PowerPoint®
Lecture Slide Presentation
by Patty Bostwick-Taylor,
Florence-Darlington Technical College
Copyright © 2009 Pe...
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
The Cardiovascular System
 A closed system of t...
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
The Heart
 Location
 Thorax between the lungs ...
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
The Heart
Figure 11.1a–b
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
The Heart
Figure 11.1c
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
The Heart: Chambers
 Right and left side act as...
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
The Heart: Chambers
Figure 11.2c
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Differences in Right and Left Ventricles
Figure ...
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
The Heart: Valves
 Allow blood to flow in only ...
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
The Heart: Valves
Figure 11.2c
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
The Heart: Valves
 AV valves
 Anchored in plac...
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Systemic and Pulmonary Circulations
 Systemic c...
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Systemic and Pulmonary Circulations
Figure 11.3
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
The Heart: Associated Great Vessels
 Arteries
...
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
The Heart: Associated Great Vessels
 Veins
 Su...
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
The Heart: Associated Great Vessels
Figure 11.2c
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Blood Flow Through the Heart
 Superior and infe...
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Blood Flow Through the Heart
 Oxygen is picked ...
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Systemic and Pulmonary Circulations
Figure 11.3
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Coronary Circulation
 Blood in the heart chambe...
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
The Heart: Conduction System
 Intrinsic conduct...
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
The Heart: Conduction System
 Special tissue se...
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Heart Contractions
Figure 11.6
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Heart Contractions
 Tachycardia—rapid heart rat...
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
The Heart: Cardiac Cycle
 Atria contract simult...
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Electrocardiogram
P=right before
atrium
contract...
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The Heart: Regulation of Heart Rate
 Increased ...
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The Heart: Regulation of Heart Rate
 Decreased ...
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Pulse
 Pulse
 Pressure wave of blood
 Monitor...
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Pulse
Figure 11.18
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Blood Vessels: The Vascular System
 Transport b...
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Blood Vessels: The Vascular System
Figure 11.9a
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Hepatic Portal Circulation
 Veins of hepatic po...
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Fetal Circulation
 Fetus receives exchanges of ...
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Fetal Circulation
 Blood flow bypasses the lung...
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Blood Pressure
 Measurements by health professi...
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Variations in Blood Pressure
 Normal human rang...
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Factors Determining Blood Pressure
Figure 11.21
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Factors Producing Hypertension
 High salt intak...
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CVA A&P - Chapter 11: Cardiovascular Honors

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Copyright - Adapted from Glencoe - McGraw-Hill

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  • A normal ECG (top) indicates that the heart is functioning properly. The P wave occurs just prior to atrial contraction; the QRS complex occurs just prior to ventricular contraction; and the T wave occurs when the ventricles are recovering from contraction. Ventricular fibrillation (bottom) produces an irregular electrocardiogram due to irregular stimulation of the ventricles. Ventricular fibrillation is of special interest because it can be caused by an injury or drug overdose. It is the most common cause of sudden cardiac death in a seemingly healthy person over age 35. Once the ventricles are fibrillating, they have to be defibrillated by applying a strong electrical current for a short period of time. Then the SA node may be able to reestablish a coordinated beat.
  • CVA A&P - Chapter 11: Cardiovascular Honors

    1. 1. PowerPoint® Lecture Slide Presentation by Patty Bostwick-Taylor, Florence-Darlington Technical College Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings PART A 11 The Cardiovascular System
    2. 2. Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings The Cardiovascular System  A closed system of the heart and blood vessels  The heart pumps blood  Blood vessels allow blood to circulate to all parts of the body  The function of the cardiovascular system is to deliver oxygen and nutrients and to remove carbon dioxide and other waste products
    3. 3. Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings The Heart  Location  Thorax between the lungs in the inferior mediastinum  Orientation  Pointed apex directed toward left hip  Base points toward right shoulder  About the size of your fist
    4. 4. Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings The Heart Figure 11.1a–b
    5. 5. Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings The Heart Figure 11.1c
    6. 6. Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings The Heart: Chambers  Right and left side act as separate pumps  Four chambers  Atria  Receiving chambers  Right atrium  Left atrium  Ventricles  Discharging chambers  Right ventricle  Left ventricle
    7. 7. Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings The Heart: Chambers Figure 11.2c
    8. 8. Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Differences in Right and Left Ventricles Figure 11.4
    9. 9. Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings The Heart: Valves  Allow blood to flow in only one direction to prevent backflow  Four valves  Atrioventricular (AV) valves—between atria and ventricles  Bicuspid (mitral) valve (left side of heart)  Tricuspid valve (right side of heart)  Semilunar valves—between ventricle and artery  Pulmonary semilunar valve  Aortic semilunar valve
    10. 10. Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings The Heart: Valves Figure 11.2c
    11. 11. Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings The Heart: Valves  AV valves  Anchored in place by chordae tendineae (“heart strings”)  Open during heart relaxation and closed during ventricular contraction  Semilunar valves  Closed during heart relaxation but open during ventricular contraction  Notice these valves operate opposite of one another to force a one-way path of blood through the heart
    12. 12. Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Systemic and Pulmonary Circulations  Systemic circulation  Blood flows from the left side of the heart through the body tissues and back to the right side of the heart  Pulmonary circulation  Blood flows from the right side of the heart to the lungs and back to the left side of the heart
    13. 13. Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Systemic and Pulmonary Circulations Figure 11.3
    14. 14. Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings The Heart: Associated Great Vessels  Arteries  Aorta  Leaves left ventricle (takes oxygen-rich blood to body)  Pulmonary arteries  Leave right ventricle (takes oxygen-poor blood to lungs)
    15. 15. Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings The Heart: Associated Great Vessels  Veins  Superior and inferior venae cavae (oxygen- poor blood)  Enter right atrium  Pulmonary veins (four) (oxygen-rich blood)  Enter left atrium
    16. 16. Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings The Heart: Associated Great Vessels Figure 11.2c
    17. 17. Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Blood Flow Through the Heart  Superior and inferior venae cavae dump blood into the right atrium  From right atrium, through the tricuspid valve, blood travels to the right ventricle  From the right ventricle, blood leaves the heart as it passes through the pulmonary semilunar valve into the pulmonary trunk  Pulmonary trunk splits into right and left pulmonary arteries that carry blood to the lungs
    18. 18. Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Blood Flow Through the Heart  Oxygen is picked up and carbon dioxide is dropped off by blood in the lungs  Oxygen-rich blood returns to the heart through the four pulmonary veins  Blood enters the left atrium and travels through the bicuspid valve into the left ventricle  From the left ventricle, blood leaves the heart via the aortic semilunar valve and aorta
    19. 19. Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Systemic and Pulmonary Circulations Figure 11.3
    20. 20. Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Coronary Circulation  Blood in the heart chambers does not nourish the myocardium (heart muscle)  The heart has its own nourishing circulatory system consisting of  Coronary arteries—branch from the aorta to supply the heart muscle with oxygenated blood  Cardiac veins—drain the myocardium of blood
    21. 21. Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings The Heart: Conduction System  Intrinsic conduction system (nodal system)  Heart muscle cells contract, without nerve impulses, in a regular, continuous way
    22. 22. Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings The Heart: Conduction System  Special tissue sets the pace  Sinoatrial node = SA node (“pacemaker”), is in the right atrium  Atrioventricular node = AV node, is at the junction of the atria and ventricles  Atrioventricular bundle = AV bundle (bundle of His), is in the interventricular septum  Bundle branches are in the interventricular septum  Purkinje fibers spread within the ventricle wall muscles
    23. 23. Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Heart Contractions Figure 11.6
    24. 24. Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Heart Contractions  Tachycardia—rapid heart rate over 100 beats per minute  Bradycardia—slow heart rate less than 60 beats per minutes
    25. 25. Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings The Heart: Cardiac Cycle  Atria contract simultaneously (‘lub’ sound)  Atria relax, then ventricles contract (‘dub’ sound)  Heart rate (HR)  Typically 75 beats per minute
    26. 26. Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Electrocardiogram P=right before atrium contraction QRS=right before ventricle contraction T=recovering of ventricles
    27. 27. Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings The Heart: Regulation of Heart Rate  Increased heart rate  Sympathetic nervous system  Crisis  Low blood pressure  Hormones  Epinephrine  Thyroxine  Exercise  Decreased blood volume
    28. 28. Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings The Heart: Regulation of Heart Rate  Decreased heart rate  Parasympathetic nervous system  High blood pressure or blood volume  Decreased venous return
    29. 29. Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Pulse  Pulse  Pressure wave of blood  Monitored at “pressure points” in arteries where pulse is easily palpated  Pulse averages 70–76 beats per minute at rest
    30. 30. Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Pulse Figure 11.18
    31. 31. Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Blood Vessels: The Vascular System  Transport blood to the tissues and back  Carry blood away from the heart (usually oxygen rich – exception are pulmonary arteries)  Arteries  Arterioles  Exchanges between tissues and blood  Capillary beds  Return blood toward the heart (usually oxygen poor – exception are pulmonary veins)  Venules  Veins
    32. 32. Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Blood Vessels: The Vascular System Figure 11.9a
    33. 33. Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Hepatic Portal Circulation  Veins of hepatic portal circulation drain  Digestive organs  Spleen  Pancreas  Hepatic portal vein carries this blood to the liver  Liver helps maintain proper glucose, fat, and protein concentrations in blood
    34. 34. Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Fetal Circulation  Fetus receives exchanges of gases, nutrients, and wastes through the placenta  Umbilical cord contains three vessels  Umbilical vein—carries blood rich in nutrients and oxygen to the fetus  Umbilical arteries (2)—carry carbon dioxide and debris-laden blood from fetus to placenta
    35. 35. Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Fetal Circulation  Blood flow bypasses the lungs  Blood entering right atrium is shunted directly into the left atrium through the foramen ovale  Ductus arteriosus connects the aorta and pulmonary trunk (becomes ligamentum arteriosum at birth)
    36. 36. Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Blood Pressure  Measurements by health professionals are made on the pressure in large arteries  Systolic—pressure at the peak of ventricular contraction  Diastolic—pressure when ventricles relax  Write systolic pressure first and diastolic last (120/80 mm Hg)  Pressure in blood vessels decreases as distance from the heart increases
    37. 37. Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Variations in Blood Pressure  Normal human range is variable  Normal  140–110 mm Hg systolic  80–75 mm Hg diastolic  Hypotension  Low systolic (below 110 mm HG)  Often associated with illness  Hypertension  High systolic (above 140 mm HG)  Can be dangerous if it is chronic
    38. 38. Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Factors Determining Blood Pressure Figure 11.21
    39. 39. Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Factors Producing Hypertension  High salt intake  High cholesterol  Obesity  Stress  Eclampsia  Heart disease  Exercise  Nicotine

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