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Sybase To Oracle Migration for DBAs


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Identifies key differences between Sybase and Oracle from the perspective of an experienced Sybase database administrator

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Sybase To Oracle Migration for DBAs

  1. 1. Sybase to Oracle Critical information for new Oracle Database Administrators 1-1 Sybase to Oracle Migration - DBAs
  2. 2. Presentation Background... 1-2 Sybase to Oracle Migration - DBAs
  3. 3. About The Speaker Christopher Merry is principle consultant at Clearwater Technical Group Oracle Certified Professional and Certified Professional in Learning and Performance 10 years of experience working with Oracle Including time at Oracle Corporation 9 years of experience as a trainer for Learning Tree International 3 years of experience working with several universities to migrate SunGard Advance from Sybase to Oracle 1-3 Sybase to Oracle Migration - DBAs
  4. 4. About CTG CTG is a small technical group specializing in Oracle consulting with key experience assisting several universities migrate from SunGard’s Advance Windows to Advance Web Access CTG is not in anyway affiliated or partnered with SunGard Data Systems, Inc. 1-4 Sybase to Oracle Migration - DBAs
  5. 5. About This Presentation Developed to identify significant differences between Sybase and Oracle database environments Part of a series prepared by CTG to assist clients (and others) in their for migration challenges ahead Other presentations include Sybase to Oracle Migration for developers Sybase to Oracle Data Migration Steps Sybase to Oracle - T/SQL and PL/SQL Bridging the Gap Between Advance Windows and AWA Web Skills for AWA Customization And more on the way 1-5 Sybase to Oracle Migration - DBAs
  6. 6. Objectives Evaluate tools necessary to manage an Oracle database Oracle tools Third party applications Compare Sybase and Oracle architectures Manage object and user privileges Backup and recovery options Data warehousing and replication concepts 1-6 Sybase to Oracle Migration - DBAs
  7. 7. Database Management Tools... 1-7 Sybase to Oracle Migration - DBAs
  8. 8. Oracle Supplied Tools Oracle provides tools to manage databases SQL*Plus Command line tool similar to SQL Advantage or isql SQL Developer Oracle’s newest access tool Java application Includes data migration features to import Sybase objects into Oracle A little buggy and not as feature rich as other options 1-8 Sybase to Oracle Migration - DBAs
  9. 9. Oracle Supplied Tools (cont’d) Oracle Enterprise Manager (OEM) Web based application Two types Database Control Manages a single Oracle instance Included in Oracle installation No additional licensing is required Grid Control Manages multiple databases and Oracle components Separate installation Additional license required 1-9 Sybase to Oracle Migration - DBAs
  10. 10. SQL*Plus 1-10 Sybase to Oracle Migration - DBAs
  11. 11. SQL Developer 1-11 Sybase to Oracle Migration - DBAs
  12. 12. Database Control 1-12 Sybase to Oracle Migration - DBAs
  13. 13. Third Party Tools Many third party options are available Product cost varies based on version and features desired Many products include additional packages or licenses for database administrators Popular software includes Toad The dominant Oracle tool for years, Toad was once a free product Now owned by Quest Software, it is one of the higher priced options Starting at $870 for the basic edition (additional modules are available) 1-13 Sybase to Oracle Migration - DBAs
  14. 14. Third Party Tools (cont’d) More software options SQL Navigator The flagship Quest Software Oracle tool The highest cost among the products mentioned here Base edition starts are $1,300 with additional editions retailing for $3,000 DBArtisan Includes capability to manage multiple database platforms (including Oracle and Sybase) Pricing unavailable 1-14 Sybase to Oracle Migration - DBAs
  15. 15. Database Architecture... 1-15 Sybase to Oracle Migration - DBAs
  16. 16. Server Comparison 1-16 Sybase to Oracle Migration - DBAs
  17. 17. Oracle Instance Providing the “bridge” from user to data Instance Users Database 1-17 Sybase to Oracle Migration - DBAs
  18. 18. Database vs. Instance Instance is comprised of the memory components of an Oracle database Processes Buffers Database is comprised of the physical files Data files Networking files Parameters files Log files 1-18 Sybase to Oracle Migration - DBAs
  19. 19. Instance vs. Databaes (cont’d) INSTANCE USERS System Global Area (SGA) Program Program Program Global Area Log Global Area Buffer Cache Shared SQL Global Area (PGA) Buffer (PGA) (PGA) DBWR LGWR SMON PMON ARCH Server Server Server Tablespace Tablespace DATABASE Tablespace Tablespace Tablespace Tablespace tnsnames.ora Log File Archive init.ora Log File Archive Log File Archive Datafile Log File Archive listener.ora Datafile Log File Archive Datafile spfile.ora Datafile sqlnet.ora 1-19 Sybase to Oracle Migration - DBAs
  20. 20. Key Differences Single database Data separated in tablespaces and schemas Transaction logging Multiple log files are used Logs are reused Transaction details are maintained in offline archive logs User and object privileges 1-20 Sybase to Oracle Migration - DBAs
  21. 21. Object and User Privileges... 1-21 Sybase to Oracle Migration - DBAs
  22. 22. Schemas A user’s “stuff” Every object created in an Oracle database is owned by a user A user must have the appropriate CREATE privilege in order to create an object CREATE TABLE CREATE PROCEDURE CREATE VIEW CREATE INDEX CREATE SEQUENCE And others 1-22 Sybase to Oracle Migration - DBAs
  23. 23. Types of Schemas Application Schemas Should not be associated with a person Generally contain objects associated with a specific application, system, or module For example, ADVANCE User Schemas Usually used for temporary processing or development 1-23 Sybase to Oracle Migration - DBAs
  24. 24. Accessing Objects Users must be granted privilege to access another users object Privilege is granted using the object level GRANT statement GRANT privilege, ..., privilege ON object TO user | role The DBA role and SELECT ANY TABLE privilege allow users to query any database table By default, Oracle searches the user’s schema for a specified object The object can be prefixed with the owners name (schema) to explicitly indicate which object 1-24 Sybase to Oracle Migration - DBAs
  25. 25. Object Example Executed as JILL (assuming the user has appropriate privileges) SELECT * FROM entity (access JILL.ENTITY) SELECT * FROM advance.entity (access ADVANCE.ENTITY) SELECT * FROM address (produces error) SELECT * FROM t_gifts (access JILL.T_GIFTS) ADVANCE JILL entity entity address t_gifts 1-25 Sybase to Oracle Migration - DBAs
  26. 26. Oracle Synonyms Synonyms are used to point an object to a specific schema Syntax CREATE OR REPLACE SYNONYM object_name FOR schema.object_name Example CREATE OR REPLACE SYNONYM entity FOR advance.entity; CREATE OR REPLACE SYNONYM address FOR advance.address; 1-26 Sybase to Oracle Migration - DBAs
  27. 27. Roles Privileges can be assigned to roles Roles are assigned to users Ensure consistency among users Example CREATE ROLE adv_select; GRANT SELECT ON advance.entity TO adv_select; GRANT SELECT ON advance.address TO adv_select; GRANT adv_select TO jill; 1-27 Sybase to Oracle Migration - DBAs
  28. 28. Privilege Complications When referencing an object in a view or stored procedure, a user must have direct access to the object A role is not sufficient 1-28 Sybase to Oracle Migration - DBAs
  29. 29. Backup and Recovery... 1-29 Sybase to Oracle Migration - DBAs
  30. 30. Backup Options Many options are available to backup an Oracle database Hot and cold Database is available (hot) or unavailable (cold) Database and tablespace level backups Compressed and incremental backups When using Recovery Manager (RMAN) Exports Database, tablespace, schema, and object levels 1-30 Sybase to Oracle Migration - DBAs
  31. 31. Recovery Options Several options are available for recovery Database and tablespace level recovery Database can be open or closed May depend upon circumstances as to which option is possible Point in time recovery is available Requires availability of archive logs 1-31 Sybase to Oracle Migration - DBAs
  32. 32. Backup and Recovery Tools Manual Uses SQL commands Backups completed using operating system scripts Includes hot and cold backups Recovery Manager (RMAN) Oracle supplied software for handling automated backup and recovery Includes additional features beyond manual backups Incremental Compressed Consistent 1-32 Sybase to Oracle Migration - DBAs
  33. 33. Backup Tools (cont’d) Export Oracle proprietary utility Extracts structure and data Exported files can only be used by the Import utility Oracle Database 10g includes a new, enhanced version called Data Pump 1-33 Sybase to Oracle Migration - DBAs
  34. 34. Replication and Extracts... 1-34 Sybase to Oracle Migration - DBAs
  35. 35. Replication Data can be replicated to another database Useful for maintaining consistency in development and/or testing databases Can be used to isolate reporting and online transaction processing on different databases Methods include Streams Advanced Replication Standby Database Database cloning using RMAN 1-35 Sybase to Oracle Migration - DBAs
  36. 36. Oracle Streams Built-in functionality that captures database transactions Another database can then subscribe to the stream Digestion of transaction is flexible and processing can be performed against individual row level data changes Uses redo logs Subscriber databases remain synchronized with primary database 1-36 Sybase to Oracle Migration - DBAs
  37. 37. Oracle Advanced Replication Original replication technique Intended to copy entire data sets from one environment to another Uses redo logs to transfer data Replicated database remains synchronized with primary database 1-37 Sybase to Oracle Migration - DBAs
  38. 38. Standby Database Can be used as a reporting database Standby database must be configured as read only Primary purpose is to provide failover capability if primary database fails Standby database applies redo logs from primary database Standby database remains synchronized with primary database Allows databases to be available 24x7 Failover to the standby database is possible while upgrades and maintenance activities are performed on the primary 1-38 Sybase to Oracle Migration - DBAs
  39. 39. Database Cloning Uses Recovery Manager (RMAN) Requires a backup of the primary database Cloned database is only up to date as of the time of the backup used to clone 1-39 Sybase to Oracle Migration - DBAs
  40. 40. Data Warehousing Options (Extracts) Many Extract, Transform, and Load (ETL) tools are available Oracle provides Data Warehouse Builder Many third party products are available Processing can be handled using nightly extract procedures Materialized views may provide a better alternative Objects containing data Data retrieval based upon a query Data can be refreshed in a variety of ways The Oracle optimizer can “re-write” queries to use the materialized view even if the original query did not reference the materialized view 1-40 Sybase to Oracle Migration - DBAs
  41. 41. What’s Next... 1-41 Sybase to Oracle Migration - DBAs
  42. 42. Migration Road Map Of course this presentation only illustrates a few of the differences between Oracle and Sybase For more details regarding Oracle, take a look at the documentation available on Oracle’s website Contact us if you have questions regarding this or any of our other presentation (888) 347-7477 1-42 Sybase to Oracle Migration - DBAs