communication in a Police Interrogation
  2. 2. What is nonverbal communication? <ul><li>Nonverbal communication involves several different aspects: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Facial Expression and Gaze </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Kinesics </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Haptics </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Vocalics </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Proxemics </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Physical Appearance </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Chronemics </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The Environment </li></ul></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Focus Areas <ul><li>For the purpose of this training session we will focus on certain areas of nonverbal communication that will aid you, the officer, in interrogation. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Facial Expression and Gaze </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Kinesics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Physical Appearance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vocalics </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Facial Expression and Gaze <ul><li>According to Canary, Cody, & Manusov (2003) facial expression and gaze refers to how people use their facial expressions and eyes to communicate (p.104). </li></ul><ul><li>Facial Primacy , a term coined by researchers, indicates that facial expression influences our initial impressions and appraisals. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Facial Expression continued <ul><li>According to the study conducted by Levine, Asada, & Park (2006) significantly less eye contact was seen by participants who were known to be telling a lie. </li></ul><ul><li>Canary, Cody, & Manusov (2003) state squinting, or closed eyes, often times is a manifestation of depression </li></ul><ul><li>It is important to assess these messages while interviewing as they can indicate lying, possible mental illness, and several other important messages. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Signs of deception <ul><li>The following list from Canary, Cody, & Masunov (2003) are commonly found facial and gaze tells of deception. It is important to note that these are only relatively reliable, not completely. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pupil Dilation – When lying, the pupils will dilate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Blinking – Liars often will blink more frequently </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>As the presentation continues this list will become more complete </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Kinesics <ul><li>Kinesics involves facial expression, eye movements, and any other movements made with the body. </li></ul><ul><li>Gestures are the most well known of any kinesthetic movement. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Kinesics continued <ul><li>Gestures, or what we call emblems in communication, are gestures that have been culturally created to communicate without words. </li></ul><ul><li>As noted above, emblems are culturally created, meaning different cultures might have different gestures. </li></ul><ul><li>According to Mausehund, Timm, & King (1995) multiculturalism is on the rise. This is important to keep in mind when interrogating someone of a different culture. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Kinesics continued <ul><li>An example of this is seen with eye contact. </li></ul><ul><li>South East Asian cultures believe a lack of eye contact shows respect and gives authority to the speaker. </li></ul><ul><li>If an officer didn’t know this, than a South East Asian who thought he was showing respect might be seen as a liar according to the information we just gave you about lack of eye contact. </li></ul>
  10. 10. A quick note about hands <ul><li>Hand movements, a type of gesture, are often studied in relation to deception. </li></ul><ul><li>Vrij, Akehurst, & Morris (1997) found that individuals that are better able to control their nonverbal behavior will make fewer hand movements when being deceptive. </li></ul>
  11. 11. List of deceptive tells <ul><li>Facial Expression and Gaze </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pupil Dilation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Blinking </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Kinesics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Adaptors - Often times, liars will engage in rubbing hands or arms together </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Physical Appearance <ul><li>Physical appearance includes hair color, body type, clothing choices, and unique physical characteristics. </li></ul><ul><li>Physical appearance is one of the first things we, as humans, appraise when we make character judgments. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Physical Appearance <ul><li>Unfortunately, when we make judgments by physical appearance we tend to be incorrect. Canary, Cody, Manusov (2003) indicate that often times we do not reveal personality characteristics nonverbally. </li></ul><ul><li>Think of the popular story “The Prince and the Pauper” </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>Often referred to as paralanguage and can refer to: rate, pitch, character, volume, and amount of variation used while speaking. </li></ul><ul><li>Vocalics are often mistaken for verbal communication. </li></ul>Vocalics
  15. 15. Vocalics continued <ul><li>When we communicate, often times people will groan, laugh, or even use silence to substitute for words. </li></ul><ul><li>Being receptive to vocalics will aid any interrogation. </li></ul><ul><li>Canary, Cody, Masunov (2003) say that less monotonous, less nasal and shrill voices are related to people that are extraverted, open and conscientious. </li></ul><ul><li>Think how different the words, “I’m sorry” can be depending on how they are said! </li></ul>
  16. 16. List of deceptive tells <ul><li>Facial Expression and Gaze </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pupil Dilation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Blinking </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Kinesics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Adaptors (rubbing hands, or arms together) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Vocalics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Response Length – Liars usually will not talk as long as truth tellers do. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Speech Errors – Liars make more errors while speaking (switching from past tense to present tense, etc). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Speech Hesitation – Liars will use more fillers such as “Ahhh”, or “Umm”. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pitch – Liars will speak in a higher pitch than someone telling the truth. </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Review <ul><li>Nonverbal communication has several different aspects, but we focused on four major areas that will aid with interrogation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Facial Expression and Gaze </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Kinesics – body movements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Physical Appearance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vocalics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>and we compiled a reference list of common deceptive tells… </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. List of deceptive tells <ul><li>Facial Expression and Gaze </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pupil Dilation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Blinking </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Kinesics – body movement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Adaptors – rubbing hands or arms together </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Vocalics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Response Length </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Speech Errors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Speech Hesitation </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. References <ul><li>Canary, D.J., Cody, M.J., & Manusov, V.L. (2003). Interpersonal Communication: A goals-based approach . Boston, MA: Bedford/St. Martin’s. </li></ul><ul><li>Levine,T.R., Asada, K.J.K., & Park, H.S. (2006). The lying chicken and the gaze avoidant egg: Eye contact, deception, and causal order. Southern Communication Journal, 71(4) , 401-411. </li></ul><ul><li>Mausehand, J.A., Timm, S.A., & King, A.S. (1995). Diversity training: Effects of intervention treatment of nonverbal awareness. Business Communication Quarterly, 58, 27-30. </li></ul><ul><li>Vrij, A., Akehurst, L., & Morris, P. (1997). Individual differences in hand movements during deception. Journal of Nonverbal Behavior, 21(2), 87- 102. </li></ul>