PowerPoint®
Lecture Slide Presentation
by Patty Bostwick-Taylor,
Florence-Darlington Technical College
Copyright © 2009 Pe...
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
The Human Body—An Orientation
Anatomy
 Study of...
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Anatomy—Levels of Study
 Gross anatomy
 Large ...
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Anatomy—Levels of Study
 Microscopic Anatomy
 ...
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Levels of Structural Organization
Figure 1.1, st...
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Levels of Structural Organization
Figure 1.1, st...
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Levels of Structural Organization
Figure 1.1, st...
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Levels of Structural Organization
Figure 1.1, st...
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Levels of Structural Organization
Figure 1.1, st...
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Levels of Structural Organization
Figure 1.1, st...
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Necessary Life Functions
 Maintain boundaries
...
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Necessary Life Functions
 Metabolism—chemical r...
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Necessary Life Functions
 Reproduction
 Produc...
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Survival Needs
 Nutrients
 Chemicals for energ...
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Survival Needs
 Water
 60–80% of body weight
...
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Homeostasis
 Homeostasis—maintenance of a stabl...
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Maintaining Homeostasis
 The body communicates ...
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Maintaining Homeostasis
 Control center
 Deter...
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Figure 1.4, step 1a
Variable
(in homeostasis)
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Figure 1.4, step 1b
Stimulus:
Produces
change
in...
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Figure 1.4, step 2
Change
detected
by receptor
S...
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Figure 1.4, step 3
Change
detected
by receptor
S...
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Figure 1.4, step 4
Change
detected
by receptor
S...
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Figure 1.4, step 5
Change
detected
by receptor
S...
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Feedback Mechanisms
 Negative feedback
 Includ...
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Feedback Mechanisms
 Positive feedback
 Increa...
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CVA A&P - Chapter 1a Intro and Homeostasis

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CVA A&P - Chapter 1a Intro and Homeostasis

  1. 1. PowerPoint® Lecture Slide Presentation by Patty Bostwick-Taylor, Florence-Darlington Technical College Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings PART A 1 The Human Body: An Orientation
  2. 2. Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings The Human Body—An Orientation Anatomy  Study of the structure and shape of the body and its parts Physiology  Study of how the body and its parts work or function
  3. 3. Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Anatomy—Levels of Study  Gross anatomy  Large structures  Easily observable Figure 14.1
  4. 4. Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Anatomy—Levels of Study  Microscopic Anatomy  Very small structures  Can only be viewed with a microscope Figure 14.4c–d
  5. 5. Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Levels of Structural Organization Figure 1.1, step 1 Molecules Atoms Chemical level Atoms combine to form molecules
  6. 6. Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Levels of Structural Organization Figure 1.1, step 2 Smooth muscle cell Molecules AtomsCellular level Cells are made up of molecules Chemical level Atoms combine to form molecules
  7. 7. Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Levels of Structural Organization Figure 1.1, step 3 Smooth muscle cell Molecules Atoms Smooth muscle tissue Cellular level Cells are made up of molecules Tissue level Tissues consist of similar types of cells Chemical level Atoms combine to form molecules
  8. 8. Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Levels of Structural Organization Figure 1.1, step 4 Smooth muscle cell Molecules Atoms Smooth muscle tissue Epithelial tissue Smooth muscle tissue Connective tissue Blood vessel (organ) Cellular level Cells are made up of molecules Tissue level Tissues consist of similar types of cells Organ level Organs are made up of different types of tissues Chemical level Atoms combine to form molecules
  9. 9. Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Levels of Structural Organization Figure 1.1, step 5 Smooth muscle cell Molecules Atoms Smooth muscle tissue Epithelial tissue Smooth muscle tissue Connective tissue Blood vessel (organ) Cardio- vascular system Cellular level Cells are made up of molecules Tissue level Tissues consist of similar types of cells Organ level Organs are made up of different types of tissues Organ system level Organ systems consist of different organs that work together closely Chemical level Atoms combine to form molecules
  10. 10. Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Levels of Structural Organization Figure 1.1, step 6 Smooth muscle cell Molecules Atoms Smooth muscle tissue Epithelial tissue Smooth muscle tissue Connective tissue Blood vessel (organ) Cardio- vascular system Cellular level Cells are made up of molecules Tissue level Tissues consist of similar types of cells Organ level Organs are made up of different types of tissues Organ system level Organ systems consist of different organs that work together closely Organismal level Human organisms are made up of many organ systems Chemical level Atoms combine to form molecules
  11. 11. Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Necessary Life Functions  Maintain boundaries  Movement  Locomotion  Movement of substances  Responsiveness  Ability to sense changes and react  Digestion  Break-down and absorption of nutrients
  12. 12. Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Necessary Life Functions  Metabolism—chemical reactions within the body  Produces energy  Makes body structures  Excretion  Eliminates waste from metabolic reactions
  13. 13. Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Necessary Life Functions  Reproduction  Produces future generation  Growth  Increases cell size and number of cells
  14. 14. Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Survival Needs  Nutrients  Chemicals for energy and cell building  Includes carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, vitamins, and minerals  Oxygen  Required for chemical reactions
  15. 15. Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Survival Needs  Water  60–80% of body weight  Provides for metabolic reaction  Stable body temperature  Atmospheric pressure  Must be appropriate
  16. 16. Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Homeostasis  Homeostasis—maintenance of a stable internal environment  A dynamic state of equilibrium  Homeostasis is necessary for normal body functioning and to sustain life  Homeostatic imbalance  A disturbance in homeostasis resulting in disease
  17. 17. Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Maintaining Homeostasis  The body communicates through neural and hormonal control systems  Receptor  Responds to changes in the environment (stimuli)  Sends information to control center
  18. 18. Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Maintaining Homeostasis  Control center  Determines set point  Analyzes information  Determines appropriate response  Effector  Provides a means for response to the stimulus
  19. 19. Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 1.4, step 1a Variable (in homeostasis)
  20. 20. Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 1.4, step 1b Stimulus: Produces change in variable Variable (in homeostasis) Imbalance Imbalance
  21. 21. Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 1.4, step 2 Change detected by receptor Stimulus: Produces change in variable Receptor (sensor) Variable (in homeostasis) Imbalance Imbalance
  22. 22. Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 1.4, step 3 Change detected by receptor Stimulus: Produces change in variable Input: Information sent along afferent pathway to Receptor (sensor) Variable (in homeostasis) Control center Imbalance Imbalance
  23. 23. Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 1.4, step 4 Change detected by receptor Stimulus: Produces change in variable Input: Information sent along afferent pathway to Receptor (sensor) Effector Variable (in homeostasis) Output: Information sent along efferent pathway to activate Control center Imbalance Imbalance
  24. 24. Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 1.4, step 5 Change detected by receptor Stimulus: Produces change in variable Input: Information sent along afferent pathway to Receptor (sensor) Effector Variable (in homeostasis) Response of effector feeds back to influence magnitude of stimulus and returns variable to homeostasis Output: Information sent along efferent pathway to activate Control center Imbalance Imbalance
  25. 25. Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Feedback Mechanisms  Negative feedback  Includes most homeostatic control mechanisms  Shuts off the original stimulus, or reduces its intensity  Works like a household thermostat
  26. 26. Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Feedback Mechanisms  Positive feedback  Increases the original stimulus to push the variable farther  In the body this only occurs in blood clotting and during the birth of a baby

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